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Cradle of Civilization

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1 Cradle of Civilization
IRAN (PERSIA) Cradle of Civilization PART I

2 Caspian Sea Persian Gulf
Satellite Photo of Iran Source: Maps/Satellite-Maps-Iraq.htm

3 Caspian Sea Persian Gulf
Strait of Hurmoz

4 (Source:
Created by : A.S. Canada 7033 Aryan (Mithra’i) 2569 Shahan - shahi (2010 AD) (Source:

5 CONTENT Dedicated to ….. Opening Remarks
Iran National Anthem, Ey Iran (Lyrics and Sound) National Tri-color, Sun and Lion Iranian Flag Religion Language Persian Calendar An excerpt of Persian History Chronological List of Kings in Persia Cyrus the Great Cyrus’s Charter of Rights Darius the Great Persepolis, Bisutun, Tisphone Palace Map of Persia During Achaemenid First Banking and Mailing Systems in the World During Achaemenid Distinguished Persian Females in Persian Navy and Army An Excerpt of Distinguished Persian Females Map of Persia during Sassanid Empire Persian Gulf History Ancient Persian National Festivals Pictorial History of Persian National Flags Alexander’s Invasion and Occupation of Persia Persian Hero who fought against Alexander Arab Invasion and Occupation of Persia An Excerpt of Persian National Heroes who fought against Islamic Invasion and Occupation of Persia An Excerpt of Persian Scientists, Physicians, Inventors, Poets Mongol Mongol’s Invasion of Persia Safavid and Attempt to Force Shi’a Sect on Persians Nader Shah Afsharthe Great Nader Shah’s attempt to undo Shi’a Influence Map of Persia during Nader Shahthe Great …/…

6 (Part 2) An Excerpt of Distinguished Iranian Statesmen
Ghaem- Magham Farahani Amir Kabir Gavam A’lam Hoveyda Jamshid Amouzegar Shahpour Bakhtiar Persian Constitutional Revolution Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan, Constitutional Heroes First Persian Parliament (Majlis) Persian Women’s Movements An Excerpt of Persian Literature and Distinguished poets Malak-o- Sho’araie Bahar Parvin E’tesami Nima Youshij Simin Daneshvar Simin Behbahani Anti-mullahs hero, Ahmad kasravi His Majesty Reza Shah the Great First Iranian National Bank (Bank Melli Iran) Teymourtash, Court Minister Davar, Father of the Judicial System in Iran An Excerpt of Reza Shah’s Reforms Reza Shah’s Coronation Reza Shah’s death and Funeral His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Iranian Queens (Part 2) Mossaddegh and Iranian oil Nationalization An excerpt of Mohammad Reza Shah’s Reforms Coronation 2500th years Monarchy Celebration Mohammad Anvar – al – Sadat, President of Egypt Mohammad Reza Shah’s Death and Funeral Queen (Empress) Farah (Diba) Phahlavi Dr. Farrough Rou Parsa, First Female Minister of Education Jinous Ne’mat (Mahmoudi), First Female Meteorologist General Khademy and First National Iranian Air Line …/…

7 Imperial Iranian Army Persian Cossack
Prominent Persian Cossack Officers Chief of Staff Imperial Iranian Air Force Imperial Iranian Navy Imperial Iranian Ground Force Persian Arts Miniature Crown Jewelry Handcrafts Music Colonel Vaziri Abol-Hassan Saba Tajvidi Qamar-oul-Moulok Delkash Banan Haideh Ma’roufi Rouhani Persian Dance (PART 3) Persian Architecture Contemporary Royal Palaces Ancient and Modern Monuments World-renown Hand-knotted Persian Carpet Iranian Scenery Iranian Natural Resources Abadan Refinery, The Largest in the World Sar - cheshmeh Copper Mines, Kerman World-renown Persian Caviar, The Highest Quality in the World Sports and Championship Takhti, The Wrestling World Champion Nasiri, The Lifting World Champion Contemporary distinguished Iranians Modern Iran, Statistics Closing Remarks

8 This document is dedicated to :
My beloved mother and father Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great Babak Khorramdin, Maziar and Abu-Moslem Khorasani Abul - Ghasem Ferdousi Hakim Omar Khayyam Zakaria Razi Abu - Ali Sina Saadie Hafez Mirza Taghi-Khan Amir Kabir Dr. Mohammad Mossaddegh His Majesty Reza Shah The Great His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Those Imperial Iranian Army generals and personnel that courageously shielded their chest against the firing squad of the criminal terrorist Islamic mullahs and their thugs in 1979 Those patriot Iranians who elected or have been forced to self exile, out of their motherland Iran Those patriot Iranians who have been exiled at home All young and old brave Iranian women and men who offered the ultimate sacrifice on the streets of cities, towns and villages across our motherland, symbolized by Neda Agha Soultan, Sohrab Arabi, Ashkan Souhrabi,and others All native Iranians Baluchis, Khouzestanis, Bakhteyaris, Tourkemans, Kurds, Lurs, Taleshis, Gilaks, Mazandaranis, Azerbaejanis and others All those Iranians whose hearts beat for our motherland Iran every moment

9 OPENING REMARKS This document includes some of our national Persian identities and attributes, in the form of excerpts of Persian past from historical, religious, linguistic, distinguished females, national flags, cultural, musical, arts, our distinguished statesmen, architectural, Royal jewelry and finally contemporary Iran. There are still many dimensions that are missing such as Economical, social, educational, political; as well as many prominent individuals in different aspects have not been mentioned. The only reason being the lack of space and time, since there are many to be mentioned. It is intended to remind patriot Persians and Iran lovers, specially the young and future Iranian generations to not only cherish their outstanding and glorious past; but to also be inspired and endeavor to shape a splendid and magnificent future for our motherland, and to provide humanity across the globe with significant contribution in every dimension.

