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Third European Space Weather Week, 13-17 November 2006 Page 1 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Third European Space Weather Week, 13-17 November 2006 Page 1 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 1 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies ESAs Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESA/ESTEC

2 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 2 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies What they are: Technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful mission concepts, that are not part of the ESA science programme Aim: Strategic focus on critical technology development needs for potential future science missions (e.g. from Cosmic Vision) How: Design feasible and consistent mission profiles Output: Identify critical technologies to enable new science missions Establish roadmap for mid-term technology developments SCI-A Technology Reference Studies

3 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 3 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Key objective for solar system exploration: Establish affordable mission concepts TRS design philosophy Cost-efficiency is achieved by: Medium-sized launch vehicle – Soyuz-Fregat Use of low resource spacecraft – typically ~200 kg (dry mass) Highly miniaturized, highly integrated payload and avionics suites When available proven, off the shelf, technology is baselined Identify promising and innovative technology that reduce resources Technology Development: typically within 5 years technically realistic assumptions

4 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 4 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Venus Entry Probe Aerobot technology Microprobes Deimos Sample Return & Near Earth-Asteroid Sample collection/investigation from a low gravity body Direct Earth re-entry Cross-scale Multi-spacecraft constellation Low resource spinners Europa Minisat Explorer & Jupiter System Explorer Extreme radiation environment Use of solar power at 5 AU from the sun Interstellar Heliopause Probe Extremely high delta-V (200 AU) Long lifetime Geosail Solar sail demonstrator Solar system studies overview

5 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 5 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Cross-Scale / Objectives Establish a feasible mission profile for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve non-linear coupling across multiple length scales All three processes: Are dynamical Involve complex 3-D structured interaction between different length scales (electrons, ions, MHD fluid) Can be investigated in near-Earth space (bowshock, current sheet, magnetosheath) The key universal space plasma processes are: ReconnectionShocksTurbulence

6 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 6 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Cross-Scale / Mission concept 8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat 1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km 4 on ion scale: 100 – 2,000 km 3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re (near equatorial) < 100 krad in 5 y Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee Dedicated transfer vehicle/dispenser system brings constellation to operational orbit Simple identical 130 kg spinners with ~30 kg P/L Individual data downlink Autonomous payload operation Baseline solution Cross-scale Technology Reference Study is work in progress

7 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 7 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Study of the Jovian System (1) 1 st study phase: Europa Exploration Europa Orbiter: 30 kg P/L, 200 km polar orbit 1.5 year tour of the Galilean moons In orbit life time ~ 60 days (limited by radiation and perturbations) TID: 1 Mrad (10 mm shield), 5 Mrad (4 mm shield) Relay sat: 15 kg P/L, 11 R j × 28 R j Jupiter orbit Equatorial Jupiter orbit achieved after 1.5 years Operational lifetime ~2 years TID: 1.5 Mrad (4 mm shield) 1 st study phase: Europa Exploration Europa Orbiter: 30 kg P/L, 200 km polar orbit 1.5 year tour of the Galilean moons In orbit life time ~ 60 days (limited by radiation and perturbations) TID: 1 Mrad (10 mm shield), 5 Mrad (4 mm shield) Relay sat: 15 kg P/L, 11 R j × 28 R j Jupiter orbit Equatorial Jupiter orbit achieved after 1.5 years Operational lifetime ~2 years TID: 1.5 Mrad (4 mm shield) Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1B All-chemical propulsion / solar powered S/C Transfer duration ~7 years Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1B All-chemical propulsion / solar powered S/C Transfer duration ~7 years Launch configuration Europa orbiter ONERA developed radiation model which combines: Salammbô (2004), Divine & Garrett (1983) and Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (2003) ONERA developed radiation model which combines: Salammbô (2004), Divine & Garrett (1983) and Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (2003)

8 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 8 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Study of the Jovian system (2) Magnetospheric orbiters: P/L: 40 kg, 40 W Equatorial orbit: 15 R j × 70 R j and/or 15 R j × 200 R j Operational lifetime: at least 2 years TID: < 1 Mrad (4 mm) (TBD) Magnetospheric orbiters: P/L: 40 kg, 40 W Equatorial orbit: 15 R j × 70 R j and/or 15 R j × 200 R j Operational lifetime: at least 2 years TID: < 1 Mrad (4 mm) (TBD) 2 nd study phase: extended Jovian System Exploration Magnetosphere: 1 – 2 dedicated spinning orbiter(s) Atmosphere: 1 atmospheric entry probe 2 nd study phase: extended Jovian System Exploration Magnetosphere: 1 – 2 dedicated spinning orbiter(s) Atmosphere: 1 atmospheric entry probe Krupp et al. (2004)

