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Capitals in Europe. The capital cities of countries are not always the biggest ones. But it is certain that they are the most interesting, as far as culture,

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Presentation on theme: "Capitals in Europe. The capital cities of countries are not always the biggest ones. But it is certain that they are the most interesting, as far as culture,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Capitals in Europe

2 The capital cities of countries are not always the biggest ones. But it is certain that they are the most interesting, as far as culture, tradition and toursim are considered. They are special rerepresentatives of particular nations, so the capitals show what is the best in them. We, the authors of this presentation, want to lead you through the most beautiful and the most famous European capital cities. We hope that you will not be bored in any minute of this journey.

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4 Amsterdam Amsterdam the official capital of the Netherlands, lies on the banks of two bodies of water, the IJ bay and the Amstel river. Founded in the late 12th century as a small fishing village on the banks of the Amstel, it is now the largest city in the country and is a financial and cultural centre. As of April 1, 2006, the population of the city proper is 743,905; the population of the greater Amsterdam area is approximately 1.5 million. Amsterdam is also one of the core urban centres of the greater metropolitan area called "Randstad" which encompasses other Dutch cities such as Haarlem, Utrecht, The Hague and Rotterdam and has a population of over 7,5 million. Amsterdam the official capital of the Netherlands, lies on the banks of two bodies of water, the IJ bay and the Amstel river. Founded in the late 12th century as a small fishing village on the banks of the Amstel, it is now the largest city in the country and is a financial and cultural centre. As of April 1, 2006, the population of the city proper is 743,905; the population of the greater Amsterdam area is approximately 1.5 million. Amsterdam is also one of the core urban centres of the greater metropolitan area called "Randstad" which encompasses other Dutch cities such as Haarlem, Utrecht, The Hague and Rotterdam and has a population of over 7,5 million. Amsterdam has one of the largest historic city centres in Europe, dating largely from the 17th century. At this time, a series of concentric, semi-circular canals ("grachten") were dug around the old city centre. Along the canals houses and warehouses were built. The canals still define Amsterdam's layout and appearance today. Many fine houses and mansions are situated along the canals. Some of the narrow brick houses are gradually sinking because they are built on wooden piles to cope with the marshy subsoil. Amsterdam has one of the largest historic city centres in Europe, dating largely from the 17th century. At this time, a series of concentric, semi-circular canals ("grachten") were dug around the old city centre. Along the canals houses and warehouses were built. The canals still define Amsterdam's layout and appearance today. Many fine houses and mansions are situated along the canals. Some of the narrow brick houses are gradually sinking because they are built on wooden piles to cope with the marshy subsoil.

5 Andorra la Vella Andorra la Vella (2004 est. pop. 22,035) is the capital of the Principality of Andorra, and is located high in the east Pyrenees between France and Spain. It is also the name of the parish that surrounds it. The town of Santa Coloma is located in the province. Andorra la Vella (2004 est. pop. 22,035) is the capital of the Principality of Andorra, and is located high in the east Pyrenees between France and Spain. It is also the name of the parish that surrounds it. The town of Santa Coloma is located in the province. The principal industry is tourism, although the country also earns foreign income from being a tax- haven. Furniture and brandies are local products. The principal industry is tourism, although the country also earns foreign income from being a tax- haven. Furniture and brandies are local products.

