Presentation on theme: "1/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Participação em projectos de Astronomia da ESA, da NASA e com o ESO Lisboa, 30 Julho 2009 Mário."— Presentation transcript:
1/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Participação em projectos de Astronomia da ESA, da NASA e com o ESO Lisboa, 30 Julho 2009 Mário João P. F. G. Monteiro with help from Jorge Filipe Gameiro, Antónioda Silva, Nuno Santos, Pedro Viana
2/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Centro de AstrofísicadaUniversidade do Porto (CAUP) is a private scientific institution of the Universidade do Porto (U.Porto), non-profit making, officially recognized as institution of public utility. Started activities in October Its main objective is to support and promote Astronomy through frontline research, training at the post-graduate and undergraduate levels, activities forprimary and highschools, science outreach and popularization of scientific culture. As the result of a partnership between the U.Porto, the City Council and the Ministry for Science and Technology, CAUP shares the building with the Planetarium of Porto (administered by FundaçãoCiênciaeDesenvolvimento), in one of the University Campuses. Website at Institution CAUP
3/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Origin and Evolution of Stars and Planets The key objective of the team is to address important issues of the physics that drives the formation and evolution of stars and planets. Both observational and modelling components are addressed. Galaxies and Evolution of the Universe The main objective of the team is to further the understanding of the origin and evolution of the Universe and its large-scale structures. Astronomical instrumentation The scientific participation in the technical development of Astronomical Instrumentation, which transverses both major scientific areas in CAUP, is also pursued. Its importance steams from the need to secure privileged access to existing and future facilities of ESO and ESA and to contribute to the long term development of Astronomy in Portugal and Europe. Science teams at CAUP CAUP
4/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets The key objective is to address important issues of the physics that drives the formation and evolution of stars and planets. Both observational and modeling components are addressed. This is done by focusing the activity in three major topics: Star formation and early evolution Planetary systems Stellar populations and evolution of stars This is in line with the Science Vision for European Astronomy(2007, ASTRONET) proposing, as one of four corner stones of Astronomy for the next decade, the answer to the question on What is the origin and evolution of stars and planets? including in particular the questions on: How do stars form? Do we understand stellar structure and evolution? What is the life-cycle of the interstellar medium and stars? How do planetary systems form and evolve? What is the diversity of planetary systems in the galaxy? Principal Investigator ( ) : Nuno C. Santos Scientific objectives Stars & Planets
5/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Instrumentation (space and ground) Planetary Systems Stellar Populations and Evolution of Stars Characterization of stars hosting planets Stars & Planets PLATO* (ESA, 2017) Kepler* (NASA, 2009) CoRoT* (France & ESA, 2006) Solar Orbiter (ESA, 2017) GAIA* (ESA, 2011) SOHO (ESA & NASA, 1995) CODEX (E-ELT ESO, 2020) ESPRESSO* (VLT ESO, 2014) HARPS (3.6LS ESO, 2003) Portuguese contribution towards finding what is the origin and evolution of stars and planets, is centered on addressing the questions: Do we understand stellar structure and evolution? How do planetary systems form and evolve? What is the diversity of planetary systems in the galaxy? Stars & Planets
6/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets CoRoT (France & ESA, 2006) This is a space project for the study of stellar interiors using asteroseismologyand detection of planets around solar-type stars. Due to its contribution to this mission, ESA nominated 5 researchers from its members states to represent ESA in the scientific structure of the mission (the selected investigators are from Portugal, Denmark, Switzerland and United Kingdom). CAUP participates in this mission from 2002 at the Co-Investigator level, following a successful application to an AO issued by ESA. This grants full access to all data in the asteroseismology core programme. As established by the ESA/AO bid, CAUP coordinated an international team on the development, optimization and documentation of evolution and seismic tools for asteroseismology: CoRoT/ESTA. Strategic projects - space missions (1) Projects Key results published in Science 2008Several planets published 2008 & 2009