Our Iranian national identity rests on the following elements: Our Motherland country including waterways ; Our beloved ethnic Iranians (i.e., the Azeris, Kurds, Khouzestanis, Baluchis, Turkmens, Armenians, Assyrians, Jews, and Georgians. The tribal groups include the Bakhtiaris, Khamseh, Lurs, Qashqai and others ); History and background; National anthem (Ey Iran); National tri-color, Sun and Lion flag; Parsi (Persian) Language; National festivals; Shahanshahi (and Aryaei) Calenda ( I suggest to commence using this calendar instead of the solar calendar, starting today; Culture, literature, art, architecture and music; and National heroes Ey Iran

11 (Turn your speakers on and click)
IRAN NATIONAL ANTHEM EY IRAN (Turn your speakers on and click) Iranian National Anthem(Ey Iran) lyrics was created by Master Hossein Ghole-gholab and its song was composed by Master Rouhoullah Khalegi, one of the most prominent Persian Violinist, in 1954 (29 Bahman 1332 solar year). In a meeting over several days, composed of an international team of experts for national anthems, in Vienna, Austria, the same year; Ey Iran anthem was selected as the most sensational anthem In the world.

Mehrat az del key boroon konam Bar goo bi mehr-e to chon konam Tell me what to do without your love If ever I exclude it from my heart Tá gardesh-e jahán-o dore-e ásemán bepást Noor-e izadi hamisheh rahnamá-ye mást While the universe and the heavens revolve The light of Yazdan will forever brighten our path Repeat 4 and Iran ey khoram behesht-e man Roshan az to sarnevesht-e man Iran my beautiful paradise Bright is my destiny because of you Gar átash bárad be peykaram Joz mehrat dar del naparvaram Even if fire rains on my body Only your love I’ll flourish in my heart Az áb o khak o mehr-e to sereshteh shod gelam Mehr agar boroon shavad tohi shavad delam I am made of thy love, water and earth Should love leave, hollow will become my heart Repeat 4 and 5 Ey Iran ey marz-e por gohar Ey khákat sar cheshmeh-ye honar Iran, the land of gems abound Thy soil nurtures artisans aplenty Door az to andisheh-ye badán Páyandeh máni to jávedán Far be from you the foes’ intentions May you remain permanent and eternal Ey doshman ar to sang-e khár-e-ee man áhanam Ján-e man fadá-ye khák e pák e Mihanam O enemy, I’m made of steal if you’re made of rock My life I sacrifice for the noble soil of my land Mehr-e to chon shod pisheh-am Door az to nist andisheh-am Thy love has became my preoccupation My thoughts are never far from thee Dar ráh-e to key arzeshi dárad in ján-e má Páyandeh bád khák-e Iran-e má For thee my life is not worthy May the land of Iran be eternal sang e koohat dor-ro gohar ast Khák-e dashtat behtar az zar ast Thy mountains are made of gems and jewels The soil of thy fields better than gold Source:

13 IRANIAN NATIONAL FLAG Sun and Lion, Tri- color Iranian National Flag
Green Color: appreciation of natural esthetics. Green is denoted in Pire-Sabz (the green pontiff), the Zoroastrian Pilgrimage near Yazd.   White Color: Friendship, reconciliation, peace, purity, passage from the material world, Zoroaster’s favorite sacred color Red Color : Sacrifice, revolution, tinkering and dynamic thinking safeguarding the country’s and nation’s independence and integrity Lion: Bravery, magnificence Sun: Warmth, source of energy and life, continuity Sword: Resistance, strength, triumph, resilience Source: & /

14 RELIGION Source:
Gallery/Faravahar--- Zoroastrian-Symbol.htm

15 Religion of Mehr (Kindness) Source : and
MITHRAISM Religion of Mehr (Kindness) Mithra slaying a bull The roots of Mithraism go back to Zoroastrianism, a Persian religion that became popular in Persia since 6th century BC. It placed Mithras in the role of a deity equal to the sun god. The birth of Mithra is celebrated at the eve of the winter solstice, called Shab-e Yalda (Yalda Night) in Persian Language. the worship of Mithra, the Persian god of the sun, justice, contract, and war in pre-Zoroastrian Iran was popular. Known as Mithras in the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, this deity was honored as the patron of loyalty to the emperor. After the dawn of Zoroaster, Mithraism was replaced by Zoroastrian in Persia Source : and

16 ZOROASTRIANISM good thoughts, good words, good deeds
Three principles of the Zoroastrian Religion Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster (aka Zarathustra, in Avesta). The term Zoroastrianism is, in general usage, essentially synonymous with Mazdaism, i.e. the worship of Ahura Mazda (the God), exalted by Zoroaster as the supreme divine authority. The date of Zoroaster (i.e., the date of composition of the Old Avesta gathas), the Zoroastrian holy book is unknown. Dates proposed by reputable religious scholars diverge between the 11th and 10th centuries BC. The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language. Prior to the Islamic invasion and occupation of Persia, Zoroastrianism had been the primary religion of the Persian people. Zoroaster (Zoroastrian prophet) (628 – 551 BC) portrayed here in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. This image emerged in the eighteenth century Source :