6 Ankara Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. The city has a population (as of 2005) of 4,319,167 (Province 5,153,000), and a mean elevation of 850 m (2800 ft). It was formerly known as Angora or Engürü. The Hittites gave it the name Ankuwash, the Galatians and Romans called it Ancyra, and in the classical, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods it was known as γκυρα Ánkyra. Ankara also serves as the capital of the Province of Ankara. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. The city has a population (as of 2005) of 4,319,167 (Province 5,153,000), and a mean elevation of 850 m (2800 ft). It was formerly known as Angora or Engürü. The Hittites gave it the name Ankuwash, the Galatians and Romans called it Ancyra, and in the classical, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods it was known as γκυρα Ánkyra. Ankara also serves as the capital of the Province of Ankara. Centrally located in Anatolia, Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city. It is the center of the Turkish Government, and houses all foreign embassies. It is an important crossroads of trade, strategically located at the center of Turkey's highway and rail network, and serves as the marketing center for the surrounding agricultural area. The city was famous for its long-haired goat and its prized wool (mohair), a unique breed of cat (Angora cat), white rabbits and their prized wool (Angora wool), pears, honey, and the region's muscat grapes. Centrally located in Anatolia, Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city. It is the center of the Turkish Government, and houses all foreign embassies. It is an important crossroads of trade, strategically located at the center of Turkey's highway and rail network, and serves as the marketing center for the surrounding agricultural area. The city was famous for its long-haired goat and its prized wool (mohair), a unique breed of cat (Angora cat), white rabbits and their prized wool (Angora wool), pears, honey, and the region's muscat grapes.

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8 Baku Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı; Cyrillic Бакы), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital and the largest city of Azerbaijan. It is located on the southern shore of the Apsheron Peninsula, at 40°23N 49°52E. Modern Baku consists of three parts: the Old Town (İç ə ri Ş ə h ə r), the boomtown and the Soviet-built town. Population (January 1, 2003 census): 2,074,300[1]. About 3 million people live in metropolitan area (due to large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons). Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı; Cyrillic Бакы), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital and the largest city of Azerbaijan. It is located on the southern shore of the Apsheron Peninsula, at 40°23N 49°52E. Modern Baku consists of three parts: the Old Town (İç ə ri Ş ə h ə r), the boomtown and the Soviet-built town. Population (January 1, 2003 census): 2,074,300[1]. About 3 million people live in metropolitan area (due to large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons). The layout of the oil-rich city is rectangular, only in the oldest part of the city within the fortress walls the streets are crooked and narrow. The boomtown, south of the old city, was built after massive petroleum exploitation began nearly a century ago and has interesting beaux-arts architecture. Fine arts, history and literature museums are located there, all housed in the mansions of pre- Revolutionary millionaires. The layout of the oil-rich city is rectangular, only in the oldest part of the city within the fortress walls the streets are crooked and narrow. The boomtown, south of the old city, was built after massive petroleum exploitation began nearly a century ago and has interesting beaux-arts architecture. Fine arts, history and literature museums are located there, all housed in the mansions of pre- Revolutionary millionaires.

9 Belgrade Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd listen (help·info)) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe, first emerging as prehistoric Vinča in 4800 BC, it was settled in the 3rd century BC by the Celts, before becoming the Roman settlement of Singidunum.[2][3] The Slavic name Beligrad (a form of Beograd ) was first recorded in 878 AD. It has been the capital of Serbia since 1403, and was the capital of various South Slav states from 1918 until 2003, as well as Serbia and Montenegro from 2003 until 2006.[4] Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd listen (help·info)) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe, first emerging as prehistoric Vinča in 4800 BC, it was settled in the 3rd century BC by the Celts, before becoming the Roman settlement of Singidunum.[2][3] The Slavic name Beligrad (a form of Beograd ) was first recorded in 878 AD. It has been the capital of Serbia since 1403, and was the capital of various South Slav states from 1918 until 2003, as well as Serbia and Montenegro from 2003 until 2006.[4] The city lies at the confluence of the Sava and Danube Rivers in north central Serbia, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkan Peninsula. The population of Belgrade, according to the Serbian census of 2002, is 1,576,124.[1] It is the largest city on the territory of the former Yugoslavia, and by population ranks fourth in the South Eastern Europe behind Istanbul, Athens and Bucharest. The city lies at the confluence of the Sava and Danube Rivers in north central Serbia, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkan Peninsula. The population of Belgrade, according to the Serbian census of 2002, is 1,576,124.[1] It is the largest city on the territory of the former Yugoslavia, and by population ranks fourth in the South Eastern Europe behind Istanbul, Athens and Bucharest.