7/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets KEPLER (NASA, 2009) This is a Discovery Program for detecting potentially life-supporting planets around other stars. Kepler is poised to find planets 30 to 600 times less Massive than Jupiter. The Kepler Mission is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone and determine how many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets. Kepler looks at 100,000 stars so that if Earths are rare, a null or near null result would still be significant. If Earth-size planets are common then Kepler should detect hundreds of them. Strategic projects - space missions (2) Projects
8/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets KEPLER (NASA, 2009) Following the agreement between Denmark (Aarhus) and NASA, a KeplerAsteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC – with more than 200 researchers) has been created to take over the Asteroseismology component of this mission. CAUPparticipates in the KASC Steering Committee(12 members representing NASA and the European institutes involved) and in the KASC working group structure with several Portuguese researchers being formal members of four Working Groups (1, 4, 5, 10) and in particular holding the following positions; Chair Working Group 5: roAp Stars Chair SubGroup 1.6: Fitting models to observed frequencies of Working Group 1: Solar-like p-mode oscillations Chair SubGroup 5.2: Stellar Modelling of Working Group 5: roAp stars The quality of the Kepler data and the large number of stars observed are expected to lead to a huge step forward in understanding of stellar evolution. During the first nine months in space, Kepler will survey more than 5000 stars for oscillations. Based on those measurements around 1100 stars will be followed for detailed studies throughout the full mission. Strategic projects - space missions (3) Projects First light: NGC6791
9/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets GAIA (ESA, 2011) Its goal is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented number of stars. CAUP is involved in the preparation of this mission, under the GAIA Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), within a consortium of Portuguese teams: CFC (UC), SIM&LOLS&CAAUL (UL), UNINOVA, CAUP&CICGE (UP) plus two companies (Critical & Sun PT). CAUP participates in the preparation of the pipeline for determining stellar parameters. Science Goals for Stars: The large sample of stars over different stellar type gathered by Gaia, will greatly extend our understanding of stellar structure and evolution and will allow further improvement of theoretical models of stellar interiors, for example in the areas of: the size of the convective cores, the internal diffusion of chemical elements, the outer convective zones Science Goals for Exoplanets: The results derived from Gaia will help to improve our understanding of planetary orbital parameters and the distribution of exoplanets over their mass. They provide important data to constrain theoretical models of the formation, migration, and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. Strategic projects - space missions (4) Projects
10/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets PLATO (ESA 2017/2018) The objective of this mission is to detect and characterize exoplanets and measure the seismic oscillations of the parent stars orbited by these planets in order to understand the properties of the exoplanetary systems. CAUP has been involved in the proposal for this new mission that has been submitted to the ESA Cosmic Vision call in From over 50 proposals, PLATO has passed to the Phase A of assessment for possible launch date in The next down- selection will be done by ESA in the end of beginning of There are tree payload concepts, compliant with the new science requirements for the primary stellar sample for both transit detection and astero-seismology. Strategic projects - space missions (5) Projects
11/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets ESPRESSO (ESO 2014) The EchelleSPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet- and Stable Spectroscopic Observations (ESPRESSO) is a new-generation spectrograph for ESO's VLT. ESO funds about 60% of the estimated costs, while the consortium of 4 countries covers about 40% of the cost. The consortium includes: Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland (PI). The amazing 'spectroscopic' precision of this instrument will provide the community with new scientific capabilities which are unique world- wide. Goal: 10 cm/s long term precision in radial-velocity To be mounted on the ESO VLT (2014) Currently in Phase A study (funded by ESO) In particular, the ESPRESSO Consortium will invest the Guaranteed-Time Observation (GTO), awarded in return to the major investment, into two major scientific programmes: Search for rocky extra-solar planets in the habitable zoneof solar-type stars Variability of physical constants: fine-structure constant and m p /m e Strategic projects - ground based facilities (1) Projects
