Presentation on theme: "Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA"— Presentation transcript:
1Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA Culture and Personality Processes: Conceptual and Methodological IssuesVeronica Benet-MartinezUniversity of California at Riverside, USAUniversitat Rovira i VirgiliMarch 23-25, 2010
2DAY 3Biculturalism: Dynamic Interplay of Cultural Identity, Language, and Personality*Required Readings:Nguyen, A.M, & Benet-Martínez, V. (2007). Biculturalism unpacked: Components, individual differences, measurement, and outcomes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1,Benet-Martínez, V., & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural Identity Integration (BII): Components and socio-personality antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73,
3Biculturalism: The Dynamic Interplay of Cultural Identity, Language, and Personality
4WHO IS BICULTURAL/MULTICULTURAL: Any individual who has been exposed to and internalized two or more sets of cultural systems (e.g., beliefs, values, behaviors, languages)ImmigrantsEthnic minoritiesRefugeesSojournersIndigenous/colonized peoplePeople in cross-cultural relationshipsPeople multi(lingual/cultural) nationsBROADLY speaking, a bicultural is …..-traditionally, biculturalism is understood in terms of immigrants and ethnic minorities but biculturals can also be ….
5OUR INCLUSION CRITERIA: Individual who: Self-identifies as ‘bicultural’Has lived 5 or more years in each culture (for non-US born)Has moderate-high identification with each cultureHas moderate-high linguistic proficiency in each languageMore narrow definition
6SO here are the main 3 questions we try to answer in the bicultural lab at UCR
7Why study biculturalism. 2002 U. S Why study biculturalism? 2002 U.S. Census: 56 million immigrants and their children (20% population) Globalization: Culture no longer bound to geopolitical boundaries Biculturals: Perfect quasi-experimental design to manipulate culture and observe its effects on behavior=Why study biculturalism:-given the Census data: accordingly 20% Americans (1/5) have been exposed to and identify with at leas one other culture in addition to US culture. Not including 3-4 gener. many of whom also identify with a second culture. Feb 2005: foreign-born population = 35 millions-Globalization: with the speed of travel and communication and media, cultural exposure is not longer bound to partic. geographical or geopolitical boundaries-Third methodological reason: biculurals, by virtue of having two cultures, allow researchers to manipulate culture to see its effects on behavior
8BICULTURALISM surrounds us … in popular media and the artsBiculturalism (or multiculturalism) certainly seems to be EVERYWHERE and is represented in-popular media with movies like X and TV shows like X-the arts (3 different artists portraying the duality of their cultural background)
9BICULTURALISM-popular literature like the book X (wonderful book)-cultural studies… in both popular and academic (i.e., cultural studies) literatures
10BICULTURALISM … in leadership Biculturalism is starting to be represented EVEN in leadership .. bicultural/biracial individual (BARAK OBAMA) is the presidentThe son of a Kenyan and an American, he studied the Quran in his youth and as an adult he was baptized.[Africa, Hawaii, Indonesia; African dad, Midwestern mom]… in leadership
11Why are bicultural individuals excluded in most traditional cross-cultural work? Field’s emphasis on documenting cultural differences (vs. processes) by comparing mono-cultural samples Traditional (static, trait-like) definitions of culture and acculturation (culture as a chronic, uniform and domain-general worldview) vs. dynamic constructivist approach (culture as an organized set of schemas; Hong et al., 2000).=As I mentioned earlier, biculturals have been traditionally texcluded from most cultural work for 2 reasons:-emphasis on identifiying cultural differences which calls for monocultural designs where diffs are maximized-reliance on definition of culture like a trait (e.g., someone cannot be both high and low on individualism or extraversion) vs. constructivist approach proposed by Hong where culture is composed of somewhat discrete tools or schemas that the bicultural individual can choose from or combine in partic. ways
12SOCIO-COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CULTURE à Culture as shared meaning-systems: sets of ideas, values, beliefs, emotions organized in associative networks, schemas, and implicit theories à domain-specificity of schemas: Culture as a “toolkit” à Individuals can posses more than one cultural meaning-system à Culture guides behavior only when the relevant meaning systems are cognitively available, accessible, and applicable. (Higgins, 1996)
13EXAMPLE: BICULTURAL CHINESE-AMERICAN Chinese-American bicultural individuals have both Chinese and American cultural schemas available.The Chinese (American) cultural cues will heighten the accessibility of the Chinese (American) cultural schema.Subsequently, these individuals will apply the more accessible cultural schema if the the schema is applicable to the task at hand.