10 Berlin Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. It is the country's largest city in area and population, and the second most populous city in the European Union. Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. It is the country's largest city in area and population, and the second most populous city in the European Union. Berlin is one of the most influential centers in European politics, culture and science. The city serves as an important junction of continental transportation and is home to some of the world's most prominent universities, research faculties, and museums.[3] Berlin is a major tourist destination and is recognized for its diverse range of convention venues and media outlets. Berlin is one of the most influential centers in European politics, culture and science. The city serves as an important junction of continental transportation and is home to some of the world's most prominent universities, research faculties, and museums.[3] Berlin is a major tourist destination and is recognized for its diverse range of convention venues and media outlets. The rapidly changing metropolis at present enjoys an international reputation for its festivals, vibrant nightlife, contemporary architecture, and avant-garde arts. Being home to people from over 180 nations, Berlin is a magnet for individuals who are attracted by its liberal lifestyle, urban eclecticism, and artistic freedom. The rapidly changing metropolis at present enjoys an international reputation for its festivals, vibrant nightlife, contemporary architecture, and avant-garde arts. Being home to people from over 180 nations, Berlin is a magnet for individuals who are attracted by its liberal lifestyle, urban eclecticism, and artistic freedom.

11 Berne The city of Berne [b ɝː n] (German Bern (help·info) [b ̥ɛ rn], French Berne [b ɛʀ n], Italian Berna [ ˈ b ɛ rna], Romansh Berna [b ɛ rn ə ], Bernese German Bärn [b ̥ ærn]), is the "Bundesstadt" (administrative capital) of Switzerland and, with 140,000 people, is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). The city of Berne [b ɝː n] (German Bern (help·info) [b ̥ɛ rn], French Berne [b ɛʀ n], Italian Berna [ ˈ b ɛ rna], Romansh Berna [b ɛ rn ə ], Bernese German Bärn [b ̥ ærn]), is the "Bundesstadt" (administrative capital) of Switzerland and, with 140,000 people, is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). Most of Berne's residents speak German, or more specifically, Bernese German, which is a high-Alemannic dialect. The Canton of Bern has a French-speaking part. Very few people still speak the Matteänglisch, a secret language used in the former workers' quarter Matte, but several words have found their way in the Bernese German. Most of Berne's residents speak German, or more specifically, Bernese German, which is a high-Alemannic dialect. The Canton of Bern has a French-speaking part. Very few people still speak the Matteänglisch, a secret language used in the former workers' quarter Matte, but several words have found their way in the Bernese German.

12 Bratislava Bratislava (see below for name alternatives), is the capital of Slovakia and the country's largest city, with a population of some 450,000. Bratislava is the political, cultural and economic centre of Slovakia. It is the seat of the Slovak presidency, parliament and government as well as home to several universities, museums, theatres, galleries and other national economic, cultural and educational institutions. Most of Slovakia's large businesses and financial institutions have their headquarters in Bratislava. The city's past has been characterized by the strong influence of various peoples, including Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Austrians and Jews. Bratislava still retains its cosmopolitan spirit. It hosts many festivals and trade shows and it is famous for its nightlife and leisure facilities. Bratislava (see below for name alternatives), is the capital of Slovakia and the country's largest city, with a population of some 450,000. Bratislava is the political, cultural and economic centre of Slovakia. It is the seat of the Slovak presidency, parliament and government as well as home to several universities, museums, theatres, galleries and other national economic, cultural and educational institutions. Most of Slovakia's large businesses and financial institutions have their headquarters in Bratislava. The city's past has been characterized by the strong influence of various peoples, including Slovaks, Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Austrians and Jews. Bratislava still retains its cosmopolitan spirit. It hosts many festivals and trade shows and it is famous for its nightlife and leisure facilities.