12/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets ESPRESSO (ESO 2014) The Portuguese instrument contribution: Design and construction of Coudé train (opto-mechanics) o Bring light from the 4 VLT-UT telescopes to the Combined Coudé Laboratory. o It will allow astronomers to use 4 UTs at the same time (16-m telescope equivalent). Scientific software development and analysis Portuguese teams involved: CAUP (UP) &LOLS + SIM (UL) Nuno C. Santos (CAUP) is the Co-PI Major impact on future space projects: PLATO – need to have precise velocity measurements to confirm the detection and obtain the parameters of the system: planet + star Support future space missions aiming at studying the atmosphere of the exo-planets found near the habitable zone Strategic projects - ground based facilities (2) Projects
13/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets AsteroFLAG (ISSI) This working group is an international collaboration of asteroseismologistsfunded as an ISSI programme for securing a major effort, to position the European groups in this field, to make optimal use of the expected large quantities of data from space missions like CoRoT and Kepler. European Helio and Asteroseismology Network (HELAS) Helioseismology for the case of the Sun and asteroseismology for other stars, consists of the detailed analysis of the seismic waves observed at the stellar surfaces, which has become the prime technique probing the interior of stars during the past 30 years. HELAS was created and funded by the European Commission to prepare European scientists for the new exciting projects and space missions, delivering overwhelming amounts of data on these waves resonating in the Sun and the stars. Partners: 10 European institutes, including CAUP, with the participation of over 200 researchers. Strategic working groups and consortia Projects
14/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets The key objective is to address important issues on Galaxies and Evolution of the Universe to further the understanding of the formation and evolution of large-scale structures in the Universe. The activity is focused on two major topics of research: Physical Properties of Galaxies Physical properties of massive galaxies Galaxy cluster astrophysics Observational Probes of Dark Energy Structure formation paradigms Dynamical dark energy Varying fundamental constants This strategy reflects the outcome of A Science Vision for European Astronomy, published in 2007 under the auspices of ASTRONET, where two of the four main questions that were identified as those that merit most attention for the future development of Astronomy are directly related with these subjects of research: Do we understand the extremes of the Universe? How did the Universe begin? What is dark matter and dark energy? How do galaxies form and evolve? How did the structure of the cosmic web evolve? Where are most of the metals throughout cosmic time? How were galaxies assembled? Principal Investigator ( ) : Carlos J. A. P. Martins Scientific objectives Galaxies & Cosmo
15/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Instrumentation (space and ground) Observational Probes of Dark Energy Physical Properties of Galaxies and Clusters Origin and Evolution of Large Scale Structures Galaxies & Cosmology IXO (ESA, 2025) XMM-Newton* (ESA, 1999) HUBBLE (ESA & NASA, 1990) EUCLID* (ESA, 2018) ESPRESSO* (VLT ESO, 2014) PLANCK* (ESA, 2009) Galaxies & Cosmo
XMM-Newton Cluster Survey (XCS) The team is composed of nearly 30 researchers, including PhD students. Most are based in the UK, but there are members affiliated to institutions in the USA, Chile, South Africa and Portugal (CAUP). The main objective of this project is to assemble the largest catalogue of clusters of galaxies ever assembled through the detection of their X-ray emission. This will be achieved by searching for galaxy clusters in all images obtained by the ESA satellite XMM-Newton. The catalogue will be mainly used to constrain the large-scale properties of the Universe and the evolution with time of the characteristics of clusters of galaxies, the largest structures in the Universe.
1 arc min 512 kpc More than 6000 XMM-Newton images have already been searched for clusters of galaxies, with about 800 more expected to be analyzed each year until the end of operations of XMM- Newton, no sooner than Hundreds of thousands of sources have been identified, including a few thousand that are possibly clusters of galaxies. Among these, around 300 have already been confirmed by the optical identification of the associated galaxy over-density. Including the most distant known galaxy cluster, seen when the Universe had less than one third of its present age (published in Nature 2009):
Planck Surveyor: looking back to the dawn of time Project : ESA lead mission to observe the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation with unprecedented precision. Total Cost : about 700 million (1 / person in EU) Mission timeline : Launch: 14 May 2009 Operational orbit at L2: July 2009 Nominal science phase: end of August 2009 Planned mission lifetime: 18 months (+1 year ext.) Fundamental questions addressed in Cosmology and Astrophysics : what are the initial conditions for the evolution in the Universes structure? what is the nature and dynamics of dark energy? what is the nature and amount of dark matter?