17 Source :
WHAT DID FARVAHAR MEAN? What did "Faravahar" mean to the ancient Iranians who carved it on stones is that it represents Zartosht's principles of “Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds”.  Zartosht (Zarathustra), the greatest Iranian teacher and philosopher recognized his God on the basis of his wisdom and never assumed prophethood or said that he had been missioned to bring any message from God to human beings. He was a messenger of peace and life, eternal love and wisdom.   The figure inside is that of an old man, representing wisdom of age. There are two wings in two sides of the picture, which have three main feathers. These main feathers indicate three symbols of "good thoughts, good words, and good deeds," which are at the same time the motive of flight and advancement. The lower part of the Faravahar consists of three parts, representing "bad reflection, bad words and bad deeds" which causes misery and misfortune for human beings. There are two loops at the two sides of the Faravahar, which represent positive forces and negative forces.  The former is directed toward the face and the latter is located at the back. This also indicates that we have to proceed toward the good and turn away from bad. The ring in the center symbolizes the eternity of universe or the eternal nature of the soul. As a circle, it has no beginning and no end. One of the hands points upwards, indicating that there is only one direction to choose in life and that is forward. The other hand holds a ring and some interpreters consider that as the ring of covenant and used in wedding ceremonies representing loyalty and faithfulness which is the basis of Zartosht's philosophy. This means when a true Iranian gives a promise, it is like a ring and it cannot be broken.  Since, the ring of covenant which located in the center of the Faravahar's trunk is the symbol of the immortality of the spirit, it can be inferred that more human beings try to promote their own Faravahar, more their spirit will be elevated in the other world after they pass away. For that reason, ancient Iranians would never mourn at the death of their beloved ones, because they would believe that their spirit will be elevated to a higher level in the other world.  On the basis of one's Faravahar, everybody is responsible for his/her own deed . Source :

18 The Faravahar or Forouhar (I.e., guardian spirit),
is one of the symbols of Zoroastrianism A Neo-Assyrian "feather robed archer" figure, symbolizing Ashur. The right hand is extended similar to the Faravahar figure, while the left hand holds a bow instead of a ring (9th or 8th century BC) The Faravahar or Forouhar is the spirit of human being that had been existed before his/her birth and will continue to exist after his/her death. It is to remind one of the purposes of life on the Earth, which is to live in such a way that the soul progresses spiritually and attains union with Ahura-Mazda (the Wise Lord). Source :

19 The Faravahar on the Behistan
The Behistun (Bisutun) Inscription , Iran The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun in Modern Persian); in old Persian Bhagasthana meaning “the god's place or land”) is a multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. Authored by Darius I the Great sometime between his coronation as the king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC. the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius I the Great including his ancestry, lineage etc. Source :

Persians continued to be mostly Zoroastrians up until 637 AD, when Persia was invaded and occupied by Islamic Arabs. Persians did not accept Islam as a new religion and fought rigorously for many centuries. Abu-Moslem Khorasani, Maziar and Babak Khorramdin were a few of the brave Persian patriots who fought back Arab occupiers and gave their lives to preserve Persian greatness, religion and culture. A huge group of Persian Zoroastrians migrated out of Persia for the very first time, due to pressure from the Islamic occupiers to covert to Sunni Islam. Some of Persians were converted to Sunni Moslems by force, but always felt a hatred toward Islam in the centuries that followed. Subsequently, when Safavid dynasty ( ) took over Persia, Persia came under strong threat from the Ottoman Empire. The Safavid shahs - in order to oppose and create strong anti-sentiment resistance against the Ottoman Empire - began forcing the Persians to convert from Sunnis to Shi’a. They further strengthen all Shi’a culture and rituals to enforce the new sect. Again a huge number of Zoroastrians left Persia for good. Finally in 1979, assisted with a global conspiracy, Shi’a Islam attempted to forge a so called “revolution” and attempted to place a theocratic government based on Islamic Shi’a principles in Iran. However, after 31 years of criminal activities, terrorism, murder, corruption, torture; coupled with the hidden hatred toward Islam by Iranians, Iranians began fighting back. This time, Iranians are determined to get rid of Islam all together and form a secular government. And finally, after about 14 centuries, freedom is dawning on Iran. After Iranian victory Islam may only be in the hearts of people and will have no place in social, political and economic dimensions of future Iran and there will be absolutely no corrupted, illiterate, terrorist, Criminal mullahs in Iran.


is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is widely spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and to some extent in Iraq, Bahrain, and Oman. New Persian, which usually is called also by the names of Farsi, Parsi, Dari or Parsi-ye-Dari (Dari Persian), can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. Persian is a pluricentric language and its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. The Persian language has been a medium for literary and scientific contributions to the eastern half of the Muslim world. Persian has had a considerable influence on neighboring languages, particularly the Turkic languages in Central Asia, Caucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian and other languages. It has also exerted a strong influence on South Asian languages, especially Urdu, as well as Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Saraiki. History: In general, Persian languages are known from three periods, usually referred to as Old, Middle, and New (Modern) periods. These correspond to three eras in Iranian history; Old era being the period from sometime before Achaemenids, the Achaemenid era and sometime after Achaemenids (that is to BC), Middle era being the next period most officially Sassanid era and sometime in post-Sassanid era, and the New era being the period afterwards down to present day. According to available documents, the Persian language is "the only Iranian language, for which close genetic relationships between all of its three stages are established and so that Old, Middle, and New Persian represent one and the same language of Persian, that is New Persian is a direct descendent of Middle and Old Persian. The oldest records in Old Persian date back to the Persian Empire of the 6th century BC. The known history of the Persian language can be divided into the following four distinct periods: Source :

A Hakhamaneshian (Achaemenid ) inscription in cuneiform script, a stone inscribed on both flat surfaces, has been discovered in southern Iran. The discovery was made in the ancient city of Ramhormoz in Khouzestan province, according to Iranian cultural heritage activists and archeologists. The 2,500-year-old inscription is carved on both sides of a piece of an eight-kilogram stone from the Zard River basin located in the northeast of Khouzestan province. Archeologists observed some shapes and drawings next to the inscriptions on the stone. The results of further studies are anxiously awaited, as they will reveal details about the subject of the inscription..  History of the Persian Language is categorized into four major periods: Proto-Persian (1500 BC); Southwestern Iranian languages Old Persian ( BC); Old Persian cuneiform script Middle Persian (300 BC-800 AD); Pahlavi script, Manichaean script, Avesta script Modern Persian (from 800 AD - present) Persian-Arabic script Cuneiform inscription from the Gate of All Nations in Persepolis, Iran Sources : &