13 Brussels Brussels Brussels is, first of all, a city located in the centre of Belgium and is its capital, but it sometimes also refers to the largest municipality of the Brussels-Capital Region. This municipality inside Brussels is correctly named The City of Brussels (French: Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles, Dutch: Stad Brussel ), which is one of 19 municipalities that make up the Brussels-Capital Region ( see also : Municipalities of the Brussels- Capital Region). The municipality has a population of about 140,000 while the Brussels-Capital Region has 1,018,804 inhabitants. ( ). The Metropolitan area has about 2,090,000 inhabitants 50°5037N, 4°2127E. Brussels is, first of all, a city located in the centre of Belgium and is its capital, but it sometimes also refers to the largest municipality of the Brussels-Capital Region. This municipality inside Brussels is correctly named The City of Brussels (French: Bruxelles-Ville or Ville de Bruxelles, Dutch: Stad Brussel ), which is one of 19 municipalities that make up the Brussels-Capital Region ( see also : Municipalities of the Brussels- Capital Region). The municipality has a population of about 140,000 while the Brussels-Capital Region has 1,018,804 inhabitants. ( ). The Metropolitan area has about 2,090,000 inhabitants 50°5037N, 4°2127E.

14 Bucharest Bucharest Bucharest is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25N 26°06E, and lies on the banks of the Dâmboviţa River. Bucharest is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25N 26°06E, and lies on the banks of the Dâmboviţa River. By European standards Bucharest is not an old city, its existence first being referred to by scholars as late as 1459.[2] Since then it has gone through a variety of changes, becoming the state capital of Romania in 1862 and steadily consolidating its position as the centre of the Romanian mass media, culture and arts. Its eclectic architecture is a mix of historical, interbellum, Communist-era, and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of the "Paris of the East" or "Little Paris" (Micul Paris).[3] Although many buildings and districts in the historic centre were damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes and Nicolae Ceauşescu's program of systematization, much survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. By European standards Bucharest is not an old city, its existence first being referred to by scholars as late as 1459.[2] Since then it has gone through a variety of changes, becoming the state capital of Romania in 1862 and steadily consolidating its position as the centre of the Romanian mass media, culture and arts. Its eclectic architecture is a mix of historical, interbellum, Communist-era, and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of the "Paris of the East" or "Little Paris" (Micul Paris).[3] Although many buildings and districts in the historic centre were damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes and Nicolae Ceauşescu's program of systematization, much survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom.

15 Budapest Budapest is the capital city of Hungary and the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial and transportation center. Budapest is the capital city of Hungary and the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial and transportation center. Budapest has approximately 1.7 million inhabitants, down from a mid-1980s peak of 2.1 million. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the river Danube with the amalgamation on 17 November 1873 of right-bank (west) Buda ( Ofen in German) and Óbuda (Old Buda or Alt- Ofen ) together with Pest on the left (east) bank. It is the seventh largest city in the European Union. Budapest has approximately 1.7 million inhabitants, down from a mid-1980s peak of 2.1 million. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the river Danube with the amalgamation on 17 November 1873 of right-bank (west) Buda ( Ofen in German) and Óbuda (Old Buda or Alt- Ofen ) together with Pest on the left (east) bank. It is the seventh largest city in the European Union.

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17 Copenhagen Copenhagen is the capital of Denmark and the country's largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)), at present made up of 16 municipalities. It is also the name of the adjacent county. Copenhagen is the seat of the national parliament, the government, and the monarchy. is the capital of Denmark and the country's largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)), at present made up of 16 municipalities. It is also the name of the adjacent county. Copenhagen is the seat of the national parliament, the government, and the monarchy.

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19 Dublin Dublin is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and forms the centre of the Dublin Region. Originally founded as a centre of Viking settlement, the city has been Ireland's capital city since mediæval times. Dublin is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and forms the centre of the Dublin Region. Originally founded as a centre of Viking settlement, the city has been Ireland's capital city since mediæval times. Dublin City is the entire area administered by Dublin City Council. However, when most people talk about 'Dublin', they also refer to the contiguous suburban areas that run into the adjacent counties of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. This area is sometimes known as 'Urban Dublin' or the 'Dublin Metropolitan Area'. Dublin City is the entire area administered by Dublin City Council. However, when most people talk about 'Dublin', they also refer to the contiguous suburban areas that run into the adjacent counties of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. This area is sometimes known as 'Urban Dublin' or the 'Dublin Metropolitan Area'.