9 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 9 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies In-situ exploration of the outer heliosphere Interaction between heliosphere and local interstellar medium o Termination shock, heliopause, hydrogen wall o Plasma acceleration and heating processes Characterization of the local interstellar medium o Plasma and plasma dynamics o Neutral atoms o Galactic cosmic rays o Dust Interstellar Heliopause Probe /Objectives Mission concept for the exploration of the interface between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium From:

10 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 10 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Interstellar Heliopause Probe / Mission concept Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1b Solar sail propulsion system (245 × 245 m 2 ) Two solar photonic assist (closest approach 0.25 AU) Solar sail jettisoned at 5 AU Flight time to 200 AU: 26 years (1 mm/s 2 ) Radioisotopic power source (7 W/kg) Spacecraft design ItemMass (kg) Instruments 21 S/C182 Sail assembly249 Launch mass431 Demonstration of solar sail propulsion required

11 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 11 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Solar sail demonstration by GeoSail Sail size~40 × 40 m 2 Characteristic acceleration 0.1 mm 2 /s Sail assembly mass~85 kg Spacecraft mass~85 kg Launch with VEGA from Kourou Demonstration of solar sail propulsion Sail deployment Sail AOCS Sail jettison Plasma measurements at 23 R E throughout the year Rotate line of apses 1 / day GeoSail TRS: 11 x 23 Re Spacecraft design parameters GeoSail Technology Reference Study has recently started 1 deg/day

12 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 12 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Conclusion Sample of spacecraft technologies: Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval Technology Reference Studies are a tool for the identification of critical technologies: Cross-scale Spinning S/C with plasma physics instrumentation Jovian system study High radiation exposure tolerant systems (e.g. electronics, solar cells) Interstellar Heliopause Probe Solar sailing, radio-isotopic power generation, long lifetime systems Cluster II

13 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 13 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Questions?

14 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 14 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Backup-slides

15 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 15 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Cross-Scale / Orbit 8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat 1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km 4 on ion scale:100 – 2,000 km 3 – 4 on large scale:3,000 – 15,000 km Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee Cross scale TRS baseline orbit 4 x 25 Re Constellation passes through bowshock, magnetosheath and magnetotail Perigee 1.5 – 4 Re Apogee 25 Re Constellations optimized near apogee Range of constellation length scales is sampled at least once

16 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 16 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Tailbox Definition Q is 10 Re from the Earths centre in anti- sunward direction along the equatorial plane P (tailbox centre) is at 30 Re from the Earths centre with line Q-P parallel to the ecliptic plane The tailbox is defined as a rectangular box parallel to the ecliptic plane: 25 Re along Q-P line, extending 5 Re tailward of P 4 Re orthogonal to the ecliptic plane (+/-2 Re from the tailbox centre P) 10 Re parallel to the dawn-dusk terminater (+/-5 Re from the centre P)

17 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 17 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Jupiter radiation belt models Divine & Garrett (1983) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) : – empirical model based on Pioneer & Voyager in situ measurements, observations from Earth, theoretical formula – with a good coverage in both space and energy – …but based on a restricted set of quite old data : empirical pitch-angle dependence and magnetic field model far from reality GIRE -Galileo Interim Radiation Electron- (2003) from JPL : – update of D&G thanks to Galileo measurements – only concern electrons from 8 to 16Rj Salammbô-3D (2004) from ONERA : – physical model derived from the Salammbô-3D code widely used for Earth – global model with a coverage in space limited to 6-9Rj A. Sicard and S. Bourdarie, Physical Electron Belt Model from Jupiter's surface to the orbit of Europa, JGR, V109, February 2004.

18 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 18 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Jupiter radiation models / spatial coverage Electron Proton Salammbô 8 GIRE Salammbô D&G 83 D&G in 83 D&G out 83 Spatial coverage L

19 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 19 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Jupiter radiation models / energy coverage MeV Electron Salammbô GIRE D&G in and out 83 Energy coverage Proton Salammbô D&G 83

20 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 20 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies JME – Radiation Concerns For Jupiter and Jovian Moons Radiation environment requires: European Rad-Hard component program (electronics, solar cells also materials) Ganymede = somewhat relaxed, but still very harsh ! Outer Planets Program Yes or No? Yes develop European RTG technology no specific high radiation solar cell LILT development No high radiation solar cell LILT development JEO Radiation