24 Old Persian Middle Persian
Old Persian evolved from Proto-Iranian as it evolved in the Iranian plateau's southwest. The earliest dateable example of the language is the Behistun Inscription of the Achaemenid Darius I (522 BC – 486 BC). Although purportedly older texts also exist (such as the inscription on the tomb of Cyrus II the Great at Passageway), these are actually younger examples of the language. Old Persian was written in Old Persian cuneiform, a script unique to that language and is generally assumed to be an invention of Darius I's reign. After Aramaic, or rather the Achaemenid form of it known as Imperial Aramaic, Old Persian is the most commonly attested language of the Achaemenid age. While examples of Old Persian have been found wherever the Achaemenids held territories, the language is attested primarily in the inscriptions of Western Iran, in particular in Parsa "Persia" in the southwest, the homeland of the tribes that the Achaemenids (and later the Sassanids) came from. In contrast to later Persian, written Old Persian had an extensively inflected grammar, with eight cases, each declension subject to both gender (masculine, feminine, neuter) and number (singular, dual, plural). Middle Persian In contrast to Old Persian, whose spoken and written forms must have been dramatically different from one another, written Middle Persian reflected oral use. The complex conjugation and declension of Old Persian yielded to the structure of Middle Persian in which the dual number disappeared, leaving only singular and plural, as did gender. Middle Persian used postpositions to indicate the different roles of words, for example an -i suffix to denote a possessive "from/of" rather than the multiple (subject to gender and number) genitive case forms of a word. Although the "middle period" of Iranian languages formally begins with the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the transition from Old- to Middle Persian had probably already begun before the 4th century. However, Middle Persian is not actually attested until 600 years later when it appears in Sassanid era (224–651 AD) inscriptions, so any form of the language before this date cannot be described with any degree of certainty. Moreover, as a literary language, Middle Persian is not attested until much later, to the 6th or 7th century …/…

25 Source:
And from the 8th century onwards, Middle Persian gradually began yielding to New Persian, with the middle-period form only continuing in the texts of Zoroastrian tradition. The native name of Middle Persian was Parsik or Parsig, after the name of the ethnic group of the southwest, that is, "of Pars", Old Persian Parsa, New Persian Fars. This is the origin of the name Farsi as it is today used to signify New Persian. Following the collapse of the Sassanid state, Parsikcame to be applied exclusively to (either Middle or New) Persian that was written in Arabic script. From about the 9th century onwards, as Middle Persian was on the threshold of becoming New Persian, the older form of the language came to be erroneously called Pahlavi, which was actually but one of the writing systems used to render both Middle Persian as well as various other Middle Iranian languages. That writing system had previously been adopted by the Sassanids (who were Persians, i.e. from the southwest) from the preceding Arsacids (who were Parthians, i.e. from the northeast). While Rouzbeh (Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa, 8th century) still distinguished between Pahlavi (i.e. Parthian) and Farsi (i.e. Middle Persian), this distinction is not evident in Arab commentaries written after that date. New Persian The history of New Persian itself span more than 1000–1200 years. The development of the language in its last period is often considered in three stages of early, classical, and contemporary periods. The fact that almost all current native speakers of the language do understand ancient texts of the Persian language and the grammatical differences of the ancient language are acquainted by today's speakers simply by reading and memorizing those ancient texts gives a special status to the Persian language as a whole. Source:

(NAS’TALIQ WRITINGS) It was about 10 th century AD, that “Ebn-e-Moqlah Beyzavi Shirazi” conducted a research and studied six major calligraphy styles and categorized them. These styles were "Mohaqqaq", "Reyhan", "Sols" or "Thuluth", "Naskh", "Reqaa", and "Towqee". All of these calligraphy styles followed 12 major principles. After “Ebn-e-Moqlah” another calligraphy master named “Hassan Farsi Kateb” combined “Naskh” and “Reqaa” styles and invented a new style, called “Taliq”. Eventually in the 14th century, “Mir Ali Tabrizi” combined two major scripts of his time, i.e. Naskh and Taliq and created the most attractive Persian Calligraphy style, “Nas’taliq”. A Sample of Nastali’q Writing Source:


28 گاهشمار تمام سنگي 2500-3000 ساله
بنايي با معماري‌ خاصي در «نقش رستم» شيراز وجود دارد كه از زمان حمله اعراب به ايران به اشتباه، نام «كعبه زرتشت» را به آن دادند، چون كاربرد واقعي آن را نمي‌دانستند. آن زمان فكر مي‌كردند كه هر ديني بايد براي خود بُتكده يا عبادتگاهي (( كافر همه را به كيش خود پندارد)) داشته باشد، براي همين فكر كردند اين بنا هم مركزيت يا كعبه زرتشتيان است. در ديوار داخل اين ساختمان لغت «کعبه» حکاکي شده است. در کتاب‌هاي زرتشتي آمده است که حضرت زرتشت «زاراتشترا» در اين محل، نيايش مي‌کرده است. اعراب، لغت کعبه را از پارسي پهلوي گرفتند. همان‌طور که در زمان داريوش کبير به كشور «عمان» امروزي «مکه» مي‌گفتند؛ بنابراين كلمه مكه نيز فارسي است. در محاسبه روز نوروز در کتب زرتشتي نوشته شده است که زرتشت در اين رصدخانه، محل شروع نوروز را محاسبه کرد. نوروز در روز اول فروردين از محلي شروع مي‌شود که اولين اشعه آفتاب در آنجا بتابد. بر اساس برآورد گاهنامه زرتشت، هر 700 سال يک‌بار نوروز از ايران شروع مي‌شود . آخرين‌باري که نوروز از ايران شروع شد، 300 سال پيش بود. در سال 1387، نوروز از پاريس و بروکسل و در سال 1388 ار تورنتو و نيويورک شروع شد. سال آينده هم نوروز از محلي بين آلاسکا و هاوايي شروع خواهد شد. از زمان حمله اعراب به ايران تا به امروز، يعني قرن بيست و يكم ميلادي، كاربرد و تعريف اين بنا كشف نشده بود . خوشبختانه پژوهشگر ايراني «رضا مرادي غياث‌آبادي» كه تحقيقات فراواني در زمينه ايران باستان داشته است، نتيجه كشف خود را در كتابي به نام «نظام گاهشماري در چارطاقي‌هاي ايران» توسط انتشارات «نويد شيراز» به چاپ رسانده و راز اين بنا را منتشر كرده است. ا امروز حدث مي‌زدند كاربرد اين بنا، محل نگهداري كتاب اوستا و اسناد حكومتي يا محل گنجينه دربار و يا آتشكده معبد بوده است. اما غياث‌آبادي با تحقيقات خود ثابت كرد اين بنا با مقايسه با تمامي بناهاي گاهشماري (تقويم) آفتابي در سرتاسر جهان، پيشرفته‌ترين، دقيق‌ترين، و بهترين بناي گاهشماري آفتابي جهان است. اين در حالي است كه تا قبل از اين بنا هم «چارطاقي‌ها» در نقاط مختلف ايران احداث شده بودند و همين وظيفه را با شيوه‌اي بسيار ساده اما دقيق و حرفه‌اي بر عهده داشتند. تمامي بناهاي گاهشماري آفتابي در جهان فقط مي‌توانند روزهاي خاصي از سال (مانند روزهاي سرفصل) را مشخص كنند و حتي با سال خورشيدي هم تنظيم نيستند. اما اين بنا با دقت و علمي كه در ساخت آن اجرا شده، قادر است بسياري از جزئيات روزهاي مختلف سال و ماه‌ها را مشخص كند. زرتشتيان با استفاده از اين بنا مي‌توانستند بسياري از مناسبت‌ها و جشن‌هاي سال را روز به روز دنبال كنند و از زمان دقيق آنها آگاه شوند. بسياري از بناهاي چارطاقي در سطح كشور (به تصور آتشكده) يا به طور كامل تخريب شده و يا تغيير كاربري داده شده است. ولي خوشبختانه تعدادي هم مانند چارطاقي «نياسر» و چارطاقي «تفرش»، سالم مانده و براي ما و نسل‌هاي بعدي باقي مانده‌اند متأسفانه بناي «كعبه زرتشت» با آن كه تقريباً سالم باقي مانده است  به ثبت ميراث جهاني سازمان ملل نرسيده است! حتي سازمان ميراث فرهنگي هم اين بنا را همراه بناهاي عجايب هفتگانه جديد (كه برج ايفل هم يكي از كانديداها بود) پيشنهاد نداد! حتي با كشف راز اين بنا هم هيچ‌گونه انعكاس و جنجالي به پا نشد! اين بنا، يك گاهشمار تمام سنگي ثابت در جهان است كه بايد سازندگان آن از بسياري از نكات علميِ جغرافيايي، نجومي، سال كبيسه، انحراف كره زمين نسبت به مدار خورشيد، تفاوت قطب مغناطيسي با قطب جغرافيايي، مسير گردش زمين به دور خورشيد و... را در 2500 تا 3000 سال پيش ، در دوران حكومت هخامنشيان آگاهي مي‌بودند. حال آنكه خيلي از آنها را مانند كروي بودن كره زمين و گردش زمين به دور خورشيد را در چهارصد سال اخير در اروپا كشف كردند و به نام خودشان ثبت كردند

HISTORY AND ORIGINS The first calendars based on Zoroastrian cosmology appeared during the Achaemenid period and though they have evolved and changed over the centuries the names of the months have remained more or less the same till now. Before this period, old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on Babylonian system modified according to their own beliefs with their own name days. Month was divided into two or three divisions depending on the phases of the moon. Twelve months were named for various festivals or activities of the pastoral year with 30 days in each month. A thirteenth month every six years was added to keep the 360-day calendar in harmony with the seasons. Under the unified empire of the Achaemenian it was necessary to create a distinctive Iranian calendar based on Zoroastrian beliefs. The religious importance of the calendar dedications was very significant. Not only it fixed the pantheon of major deities, but ensured that their names were continuously uttered, since at every Zoroastrian act of worship the deities of both day and month are invoked. With the new system the pattern of festivities became clear as well, Mitrakanna or Mihregan was celebrated on Mithra day of Mithra month, or Tiri festival (Tiragan) was celebrated on Tiri day of the Tiri month. After invasion of Alexander, based on the Greek tradition they introduced the practice of dating by era rather than dating by the reign of individual kings. Their era became known as that of Alexander. The Zoroastrian priests resented Seleucid and found it necessary to create their own era. They had lost their function at the royal courts since the new rulers were not Zoroastrians. They followed the new trend and for the first time started calculating the era of Zoroaster. This was the first serious attempt to establish a historical date for the prophet. After the invasion of Alexander and burning of much of the Zoroasterian documents, with no Zoroastrian sources at hand, they turned to Babylonian archives famous through out the ancient world. From these records they learned that a great event in Persian history took place 228 years before the era of Alexander. The date was 539 BC and in fact is the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the great. However the Zoroastrian priests interpreted this date to be the time the true faith was revealed to their prophet and since Avestan literature indicates that revelation happened when Zoroaster was thirty years old, the date of 568 BC was taken to be his birthday. The date entered written records as the beginning of the era of Zoroaster and indeed Persian Empire. This incorrect date is still mentioned in many current Encyclopedias as Zoroaster’s birth date. Parthians adopted the same system, dated their era from 248 BC, the date they succeeded over the Seleucid and used the same calendar with minor modifications. Their names for the months and days are Parthian equivalencies of the Avestan ones used before and they differ slightly from the Middle Persian names used by the Sassanian. For example in Achaemenian times the modern Persian month ‘Day’ is called Dadvah (Creator), in Parthian it is Datush and Sassanian named it Dadv/Dai (Dadar in Pahlavi). Source: articles/calendar_systems_origins.php

