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THE CAMERA AS A WEAPON The Role of The War Photographer Presented by: Fred and Robert Henstridge © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 1The Camera as a Weapon
TOPICS TO BE COVERED History of War Photography The Use of Art to Depict War The First Use of the Camera in War Propaganda During WWII Photography in the U.S. Army Notable Photojournalists in WWII © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 2The Camera as a Weapon
FIRST KNOWN IMAGES OF COMBAT Cave Paintings at Lascaux – 32,00 Years Ago Romans did not use images to depict combat – Roman Historians accompanied the Legions Bayeux Tapestry – Depicts the Norman Invasion of England – A Documentary in Cloth © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 3The Camera as a Weapon
FIRST KNOWN IMAGES Harold's death Bhimbetka rock painting, India Dating back 30,000 years, it depicts hunters with horses. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 4The Camera as a Weapon
THE USE OF ART TO DEPICT WAR French Revolution – Eugène Delacroix Goya Painting Crimean War United States War Between the States Indian Fighting – Remington First World War Marine machine gunners, Battle of Belleau Wood (1 June 1918 – 26 June 1918) © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 5The Camera as a Weapon
ART TO DEPICT WAR The Third of May 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 х 345 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Liberty Leading the People, Eugène Delacroix, Louvre, Paris © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 6The Camera as a Weapon
FIRST USE OF A CAMERA IN WAR Crimean War Roger Fenton Civil War – Matthew Brady First World War Lowell Thomas Spanish Civil War Robert Capa © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 7The Camera as a Weapon
SECOND WORLD WAR German Ministry of Propaganda & PK – Movies and Still Photos – Signal Magazine was Distributed World Wide Soviet Union Documentation – Roman Carmen, Famous for his film footage © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 8The Camera as a Weapon
THE CAMERA AS A WEAPON German PK Archives Above: German troops enter Poland after a 'blitzkrieg' offensive which swept into Poland on September 1, 1939. Right: Nazi German troops who stormed into the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, were well-prepared, aggressive, and certain of victory. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 9The Camera as a Weapon
GERMAN PK ARCHIVES The Use of Color German troops in the Ukraine, circa 1940. German PK photographers were using Agfa color film. German troops using an Enigma code machine in the field, Russia, circa 1940 © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 10The Camera as a Weapon
SIGNAL MAGAZINE The NAZI PK Version of LIFE Two members of a Cossack volunteer formation with copies of the Russian edition (issue number 9/1943). PK photographs, probably Croatia, late 1943. Give that man a cigar! Two Belgian- Flemish members of the Vlaamsche Wacht having fun with the Churchill cover of the Dutch issue number 8/1943. PK photographs, 1943. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 11The Camera as a Weapon
UNITED STATES OWI Office of War Propaganda – Tasked to Document the Home Front – Voice of America War Department Wanted to Document the War – Stills, Films and Voice Recordings Hollywoods Contribution – Training and Propaganda Films © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 12The Camera as a Weapon
PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE U.S. ARMY Army Signal Corps – Trained Thousands of Sill and Film Photographers – Fairchild 16mm Turret Lens Cameras – 4x5 Speed Graphic and 2x2 Twin Lens Reflex – 35mm Cameras were mainly German General Army Photographers – Assigned to Army and Marine Units Independent Photojournalists © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 13The Camera as a Weapon
THIRD INFANTRY DIVISON Dogface Soldiers – Casablanca to the Berghof Third Signal Company – Lt. George Fuzzy Frezell – 1,300 Framed Photographs – http://www.dogfacesoldiers.org/ http://www.dogfacesoldiers.org/ Sgt. William (Pops) Heller – 1910-1972 – Contacted His Son http://www.warfoto.com/ © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 14The Camera as a Weapon
FUZZY FOLLIES Lt. George Fuzzy Frezell Bill Heller and Howard Nickelson listen to the BBC somewhere in France. This shot shows the exterior of the Fuzzy's Folly photo lab. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 15The Camera as a Weapon
THE PHOTOGRAPHERS Sgt. (T3) John D. "Jack" Cole Sgt. (T4) William "Pop" Heller Sgt. (T4) William Toomey Pfc. Robert S. "Bobby" Seesock Cpl. (T5) Howard B. "Nick" Nickelson (Not in the Photo) Third Signal Company Photographers near Zweibrucken, Germany. Names are listed at Right from Left to Right © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 16The Camera as a Weapon
WILLIAM HELLER Bill Heller shows off some of the unit's cameras Bill Toomey and Bill Heller pose by the Third Signal Company's headquarters sign in Bad Wildungen, Germany. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 17The Camera as a Weapon
WILLIAM HELLER © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 18 ….this is the office. It's just part of it. I just can't be without a cigar. Even my identification photo. I have a cigar in my mouth. France 1944
WILLIAM HELLER © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 19 A Tired GI sitting next to Statuesque Comrade. Italy, 1944. This 380mm artillery piece, the Anzio Express, captured near Monte Cassino. The Germans had two large railway guns which made the GI's miserable on Anzio,
WILLIAM HELLER © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 20 Staff Sergeant Earl Swanson of F Co., Pfc. Edward F. Tidd Jr. of Rochester, NY and one un-named GI 7th Infantry, firing at Cisterna de Littoria, May 25, 1944. Bill Heller and Bobby Seesock in the darkroom.