21 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 21 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Jupiter challenges The Jupiter Explorer TRS addresses several challenges: Development of low resource minisats Surviving deep space as well as Jupiters extreme radiation environment: Radiation hardened components ( 1 Mrad) + radiation shielding Radiation hardened components ( 1 Mrad) + radiation shielding Radiation optimised solar cells, totally new development required Radiation optimised solar cells, totally new development required Development of highly integrated systems (especially low resource radar) Maximise the use of solar power, even at ~5 AU from Sun Low power deep space communication Planetary protection compatible systems LOW COST vs. investments in new developments

22 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 22 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Terrestrial Planet Astrometric Surveyor Near Infrared Terrestrial Planet Interferometer From exo-planets to biomarkers From exo-planets to biomarkers Looking for life beyond the solar system Looking for life beyond the solar system Life & habitability in the solar system Life & habitability in the solar system From dust and gas to stars and planets From dust and gas to stars and planets What are the conditions for life & planetary formation ? Solar-Polar Orbiter (Solar Sailor) Cross-scale Helio-pause Probe (Solar Sailor) Near Earth Asteroid sample & return Far Infrared Interferometer Jupiter Magnetospheric Explorer (JEP) Jovian In-situ Planetary Observer (JEP) Mars In-situ Programme (Rovers & sub-surface) Europa Orbiting Surveyor (JEP) The Giant Planets and their environment The Giant Planets and their environment Asteroids and small bodies Asteroids and small bodies From the sun to the edge of the solar system From the sun to the edge of the solar system How does the Solar System work ? How does the Solar System work ? Mars sample and return Terrestrial-Planet Spectroscopic Observer Kuiper belt Explorer 1 2 Cosmic Vision Themes 1 & 2 (solar system themes) TRS

23 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 23 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Cosmic vision themes 3 & 4 (fundamental physics and astrophysics)

24 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 24 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies TRS Studies Venus Entry Probe SF-2B launch Entry-Probe with Aerobot (floating ~55 km) Atmospheric MicroProbes (15) Atmospheric Orbiter Deimos Sample Return SF-2B launch 1 kg surface material direct Earth re-entry DSR Near Earth Asteroid - SR SF-2B Sample return with direct Earth re-entry potential surface & remote sensing investigations NEA-SR heritage

25 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 25 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies TRS Studies – Solar Sailing Solar Polar Orbiter Solar Sail 0.48 AU (3:1 resonance) Max inclination 83° 5 year cruise time ~40 kg P/L mass GeoSail Solar Sail demonstrator 40 x 40 m2 Sail Size Rotate line of apsides 1º / day Small S/C and Technology P/L IHP Interstellar Heliopause Probe SF-2B launch solar sail based (60.000m2) 200 AU in 25 year RTG based GeoSail SPO

26 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 26 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Other Technology Reference Studies Gamma-ray lens Evolving violent universe 500 m focal length Gamma-ray focussing optics Formation flying Wide Field Imager Expanding universe/Dark energy Soyuz-Fregat to L2 2m telescope with 1° FOV Light weight optical mirrors

27 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 27 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Status / Overview Venus Entry Probe (VEP) finished Deimos Sample Return (DSR) finished Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME) finished Jupiter Entry Probe (JEP) finished Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) finished Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) on-going Cross Scale (CS) on-going Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return on-going Solar Sail Demonstrator (GeoSail) on-going Solar Polar Orbiter sail GNC under study Sci-AP TRS status as of 10 November 2006

28 Third European Space Weather Week, November 2006 Page 28 Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESAs Technology Reference Studies Microprobes Localization and Communication (QinetiQ) - running High Speed Impact (Vorticity) – finished (2006) 2 System studies (ESYS and TTI) – finished (2004) Entry: Jupiter Entry numerical simulation (ESIL) - running Venus Entry and MicroProbes (ESIL) – finished (2004) Jupiter Entry Probe (ESA-CDF, Oct 2005) – finished (2005) Instrumentation Technology: Jupiter Ground Penetrating Radar (ESA-CDF, Jun 2005) – finished Advanced Radar Processing (GSP2006) – running Miniaturization of Radars (SEA) – finished (2005) Planetary Radar - running Payload Definition for (IHP, DSR, VEP, JME) – finished Highly Integrated P/L suites Engineering Plan – finished (2005) Highly Integrated P/L suites Detailed Design – under negotiation 3 axis Fluxgate Magnetometer ASIC – running Ground Penetrating Radar YAGI Antenna (TRP) – under approval TRS Technologies / Summary Spacecraft Technology: Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval Solar Sail GNC (ESA internal study) – running Solar Sailing Trajectories (Univ. of Glasgow, McInnes) – finished 04 Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval Touch-and-Go sample mechanism (GSTP06) – under preparation (?) In-situ P/L: Nano-Rover + Geochemistry P/L (VHS) Mole + HP3 (Galileo, DLR) LMS ATR Melting Probes OSL – surface dating


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