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21 Helsinki Helsinki is the capital and largest city of Finland. It is located in the southern part of Finland on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, at 60°10N 24°56E by the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is 562,570 ( ) [2]. The Helsinki urban region contains the neighboring cities of Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen, which are together called the Capital Region. This area has a total population of about 992,836 [2] citizens. The Greater Helsinki area contains several more neighboring cities and has a population of about 1,293,093 [2], which means that one out of every four Finns lives in the Greater Helsinki area. Helsinki is the capital and largest city of Finland. It is located in the southern part of Finland on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, at 60°10N 24°56E by the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is 562,570 ( ) [2]. The Helsinki urban region contains the neighboring cities of Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen, which are together called the Capital Region. This area has a total population of about 992,836 [2] citizens. The Greater Helsinki area contains several more neighboring cities and has a population of about 1,293,093 [2], which means that one out of every four Finns lives in the Greater Helsinki area.

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23 Kiev is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. Since 2001, Kiev has officially had 2,660,401 inhabitants, though this figure has likely grown to more than 3.5 million since then.[1] Administratively, Kiev is a national- level subordinated municipality, independent from surrounding Kiev Oblast. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including a Kiev Metro system.

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25 Lisbon is the capital and largest city of Portugal. It is the seat of the district of Lisbon and capital of Lisboa region. Lisbon has a population of (2001), and the Lisbon Metropolitan Area has around 2,700,000 inhabitants (2005). Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's per capita GDP average. Lisbon hosts two important European Union agencies namely, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). The CPLP (Community of Portuguese Language Countries), is also headquartered in Lisbon.

26 Ljubljana is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. The city of Ljubljana is the cultural, scientific, economic, political and administrative center of Slovenia. It is situated in central Slovenia, between the Alps and the Mediterranean. Its transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position. Ljubljana is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies and all government ministries. It is also the seat of Parliament and the Office of the President of Slovenia.

27 London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. An important settlement for around two millennia, London is today one of the world's most important business and financial centres, [1] and its involvement in politics, culture, education, entertainment, media, fashion, sport and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the key global cities.

28 Luxembourg (city) The city of Luxembourg is a commune with city status, and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It is located at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg As of 2005, the commune of Luxembourg City has a population of 76,420, which is almost three times the population of the second most populous commune. The city's metropolitan population, including that of surrounding communes of Hesperange, Sandweiler, Strassen, and Walferdange, is 103,973. Luxembourg City lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 188 km (117 miles) from Brussels, 289 km (179 miles) from Paris, 190 km (118 miles) from Cologne.

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30 Madrid Madrid is the capital of Spain and the third most populous city in the European Union. Madrid is also the largest city in Spain, as well as in the province and the autonomous community of the same name. It is located on the river Manzanares in the center of the country, between the autonomous communities of Castilla-León and Castilla-La Mancha. Due to its geographical location, wealth and history, Madrid is considered one of the financial centers of the Iberian Peninsula, together with Lisbon, and the political center of Spain. Madrid is the capital of Spain and the third most populous city in the European Union. Madrid is also the largest city in Spain, as well as in the province and the autonomous community of the same name. It is located on the river Manzanares in the center of the country, between the autonomous communities of Castilla-León and Castilla-La Mancha. Due to its geographical location, wealth and history, Madrid is considered one of the financial centers of the Iberian Peninsula, together with Lisbon, and the political center of Spain.

31 Minsk is the capital and largest city in Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers. Minsk is also a headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States. As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is also the capital of Minsk voblast (province) and Minsk raion. is the capital and largest city in Belarus, situated on the Svislach and Niamiha rivers. Minsk is also a headquarters of the Commonwealth of Independent States. As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is also the capital of Minsk voblast (province) and Minsk raion. The earliest references to Minsk date to the 11th century (1067). In 1242, Minsk became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and it received its town privileges in From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodship in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was annexed by Russia in 1793, as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. From 1919–1991, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian SSR. The earliest references to Minsk date to the 11th century (1067). In 1242, Minsk became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and it received its town privileges in From 1569, it was a capital of the Minsk Voivodship in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was annexed by Russia in 1793, as a consequence of the Second Partition of Poland. From 1919–1991, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian SSR.