HISTORY AND ORIGINS The next major calendar change happened at the reign of Ardeshir the founder of the Sassanian dynasty in 224 AD. In 46 AD, Julian the Roman Emperor adopted the Egyptian solar calendar system of 365 days with modifications. Iranians had known about the Egyptian system for centuries but never used it. Ardeshir Shah changed the system to 365 days by adding five extra days at the end and named these ‘Gatha’ or ‘Gah’ days, after the ancient Zoroastrian hymns of the same name. The new system created confusion and met with resistance and is the reason why so many Zoroastrian feasts and celebrations still have two dates. Many rites were practiced over many days instead of one day and duplication of observances was continued to make sure no holy days were missed. The situation got so complicated that another calendar reform had to be implemented by Ardeshir’s grandson Hormizd I. The new and old holy days were linked together to form continual six-day feasts. Norouz was an exception. The first and the sixth day of the month were celebrated as different occasions and sixth became more significant as Zoroasters’ birthday rather than a continuation of Norouz itself. The reform however did not solve all the problems and Yazdegird III, the last ruler, introduced the last changes. Year 631 AD was chosen as the beginning of the new era and the last calendar is known as Yazdegirdi calendar. However they did not get the chance to finish their task. Muslim Arabs invaded and occupied the Persia in 7th century AD and with this, a new lunar calendar based on Islamic principles was forced to replace the old solar calendar of the Sassanian period. This calendar was forced earlier by Mohammad (Islamic Prophet) denoting the flight from Mecca to Medina (Hijrat) in 622. Being a lunar calendar the months are not related to the solar cycle and therefore do not correspond with the seasons. The festivals move all the time. The lunar year is shorter than the Gregorian year by about 11 days. It is only over a 33-year cycle that the lunar months take a complete turn and fall during the same season. Even today most Muslim countries use a solar calendar to avoid complications. The present calendar used in Iran is a solar calendar based on pre-Islamic systems improved in 11th century during the reign of the Seljuq King, Malak Shah. This calendar is almost unknown in the West, although it is one of the most accurate, if not the most accurate in the world. Compared with the Gregorian calendar, which errors by one day, every 3,226 years, the Iranian calendar needs a one-day correction every 141,000 years. There are two reasons for this accuracy. The Iranian calendar uses a sophisticated intercalation system for determining the leap years. And the beginning of the year, which is a natural phenomenon (arrival of the Sun at the Vernal Equinox), is precisely determined each year by astronomical observations. The present calendar resulted from a reform conducted in 1079 by a group of astronomers headed by the great Iranian mathematician and poet Omar Khayyam. The origin of the calendar is however much older. It goes back to the Persian Achaemenian period in the 6th century BC. The Islamic lunar calendar was widely used till the end of the 19th century. However since Pahlavi period the more accurate solar calendar is used throughout the country and has remained the official system. During Pahlavi period the Arabic months used extensively were abandoned and once again the ancient Persian names were revived and are still in use today. At the end of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, Shahanshahi Calendar replaced the solar calendar. Source: articles/calendar_systems_origins.php

HISTORY AND ORIGINS Iranian Months, their origins and origin of the names: Farvardin ~ Farr e Din Ordibehesht ~ Behtarin Rasty Khordad ~ Rasaei & Kamali Tir ~ Tond & chabbok Mordad ~ Na mira Shahrevar ~ Keshvare e Arezoo Shodeh Mihr ~ Payman e doustie Aban ~ Aub Azar ~ Atash Day ~ Afaridegar Bahman ~ Nik Nahad Esphand ~ Foroutani Moghadas Source: articles/calendar_systems_origins.php


33 there are more cultural remains of Neanderthal man dating back to
Pre-historic Era there are more cultural remains of Neanderthal man dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period, which mainly have been found in the Zagros region and fewer in central Persia. Evidence for Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic periods are known mainly from the Zagros region in the caves of Kermanshah and Khoramabad. 9000 BC there are also 9,000 year old human and animal figurines from Teppe Sarab in Kermanshah Province in Persia, among the many other ancient artifacts. 8000 BC In the eighth millennium BC, agricultural communities started to form in western Persia 7000 BC the south-western part of Persia was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity's first major crops were grown. 7,000 year old jars of wine excavated in the Zagros Mountains (now on display at The University of Pennsylvania) and ruins of 7,000 year old settlements such as Sialk are further testament to this. Two main Neolithic Iranian settlements were the Zayandeh Rud River Civilization and Ganj Dareh. 3000 BC Around 3000 BC, Aryan tribes immigrated from southern Europe to Persian plateau BC Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau. Three significant groups of the Aryan tribes were called : Caspha or Caspians, Hatits or Hatahiahs and Mitnas or Mitanihas. Caspians entered Persia prior to the other two groups through Caucasus. First they settled in Sefid Rud and Khilan. Then they branched into three groups. One group resettled in Mazandaran and Gorgan. The second group resettled in Azerbaijan, next to Rezaeieh Lake and extended to Kurdestan. The third group resettled in Ghazvin, Hamedan and Lurestan, Fars and south of Persia. 700 BC The Group around Azerbaijan, about 700 years BC, established a government called Medes. Around the same time with Medes, in southern Persia (Lurestan, khusestan, Fars and Ealam, the third group established Pars or Parthians government. 530 BC Medes and Pars combined the two governments into one which resulted in establishment of Achaemenid dynasty. (The name of their Persian Aryan race eventually evolved to Eryan, Ayreen and Iran, which in Persian language it’s interpretation is the “Land of the librated”). Source:

Source: of-iran-achaemenids.html

Pre-historic era (9000 BC) Early history (3200 BC) Proto-Elamite period (3200 – 2800 BC) Elamite Kingdom (2800 – 728 BC) Kassites Mannaeans Empires of Iran (728 – 550 BC) Median Empire (728 – 550 BC) Achaemenid Empire (550 – 330 BC) Macedonian rulers (330 – 164 BC) Argead Dynasty ( 330 – 310 BC) Seleucid Dynasty (310 – 150 BC) Persian Empires of Iran (248 BC – 651 AD) Parthian Empire (248 BC – 226 AD) Sassanid Empire (226 – 651) Islamic invasion and Arab occupation ( 637 AD) Post – Islamic Persian rulers (821 – 873 AD) Tahirids in Khorasan (821 – 872) Alavids (864 – 928) Sajid dynasty (890 – 928) Saffarids in Seistan and beyond (861 – 1003) Samanids (pro-tajiks) (875 – 999) Zivarids (928 – 1043) Buyyids (934 – 1062) Diylamids of Fars Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan and Hamedan Sallarid (942 – 979) Ma’munids (995 – 1017) Ghaznavids Empire(997 – 1186) Mongols, Timurids and local governments (1219 AD) Ghori dynasty (1149 – 1212) Seljuks (1037 –1194) Khwarazmids (1077 – 1231) Ilkhans (1256 – 1353) Muzaffarids Dynasty (1314 – 1393) Chupanids dynasty(1337 –1357) Sarbadars (1337 – 1376) Jalayerids dynasty (1339 – 1432) Timurids Dynasty (1370 – 1506) Qara Qoyunlu (1407 – 1468) Aq Qoyunlu (1378 – 1508) Shahs (Kings) of early modern Persia (1502 – 1979) Safavids dynasty (1502 – 1736) Hotaki dynasty (Afghan rulers) (1722 – 1729) Afsharids dynasty (1736 – 1797) Zand dynasty ( 1750 – 1794) Qajar dynasty (1794 – 1925) Pahlavi dynasty (1925 – 1979) Source : Note : some discrepancies in the timing of Some dynasties were Observed, in the sources

Mandana of Media (584 BC) was a Princess of Media and, later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great. Mandan or Mandana is interpreted as the name of a herb or flower. Azeedehak’s daughter (Azeedehak was the the last emperor of Maad Dynasty). She married Kambojeyyeh (Cyrus the Great’s father), Resulting in Cyrus the Great’s birth. Cyrus pronounced in (in Persian as Kooroush is a compound word made of Kooa and Rousha, meaning the Heavenly son). Mandan was instrumental in teaching, training and transfer of power to Cyrus the Great. She founded the first boy’s school of selected boys along with Cyrus the Great. In this school, she personally taught law and also trained Cyrus the Great to always uphold justice and abolish injustice and oppression, to support and defend the Oppressed. Horseback riding and shooting were also parts of skills which were taught at this school. Source :

37 Persian Standard Bearer rising the Achaemenid Eagle
Banner Persian Standard Bearer rising the Achaemenid Eagle Flag of Cyrus II the Great Cyrus II the Great ( BC) Persian Emblem Bearer rising the Cyrus Eagle Emblem Cyrus the Great’s statue in Australia Source :

38 و چنین گفت کوروش بزرگ از پارس برآمدم. از پارسوماش. این گفته من است. کورش پسر ماندانا و کمبوجیه. من کورش هخامنش فرمان دادم که بر مردمان ملال نرود. زیرا ملال مردمان ملال من است و شادمانی مردمان شادمانی من. بگذارید هرکس به آیین خویش باشد. زنان را گرامی  بدارید. فرودستان را دریابید. وهرکس به تکلم قبیله خویش سخن گوید. گسستن زنجیرها آرزوی من است. ما شب و شقاوت را خواهیم زدود، زندگی را ستایش خواهیم کرد. تا هست سرزمین من آسمانی باد. که در او رود ها ی بسیاری جاری است. ما دامنه ها  و دشت هایی داریم دریا وار، سحرآمیز، سرسبز و برکت خیز. و شما راگفتم این بهشت بی گزند را گرامی بدارید. سرزمین من توان شکفتنش بسیار است. سرزمین من، مادر من است. تا هست خنده شادی خیز کودکان خوش باد، تا هست شهریاری بانوان و آواز خنیاگران خوش باد. تا هست رودها بسیار تر و بسیارتر باد. از اندوه وعزا به دور باد سرزمین من. تا هست هرگز دلتنگی به دیدارتان نیاید. تا هست اندوه آدمیان مرده با د. به یادتان می آورم بهترین ارمغان آدمی آزادی ست. باشد که تا هست از خان و مان ملتم عطر و ترانه برخیزد. مردمان ما شایسته  آرامش وآزادی اند، مردمان ما شایسته شادمانی   و ترانه اند. مردمان ما شایسته عدالت و علاقه اند. دودمانتان در آرامش ، زندگی هاتان دراز ، و آینده  تان روشن تر از امروز  باد، این آرزوی من است. منبع: برگزیده ای از سخنان کورش بزرگ در منشورهای پارسوماش ،شوشیانا و پرشیا