14Consequences of biculturalism? [impact] OUR MAIN QUESTIONS :How do individuals who have internalized more than one culture navigate between their different and (often opposing) cultural orientations? [dynamics]How are biculturals’ two identities organized? [structure + indiv. differences]Consequences of biculturalism? [impact]SO here are the main 3 questions we try to answer in the bicultural lab at UCR
151. BICULTURALISM: DYNAMICS So how do biculturals navigate through their two cultural worlds?
161. BICULTURALISM: DYNAMICS Cultural Frame-Switching (CFS) in Biculturals Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martinez (2000). American Psychologist Biculturals have two sets of cultural schemas Biculturals navigate through their cultural worlds by switching between different cultural interpretive frames (e.g., cognitive, affective and motivational schemas) in response to cultural cues=The first attempt at modeling the processes involved in bicultural identity is conducted by Hong and colleagues-they showed that biculturals indeed have 2 sets of cultural schemas or lenses-they can switch between different cultural lenses in response to appropriate cultural cues in the context
17Cultural Frame-Switching (CFS) Biculturals navigate through their cultural worlds by switching between different cultural interpretive frames or meaning systems (e.g., cognitive, affective and motivational schemas) in response to cultural cuesTo explain how biculturals navigate through their two different cultural words we proposed the construct of CFS-i.e. biculturals switch between different cultural interpretive frames or lenses in response to the appropriate cultural cues in the contextSo when placed in an ambiguos social event, the partic cultural cues of the situation will activate (consciously or unconsciously) the appropriate meaning system that in turn guides behavior and elicits culture-appropriate responsesHong, Morris, Chiu & Benet-Martinez (2000). Multicultural Minds. American PsychologistHong, Benet-Martinez, Chiu & Morris ( 2003). Boundaries of Cultural Influence. JCCP
19Cultural Frame-Switching in Biculturals: Evidence [Hong, Chiu, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2000; Hong, Benet-Martinez, Chiu & Morris, 2003] 4 studies, Chinese-American bicultural samples from Hong-Kong and US Manipulation: Activation of US or Chinese cultural meaning system by priming Dep. Variable: Strength of external-internal attributions (explanations given to an ambiguous social event) US/ANGLO PRIMES BEHAVIOR: CHINESE PRIMESSTRONGERINTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS(American-consistent behavior)WEAKERINTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS(Chinese-consistent behavior)
20AMERICAN & CHINESE CULTURAL ICONS (cover story 1: How people describe cultures)
27NEUTRAL CONDITIONgeometric figures or landscapes
28AFTER PICTURES: “WRITE AN ESSAY ABOUT CHINESE (AMERICAN) CULTURE” to ensure activation of their Chinese or American cultural meaning system (i.e., facilitate accessibility of cultural implicit theories)
29Attributional Task (ambiguous social event) =classic stimuli used by Morris, Ellsworth & others in Michigan (proximity to the great lakes)-ambigous=devoid of gender, cultural, racial cues; no particular situation or internal factors-unambigous= individual vs. group
331. BICULTURALISM: DYNAMICS CFS --SUMMARY: biculturals have multiple cultural meaning systems and can move between them in response to cultural cuesCFS boundary conditions: Hong, Benet-Martinez, Chiu & Morris (2003)
35INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES 2. BICULTURAL IDENTITY:STRUCTURE &INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCESThe second question we are interested on isHOW ARE BICULTURALS TWO IDENTITIES ORGANIZED ?INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES?
36“What does being bicultural mean to you?” “Being ‘bicultural’ makes me feel special and confused. Special because it adds to my identity: I enjoy my Mexican culture, I feel that it is rich in tradition, morality, and beauty; Confused because I have been in many situations where I feel being both cultures isn’t an option. My cultures have very different views on things like dating and marriage. I feel like you have to choose one or the other.”-- 19 year old 2nd generation Mexican-American“I feel extremely special and proud to be part of another culture…my life is enriched by both cultures and I’d probably be less of a person today if I were not Indian… I am an Indian-American, if I could be born again, I’d choose to be bicultural.”-- 21 year old 1st generation Indian-Americanquotes illustrate that biculturalism can be associated with feelings of pride, uniqueness, and a rich sense of community and history, while also bringing to mind identity confusion, dual expectations, and value clashes.EMERGING THEMES: pride, uniqueness, rich sense of community and history AND identity confusion, dual expectations, and value clashes.