32 Moscow Moscow is the capital of Russia and the country's principal political, economic, financial, educational, and transportation center, located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, located in the European part of Russia. The city's population of 10.4 million permanent inhabitants within the city boundaries [1] constitutes about 7% of the total Russian population. Likewise, it is the most populous city in Europe. Historically, its position was central in the Russian homeland. It was the capital of the former Soviet Union and Muscovite Russia, the pre- Imperial Russian state. It is the site of the famous Kremlin, which now serves as the ceremonial residence of the President. is the capital of Russia and the country's principal political, economic, financial, educational, and transportation center, located on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District, located in the European part of Russia. The city's population of 10.4 million permanent inhabitants within the city boundaries [1] constitutes about 7% of the total Russian population. Likewise, it is the most populous city in Europe. Historically, its position was central in the Russian homeland. It was the capital of the former Soviet Union and Muscovite Russia, the pre- Imperial Russian state. It is the site of the famous Kremlin, which now serves as the ceremonial residence of the President.

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34 Nicosia is a city of the province of Enna in Sicily, southern Italy. In its neighborhood are salt mines and arable lands. The modern town was founded by Byzantine colonists in 6th century CE. It expanded under the Arab domination and later under that of the Normans, who settled numerous immigrants from Lombardy and Piedmont. King William II made Nicosia a royal city. It played an important strategi role, favoured by its position halfway between Palermo and Messina. It often gave hospitality to important figures, including Emperor Charles.

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36 Oslo Oslo Oslo (called Christiania , Kristiania ) is the capital and largest city of Norway. The population of the city proper is (as of July 1, 2006). [1] The city area extends into the surrounding county of Akershus, with a total population of 825,105[2] in the conurbation (as of January 1, 2006). The city has a current annual growth exceeding 15,000. The city centre of Oslo is situated at the end of the Oslofjord from where the city sprawls out both to the north and to the south on both sides of the fjord giving the city area more or less the shape of a U. Oslo's metropolitan area, also referred to as Greater Oslo region, which extends beyond the city boundaries, has an estimated population of citizens. In the entire Oslo Fjord Region there is a total population of about 1,7 million. Oslo (called Christiania , Kristiania ) is the capital and largest city of Norway. The population of the city proper is (as of July 1, 2006). [1] The city area extends into the surrounding county of Akershus, with a total population of 825,105[2] in the conurbation (as of January 1, 2006). The city has a current annual growth exceeding 15,000. The city centre of Oslo is situated at the end of the Oslofjord from where the city sprawls out both to the north and to the south on both sides of the fjord giving the city area more or less the shape of a U. Oslo's metropolitan area, also referred to as Greater Oslo region, which extends beyond the city boundaries, has an estimated population of citizens. In the entire Oslo Fjord Region there is a total population of about 1,7 million.

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38 Prague Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated on the Vltava river in central Bohemia, it is home to approximately 1.2 million people. (It can be derived from jobs statistics, however, that an additional 300,000 work there without having registered as residents.) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated on the Vltava river in central Bohemia, it is home to approximately 1.2 million people. (It can be derived from jobs statistics, however, that an additional 300,000 work there without having registered as residents.) Nicknames for Prague have included "city of a hundred spires" and "the golden city". Since 1992, the historic center of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. According to Guinness World Records, Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in the world. Nicknames for Prague have included "city of a hundred spires" and "the golden city". Since 1992, the historic center of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. According to Guinness World Records, Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in the world.

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40 Reykjavík is the capital of Iceland, its largest city and the world's most northern national capital, its latitude being 64°08' N, not far from the Arctic Circle. It receives only four hours of daylight per day in the depth of winter, and during the summer the nights are almost as bright as the days. is the capital of Iceland, its largest city and the world's most northern national capital, its latitude being 64°08' N, not far from the Arctic Circle. It receives only four hours of daylight per day in the depth of winter, and during the summer the nights are almost as bright as the days.