39 PERSEPOLIS Persepolis: Takht-e Jamshid was the ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire during the Achaemenid dynasty ( BC). Persepolis is situated 70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in the Fars Province of modern Iran. In contemporary Persian, the site is known as Takht-e Jamshid (Throne of Jamshid) and Parseh. The earliest remains of Persepolis date from around 515 BC. To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Pārsa, which means "The City of Persians". Persepolis is the Greek interpretation of the name Πέρσης πόλις (Persēs polis: "Persian city"). After invading Persia, Alexander dispatched the main force of his army to Persepolis in the year 330 BC by the Royal Road. Alexander stormed the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains), and captured Persepolis before its treasury could be looted. After several months Alexander allowed his troops to loot Persepolis. A fire was set in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. This deliberate act was for revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Hellenic-Persian War. The Book of Arda Wiraz, a Zoroastrian work composed in the 3rd or 4th century BC, also describes archives containing "all the Avesta and Zand, written upon prepared cow-skins, and with gold ink" that were destroyed. Indeed in his The chronology of ancient nations, the native Iranian writer Biruni indicates unavailability of certain native Iranian historiographical sources in post-Achaemenid era especially during Ashkanian and adds . And more than that, Alexander burned the greatest part of their religious code, he destroyed the wonderful architectural monuments in the mountains of Istakhr, nowadays known as the mosque of Solomon – ben - David, and delivered them up to the flames. People say that even at the present time the traces of fire are visible in some places. Aerial View Source:/

40 All Nations Gate, Statue of Xerxes the Great,
Persepolis, Achaemenian Capital and

41 Apadana, Achaemenian Kings Monument,
Naghsh Rustam, Iran Source:

42 Shapur, King of Persia, The Sassanian Empire (602-629 AD)
Ctesiphopn, Sassanid Palace, Now in Iraq Sources: and

43 The First Human Rights Document Ever Made by
Cyrus the Great King of Persia, Achaemenid Era Cyrus the Great ' tomb located in Pasargadae, Iran, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2006) The Cyrus the Great’s cylinder, is a document issued by the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great in the form of a clay cylinder inscribed in Acadian cuneiform script. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when Cyrus the Great overthrew the Babylonianking Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. The text of the cylinder denounces Nabonidus as impious and portrays the victorious Cyrus as pleasing to the chief Babylonian god Marduk. It goes on to describe how Cyrus had improved the lives of the citizens of Babylonia, repatriated displaced peoples and restored temples and cult sanctuaries. The cylinder was discovered in 1879 by an Iranian – Assyrian archaeologist called Hormuzd Rassam in the foundations of the Esagila, the main temple of Babylon, where it had been placed as a foundation deposit. The Cyrus cylinder has been called "the world's first declaration of human rights" by scholars. October 29th has been designated as the international day of Cyrus the great and marked accordingly in all internatioonal calanders globally. Source:

44 Map of the Persian Achaemenid Empire (about 500 BC)
Source: World Altas

45 Darius I the Great was buried alongside the other
Achamenian emperors at Naqsh-e Rustam, Iran Darius I the Great of Persia (550–486 BC) Darius I the Great of Persia (550–486 BCE), was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire. Darius held the empire at its peak, then including Egypt, and parts of Greece. The decay and downfall of the empire commenced with his death and the coronation of his son, Xerxes I. Darius ascended the throne by assassinating the alleged usurper Gaumata with the assistance of six other Persian noble families; Darius was crowned the following morning. The new emperor met with rebellions throughout his kingdom, and quelled them each time. A major event in Darius' life was his expedition to punish Athens and Eretria and subjugate Greece (an attempt which failed). Darius expanded his empire by conquering Thrace and Macedon, and invading the Saka, Iranian tribes who had invaded Medes and even killed Cyrus the Great. Darius organized the empire, by dividing it into provinces and placing governors to govern it. He organized a new monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire. Darius also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Babylon, and Egypt. Darius created a codification of laws for Egypt. He also carved the cliff-face Behistun Inscription, an autobiography of great modern linguistic significance. Source: wiki/Darius_I_of_Persia

46 Source: Javanan Newspaper, no. 517-162, in
An excerpt of reforms in Persia by Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, during Achaemenid dynasty Reforms by Cyrus the Great government pension program for government employees (i.e., civil servants and military staff) after 40 years of service. Reforms by Darius the Great Darius the Great was voted to become the Persian king in consultation with elders and prominent politicians of all Persian provinces; two coins were created upon selection and coronation of Darius the Great (one gold and one silver), which would later become the most popular currency in the world; compulsory free education and literacy for all; conceptual design of Persepolis in 518 BC; freedom of 25,000 Jewish slaves in Babylon, after capturing the city; creation of the first super highway in his 10th year of monarchy, under the name of Cyrus Highway, which was later renamed as the Silk Road; creation of the first engineered highway with sub-base construction in the world; employed over 25,000 skilled laborers and master craftsmen during the construction of Persepolis, working 10 hours a day in the summers and 8 hours in the winters. Each craftsman would receive one golden coin every 5 days and each laborer would receive a salary plus 250 grams of meat along with butter, honey, cooking oil and cheese. The laborers would have a one day rest after every 10 days of work; payment of half a million gold coins as compensation each years to the laborers (while in Egypt during the same period, laborers were forced to work in labor camps for free while being whipped); created the present calendar of 30 days a month and he appointed a scientific council to create a new calendar in which the 1st and 15th day of each month were considered as statutory holidays; and there were 5 festivals (including Norouz) and 31 holidays throughout each year; implementation of compulsory military service in Persia to defend the Persian territorial integrity and sovereignty; creation of Ministries of Transportation and Water and Departments of Land Registry, Intelligence, as well as a Postal System (i.e., chapar khaneh); created the first mega dam on the Sand Waterway in India to avert water scarceness; granted asylum in Persia to Pythagoras, the world re-known Greek philosopher and mathematician who escaped from his country due to religious beliefs, with a government sponsored income; and accumulated close to 10 million British Lira in the Treasury Department, in the last year of his monarchy. Source: Javanan Newspaper, no , in Toronto, Canada, April 9, 2010

47 The first credible claim for the development of a real postal system
Sassanid Dynasty invented Banking system. During the third century AD, banks in Persia and other territories in the Persian empire under Sassanid Empire issued letters of credit known as Sakks which is the root of the word cheques. The first credible claim for the development of a real postal system comes from Persia , A Post Station (Chaparkhane), during Achaemenid Era Source:


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