Planck Surveyor: Portuguese participation and contributions Scientists in Consortium Science and Data structures: - Core Team and Data Processing Centre: Graça Rocha (IPAC/Caltech, USA); Luis Mendes (ESAC, Spain) - Planck Associate and Data Agreed: Antonio da Silva (CAUP, Portugal) - Planck Collaborator: Domingos Barbosa (IT, Portugal) ESAs Industrial Team: - Prime contractor: Thales Alenia Space (France) - Subcontractors from Portugal:
Planck Surveyor: Portuguese contribution at CAUP Present status (main axes of research): - Characterization of the Planck galaxy cluster population: - The Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster catalogue - Correlation with X-ray cluster catalogues - Detailed simulations of Clusters and Large Scale signal: - Galaxy Cluster intrinsic properties - Planck Sky Model hydro simulations of galaxy clusters and diffuse gas Future perspectives: - Planck Science Projects for paper production using proprietary data: Production and exploitation of the Planck cluster catalogue Studies of the diffuse and kinetic SZ signals Multi-wavelength cluster Science Cosmological constraints from the integrated Sachs-Wolf effect SZ X-ray PLANCK SKY MODEL - WG5 LSS Science Project: da Silva, Dolag, Rubiño-Martin 2008 CLUSTERS - WG5 LSS Science Project: da Silva et al 2006
Euclid: The ESA Mission to Map the Dark Universe Project : ESAs Cosmic Vision candidate, selected for assessment study. Euclid is designed to map the geometry of the dark Universe with unprecedented precision. It will measure the shape and spectra of galaxies over the entire extragalactic sky in the visible and Near Infrared (NIR), out to a look-back time of 10 billion years (z=2). Total Cost : about 650 million (present estimate) Mission timeline : Phase A study begun: end of 2007 Definition phase (if selected): end of 2009 Implementation phase: 2013 Launch: by 2017 Planned mission lifetime: years Main scientific goals: determining the evolution of dark energy; the nature of dark matter; the seeds and evolution of cosmic structure; and test the theory of general relativity.
Euclid: Perspectives for future Portuguese participation - Portugal was not part of the original DUNE and SPACE consortia that originated EUCLID - Since December 2008, Portugal has been invited by ESA to send observers to the Euclid Stakeholders meetings at ESTEC. -Following the participation of Portuguese observers, Patricia Castro (CENTRA) and Antonio da Silva (CAUP), informal contacts with the Euclid Imaging Consortium have been established. - A list of contacts involving a group of 20 researchers from CAUP, CENTRA-IST, CFP-IST, CFTP-IST and CAAUL have been put in place to study the possibility of a Portuguese participation in the Euclid mission.
23/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets The continued Portuguese participation in large European/International projects requires the community working in Astronomy in Portugal: To establish an active network of collaborations within Portugalin strategically important science topics in order to build national teams with critical mass. The growth in the number of researchers must continuefor critical mass to be reached in major fields within Astronomy or Astronomical instrumentation. To build the capacity to be full partners in future space missions (payload participation)and to provide the long term scientific backbone for the Portuguese participation in the development of astronomical instrumentation. Coordinate the implementation of a long term strategy around key international projects based on the Portuguese priorities for Astronomy and Instrumentation that should direct the long term national investment in this field and associated areas. To support and continue to expand the high level of internationalization already reached in this community. This has been driven by the Portuguese participation in ESO and ESA. The future Future
24/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets More news next year… Obrigado pelaatenção! Future
25/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets Core science topics and connections Star Formation and Early Evolution Planetary Systems Stellar Populations and Evolution of Stars How planetary systems form and evolve Characterization of stars hosting planets Pre-main sequence stellar evolution Stars & Planets The study of other stars and their planetary systems is the necessary step to understand our own star, the Sun, and the origin and evolution of our planet, the Earth. Stars & Planets
26/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets From clouds to young stars Our goal is to conduct unbiased, wide field, multi-wavelength observations of galactic molecular clouds and its young stellar objects (YSO) content in the embedded clusters (EC) and halo. Studies of the structure and dynamics of ECs and comparing observational results to the star formation simulations are our focus. Understanding the formation of massive stars is also a primary theme. We use infrared-mm observations and radiative transfer models to study candidate massive protostellar objects. The study of stellar multiplicity of very young stars (low-mass) are pursued with the goal of understanding how short period binary stars are formed. The team also studies star-disk interaction and trace the YSO evolution using multi-wavelength spectroscopy, evolutionary modelling, and correlation studies of the X-ray emission with stellar parameters and accretion tracers. Spectro-astrometric technique is used to derive magnetospheric properties and constrain disk size in YSOs. Collimated mass ejection is an ubiquitous phenomenon is astrophysics from gamma-ray bursts to young stellar jets. Where do jets originate? Are they stationary structures or intrinsically caused by instabilities? Our team focuses on these questions by studying jets in young stars where the jet angular size is larger. Several methods are used (MHD modelling, thermal and chemical modelling of the material and radiative transfer, high angular resolution observations). Star Formation and Early Evolution Funding ResultsCooperationCAUPStars & Planets