41 Riga is the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the River Daugava, at 56°58N 24°8E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states. The Historic Centre of Riga has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the city is particularly notable for its extensive Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) architecture, comparable in significance only with Vienna, Saint Petersburg and Barcelona. is the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the River Daugava, at 56°58N 24°8E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states. The Historic Centre of Riga has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the city is particularly notable for its extensive Art Nouveau (Jugendstil) architecture, comparable in significance only with Vienna, Saint Petersburg and Barcelona.

42 Rome Rome is the capital city of Italy, and the country's largest and most populous comune, with about 2,5 millions residents (3,8 millions considering the whole urbanised area, as represented by the Province of Rome). Capital of the Lazio region of central-eastern Italy, Rome is located across the confluence of the river Aniene into the Tiber. With a gross domestic product of 97 billion in the year 2005, the comune of Rome produced 6.7% of Italy's GDP, which is the highest proportion of GDP produced by any single Italian comune. The current Mayor of Rome is Walter Veltroni. is the capital city of Italy, and the country's largest and most populous comune, with about 2,5 millions residents (3,8 millions considering the whole urbanised area, as represented by the Province of Rome). Capital of the Lazio region of central-eastern Italy, Rome is located across the confluence of the river Aniene into the Tiber. With a gross domestic product of 97 billion in the year 2005, the comune of Rome produced 6.7% of Italy's GDP, which is the highest proportion of GDP produced by any single Italian comune. The current Mayor of Rome is Walter Veltroni.

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44 Sarajevo is the capital city and largest urban center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an estimated population of 308,558 (as of 2005). It is also the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, and the de jure capital of the Republika Srpska entity, as well as the center of the Sarajevo Canton. Sarajevo is located in the Sarajevo valley of Bosnia proper, surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated around the Miljacka river. The city is famous for its traditional religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Judaism peacefully coexisting there for centuries.[Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history: In 1914 it was the site of the assassination that sparked World War I, while seventy years later it became the host city of the 1984 Winter Olympics.

45 Skopje is the capital and by far the largest city of the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. It was known from the Roman period on under the name Scupi. The city developed rapidly after the Second World War, but this trend was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake. Today Skopje is a modern city with a range of cultural monuments. Skopje is located at 42°0N 21°26E, on the upper course of the Vardar River and is located on a major north-south Balkan route between Central Europe and Athens. It has 506,926 inhabitants (2002 census). It is a major centre for the metal-processing, chemical, timber, textile, leather, and printing industries but has suffered many closures since Industrial development of the city has been accompanied by developments of the trade and banking sectors, as well as an emphasis on the fields of culture and sport.

46 Sofia is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1,246,791, and some 1,377,761 in the metropolitan area, the Capital Municipality. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of the mountain massif Vitosha, and is the administrative, cultural, and industrial centre of the country. One of the oldest capital cities in Europe, the history of Sofia dates back to the 8th century BC, when Thracians established a settlement there. Sofia has had several names in the different periods of its existence, and remnants of the city's millenary history can still be seen today alongside modern landmarks.

47 Stockholm is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. Stockholm has been Sweden's political and economic center since the 13th century [1] and is currently the largest municipality of Sweden, with a population of 776,000. The populations of the Stockholm urban area and Metropolitan Stockholm are roughly 1.2 and 1.7 million, respectively. This makes Stockholm the largest city in the Nordic countries. Stockholm is located on the east coast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren and the adjacent Stockholm archipelago, a site renowned for its natural beauty. Stockholm is often referred to as "the Venice of Scandinavia" because of its many water channels.

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49 Tirana is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. It was founded in 1614 by Sulejman Pasha and became Albania's capital city in is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. It was founded in 1614 by Sulejman Pasha and became Albania's capital city in Tirana is located at 41°1948N, 19°4912E (41.33°N, 19.82°E) in the eponymous district and county. Its average altitude is 90 metres above sea level. It is on the Ishm River, about 20 miles inland. Tirana is located at 41°1948N, 19°4912E (41.33°N, 19.82°E) in the eponymous district and county. Its average altitude is 90 metres above sea level. It is on the Ishm River, about 20 miles inland.