WILLIAM HELLER © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 21 Pain registering in face of German Soldier, as he dies. Casualties-Animal and Human Montilimar, France
WILLIAM HELLER © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 22 GI carrying dead Italian girl from wrecked building GI's leading nurse and German POW's across the Rhine at Worms, Germany.
WILLIAM HELLER © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 23 Marlene Dietrich with Bobby Seesock 3rd Signal Co Photographer Marlene showing her loyalty to the 3rd Division-1945
NOTEABLE PHOTOJOURNALISTS And War Photographers Roger Fenton Mathew Brady Robert Capa Joe Rosenthal Eddie Adams Margret Bourke-White Eugene Smith John Houston © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 24The Camera as a Weapon
ROGER FENTON The Crimean War Valley of the Shadow of Death, with road full of cannonballs, by Roger Fenton, 1855 Marcus Sparling seated on Roger Fenton's photographic van, Crimea, 1855. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 25The Camera as a Weapon
MATHEW BRADY The Civil War Confederate dead behind a stone wall at Fredericksburg, VA The 6th. Maine Infantry penetrated the Confederate lines at this point A company of the 6th Maine Infantry on parade after the battle of Fredericksburg. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 26The Camera as a Weapon
ROBERT CAPA When soldiers of the 16th Regiment of the 1st Infantry Division landed at Omaha Beach on June 6, 1944, photographer Robert Capa, in the employ of LIFE magazine, was among them with his Contax II 35mm camera. Men of the 16th Infantry Regiment seek shelter from German machine-gun fire in shallow water behind "Czech hedgehog" beach obstacles, Easy Red sector, Omaha Beach. © Robert Capa/Magnum Photos. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 27The Camera as a Weapon
ROBERT CAPA Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, 1936 Robert Capa © Magnum Beach Scene, Omaha Beach, June 6, 1944. Robert Capa © Magnum © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 28The Camera as a Weapon
JOE ROSENTHAL Two Iwo Jima Photos Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima, by Joe Rosenthal - The Associated Press. Lowery's most widely circulated picture of the first flag raising. © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 29The Camera as a Weapon
EDDIE ADAMS Boat of no smiles, Vietnamese Refugees, Gulf of Siam, Thanksgiving Day Adams' photograph of Nguyn Ngc Loan executing Nguyn V ă n Lém on February 1, 1968 © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 30The Camera as a Weapon
MARGERT BOURKE-WHITE First Woman Combat Photographer Above: Mohandas Gandhi, 1946 by Margaret Bourke-White. Right: Victims, KZ Buchenwald, 1945. Margaret Bourke-White © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 31The Camera as a Weapon
W. EUGENE SMITH Master of the Photo Essay Once is Enough, Marines on Iwo Jima, 1945, W. Eugene Smith W. Eugene Smith's iconic photo of Amy soldier Angelo Klonis, cigarette clenched between his lips, illustrates the cover of LIFE book, World War II © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 32The Camera as a Weapon
JOHN HOUSTON The Battle for San Pietro © Fred Henstridge PhotographySlide No. 33The Camera as a Weapon Soldier of the 36th Infantry Division with Thompson Sub Machine Gun, December, 1943.
CLOSING SHOT Steve McCurry, whose iconic picture of a young Afghan girl captured the hearts of millions of people around the world as she peered hauntingly from the cover of National Geographic Magazine in 1985. This photo was viewed around the world and contributed greatly to Afghan relief efforts © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 34
QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION You are welcome to visit my Blog at http://fredhenstridge.blogspot.com/ Web Site: www.henstridgephotography.comwww.henstridgephotography.com September 11, 2010 Battle Event: http://fhenstridge.zenfolio.com/p629222072 © Fred Henstridge PhotographyThe Camera as a WeaponSlide No. 35
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