27/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets From clouds to stars with planets Extra-solar planet research primarily focus on the detection and characterization of planets orbiting solar-type stars. We currently have privileged access to top-class facilities, like HARPS (ESO), and we are active member in other state-of-the-art planet search surveys using radial-velocities and the photometric transit method. We give particular emphasis to the detection of very low-mass (Earth- or Neptune-like) planets, and to the study of the physical properties of planet-host stars (mass, age, chemical abundances). We also study the global properties of the discovered systems and compare these with the model predictions. Such studies have implications for the models of planet formation and evolution. Other synergies within the team are exploited by studies of the effect of pulsations and activity for the detection of very low mass planets. Finally, a scientific effort is also done to actively participate in consortia of currently planned space missions from ESA, like PLATO, which passed the first selection of candidate missions for the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015, and DARWIN, in the long term. A participation in ground based instrumentation from ESO is also in progress (e.g. the ESPRESSO and CODEX spectrographs, currently planned for the VLT and European Extremely Large Telescope ELT, respectively). Planetary Systems Stars & Planets
28/24 ProjectsGalaxies& CosmoProjectsCAUPStars & Planets From young stars to old stars One important goal is to understand the details of the structure and evolution of stars of low and intermediate masses. To pursue this goal, the team explores a technique known as Asteroseismology, which is based on the study of stellar oscillations. These activities are supported by the team's participation in the French-led mission CoRoT, launched in December 2006, in the KeplerAsteroseismic Science Consortium for the NASA mission, Kepler, launched in March 2009, and the participation in a consortium for the ESA mission PLATO, currently under study. Simultaneously, the team dedicates part of its efforts to the determination of the global properties of stars, through the analysis of spectroscopic and interferometric data, mostly obtained from ESO telescopes. This component of the research is strengthen by the team's participation in the data processing and analysis Consortium (DPAC), established under the preparation of the GAIA mission (ESA). Finally, the team studies the chemical composition, magnetism, rotation and chromospheric activity of field and cluster stars, by means of high- resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry, which are key to stellar modelling and dating of stars. Isotopic and elemental abundances in different populations (disk, halo, bulge) using 8-10 m telescopes (ESO, Keck, Gemini), constrain Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the evolution of our Galaxy. Stellar Populations and Evolution of Stars Stars & Planets
Planck will address a number of fundamental questions in Cosmology and Astrophysics: what are the initial conditions for the evolution in the Universes structure? what is the nature and dynamics of dark energy? what is the nature and amount of dark matter? Specific investigations to take place: The determination of the Universes fundamental characteristics, eg,: - space geometry, - mater-energy densities, - Age, expansion rate, etc Test of whether the Universe experienced an inflationary phase and search for primordial gravitational waves. The search for topological defects in space, e.g. cosmic strings The first all-sky survey of galaxy cluster, filaments and voids at CMB frequencies The study of our and other galaxies emission in the microwave Planck Surveyor: Scientific Objectives
Main scientific goals: determining the evolution of dark energy; the nature of dark matter; the seeds and evolution of cosmic structure; and test the theory of general relativity. Cosmological probes: Primary: Weak Lensing (WL); Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). Secondary: Galaxy Clusters; Galaxy clustering; Redshift space distortion; Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect Present Status: Phase A studies are undergoing. Present structure is organized into two consortia dedicated to: Imaging: Euclid Imaging Channels (EIC) – PI AlexandreRefregier (CEA Saclay) Infrared Spectroscopy: Euclid Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (ENIS) – PI Andrea Cimatti (U. Bologna) Euclid: Scientific Objectives and Present Status WEAK LENSING MAP by the Euclid consortium members BARYONIC ACOUSTIC OSCILATIONS – taken from Euclid presentation at the Astronet symposium, Liverpool, 2008