50 Tórshavn is the capital of the Faroe Islands. The city is located in Tórshavn municipality on southern Streymoy island and has 19,000 inhabitants. The name of the city means "Thor's Harbour", named after the god of thunder and lightning in Norse mythology. is the capital of the Faroe Islands. The city is located in Tórshavn municipality on southern Streymoy island and has 19,000 inhabitants. The name of the city means "Thor's Harbour", named after the god of thunder and lightning in Norse mythology. The Faroese government is located in the historic Tinganes peninsula of Tórshavn. The parliament, the Løgting, was originally located on Tinganes, but since 1856 it has been located on the town square, Vaglið. To the northwest of the town lies the 347 metre high mountain Húsareyn, and to the southwest, the 350 meter high Kirkjubøreyn. The Faroese government is located in the historic Tinganes peninsula of Tórshavn. The parliament, the Løgting, was originally located on Tinganes, but since 1856 it has been located on the town square, Vaglið. To the northwest of the town lies the 347 metre high mountain Húsareyn, and to the southwest, the 350 meter high Kirkjubøreyn. Tórshavn Cathedral was first built in 1788 and partly rebuilt in Since 1990 it has been the seat of the Bishop of the Faroe Islands (in the national Evangelical-Lutheran Church). Tórshavn Cathedral was first built in 1788 and partly rebuilt in Since 1990 it has been the seat of the Bishop of the Faroe Islands (in the national Evangelical-Lutheran Church).

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52 Vatican City is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of an almost completely walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. At approximately 44 hectares (108.7 acres) it is a microstate and the smallest independent nation in the world. It was created in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty as a vestige of the much larger former Papal States (756 AD to 1870). Although governed by the Bishop of Rome (the Pope), the Vatican City State is not the Holy See and its government is a monarchy even though it is sometimes described as ecclesiastical and the highest state functionaries are indeed clergymen. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes ) and the location of the Apostolic Palace – the Pope's official residence – and the Roman Curia. Thus, although the principal ecclesiastical seat of the Holy See (Basilica of St. John Lateran, which is the pope's cathedral) is located in Rome itself, the Vatican City can be said to be the governmental capital of the Catholic Church.

53 Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city; with a population of about 1.6 million (2.2 million within the metro area), Vienna is by far the largest city in Austria as well as its cultural, economic and political centre. Vienna lies in the south-eastern corner of Central Europe and is close to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Furthermore, the 1980 Diplomatic Conference was held in Vienna that led to the adoption of the United Nations Convention of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. Additionally, Vienna is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law's secretariat

54 Vilnius is the capital and largest city of Lithuania, with a population of 553,904 as of December 2005[1]. It is the capital of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the county seat of Vilnius County.

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56 Yerevan is the largest city and capital of Armenia. It is situated on the Hrazdan River, at 40°10N 44°31E, and is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the Urartian fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC.

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58 Zagreb is the largest and capital city of Croatia. Zagreb is the cultural, scientific, economic, political and administrative center of the Republic of Croatia with the houses of Parliament, President and Government of the country. The city's population in 2001 was 779,145 [1]. ( in the metro area)).[2]. It is situated between the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountains and the northern bank of the Sava river at an elevation of 120m above sea level, located at 45°48N 15°58E. is the largest and capital city of Croatia. Zagreb is the cultural, scientific, economic, political and administrative center of the Republic of Croatia with the houses of Parliament, President and Government of the country. The city's population in 2001 was 779,145 [1]. ( in the metro area)).[2]. It is situated between the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountains and the northern bank of the Sava river at an elevation of 120m above sea level, located at 45°48N 15°58E.

59 The authors of this presentation are: Urszula Ciapciak Wioletta Gajos Agata Krężałek Patrycja Maciejewska

60 Unfortuantely, we have to say good bye to to you. Unfortuantely, we have to say good bye to to you. We hope that our work will help you to know Europe and its countries better. IF YOU FANCY OUR PRESENTATION AND YOU WANT TO WATCH IT ONE MORE TIME, JUST CLICK HERE!!!


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