37“Compatible” Cultural Identities “Oppositional” Cultural Identities BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATION (BII) JCCP: Benet-Martinez et al., 2002; JRP: Haritatos & Benet-Martinez, 2002; JP: Benet-Martinez & Haritatos, Degree of compatibility and fluidity (vs. conflict and dissociation) perceived between the ethnic and mainstream cultures“Compatible” Cultural IdentitiesUnconflicted identitiesCo-exist“I am both”“I am Mexican-American”Fluid view of culture(similarities, change, complementarity)Biculturalism as an asset (“it gives you a wider repertoire of behaviors”)“Oppositional” Cultural IdentitiesConflicting identitiesDissociation“I am just a Chinese in America”“maybe neither ?…”Essentialist view of culture (differences, static, polarization)Biculturalism as a challenge (“you have to choose?” “have to be hyper-vigilant as to how to behave”)-both types endorse Berry’s integration and are only moderately related (.0-.3) to length of stay in the USHIGH BII LOW BII
38BIIS-P: Oppositional vs. Compatible How well does the statement below describe your own experiences as a bicultural?“I am a bicultural who keeps American and Chinese cultures separate and feels conflicted about these two cultures. I am simply a Chinese who lives in America (vs. a Chinese-American), and I feel as someone who is caught between two cultures.”1 (definitely not true) to 8 (definitely true)
40-these two dimensions are independent: 4 types of biculturals -bicultural individual could perceive his/her ethnic and mainstream cultural orientations to be relatively dissociated but not feel that they clash with each other; or alternatively, subscribe to a combined or hyphenated identity but also feel that the two identities are somewhat conflictual-in the rest of my talk, when I use the term low BII I refer to being low on Blendedness or Harmony or both
41BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATION (BII) Degree of compatibility and overlap (vs. conflict and dissociation) perceived between one’s ethnic and mainstream cultural orientations2 COMPONENTS:Cultural Blendedness(overlap vs. compartmentalization)Cultural Harmony(compatibility vs. clash)After conducting an extensive literature review of the limited acculturation literature on bicultural identityand some qualitative studies where we asked biculturals to talk about their cognitive and affective associations with regard to the intersection of their two cultural identities-we proposed the construct of BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATIONB= cultural ids are perceived as hyphenated, blended vs. compartm and dissociatedH= ids are perceived as harmonious and compatible vs. clashing or conflictingBenet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005). Journal of Personality.Haritatos & Benet-Martinez (2002). Journal of Research in Personality
42BIIS-2 N = 1,052 biculturals (UC Riverside) 337 Latinos 511 Asian-American78 African-American105 European-American18 Native-American160 other*365 first generation, 587 second generation, 42 third generation, 45 fourth generation or beyond
43-these two dimensions are independent: 4 types of biculturals -bicultural individual could perceive his/her ethnic and mainstream cultural orientations to be relatively dissociated but not feel that they clash with each other; or alternatively, subscribe to a combined or hyphenated identity but also feel that the two identities are somewhat conflictual-in the rest of my talk, when I use the term low BII I refer to being low on Blendedness or Harmony or both
44BIIS-2: Two-Factor Model Harmony vs. ConflictParcel 1Parcel 2Parcel 3Parcel 4Blendedness vs. Compart.Parcel 5Parcel 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.42.351.37Parcel 7
45Measurement Invariance of BIIS-2 across Ethnic Groups Note. Asian American: N = 493. Latino: N = 280.
46Measurement Invariance of BIIS-2 across Generation Groups Note. First generation: N = 361. Second generation: N = 583.
47LOW BII: Predictors: External Acculturation Stressors (+linguistic, +interpersonal, +discrimination, +cultural isolation) Internal Personality traits (+Neuroticism, -Openness) Outcomes: * Anxiety & depression symptoms (+)=Our work suggest that variations in BII are driven by external factors (acculturation stress) and internal factors (personality)=Even after controlling for these antecedents, BII predicts adjustmentBenet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005). Journal of Personality.Haritatos & Benet-Martinez (2002). Journal of Research in PersonalityCheng, Benet-Martinez & Bond (in press). Journal of Personality
50N=94 2nd generation multi-ethnic biculturals The prior processes can be replicated with older generations and other ethnic groups.Aslo, why should we care about BII, do they predict some meaningful aspect of biculurals’ lives?=biculturals with high levels of cultural conflict report higher levels of anxiety and depression=but distance doesn’t affect SWB suggesting that conflict captures affective component of acculturation while distance (comportmentalization) captures a more perceptual one=BII mediates the relationship between acculturation stress and SWBCFI = .98, RMSEA = .049
52LOW BII: Predictors: External Acculturation Stressors (+linguistic, +interpersonal, +discrimination, +cultural isolation) Internal Personality traits (+Neuroticism, -Openness) Outcomes: * Anxiety & depression symptoms (+)=Our work suggest that variations in BII are driven by external factors (acculturation stress) and internal factors (personality)=Even after controlling for these antecedents, BII predicts adjustmentBenet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005). Journal of Personality.Haritatos & Benet-Martinez (2002). Journal of Research in PersonalityCheng, Benet-Martinez & Bond (2008). Journal of Personality
54Do variations in BII moderate biculturals’ cultural frame-switching Do variations in BII moderate biculturals’ cultural frame-switching? Yes! High BII (compatible identities): cultural cues culturally consistent behavior (assimilation) Low BII (oppositional identities): cultural cues culturally inconsistent behavior (contrast effect –ie., “cultural reactance”) Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee & Morris (2002)
552 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE AMERICAN PRIMESCHINESE PRIMESBIICompatiblevsOppossitionalIdentitiesSTRENGHT OF EXTERNAL &INTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONSNEUTRAL PRIMES(landscapes)Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee & Morris (2002). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psych.
56BIIS-P: Oppositional vs. Compatible How well does the statement below describe your own experiences as a bicultural?“I am a bicultural who keeps American and Chinese cultures separate and feels conflicted about these two cultures. I am simply a Chinese who lives in America (vs. a Chinese-American), and I feel as someone who is caught between two cultures.”1 (definitely not true) to 8 (definitely true)
57CULTURAL REACTANCE (low BIIs) vs. CULTURAL ASSIMILATION (high BIIs)
59These priming effects were not mediated by any acculturation variables (language, time in US, strength of Chinese and US identificat.) Neutral primes? (primes: landscapes) There were no significant attributional differences between low and hi BII why? moderator role of BII is specific to cultural meaning (vs. general reactance or resistance)
60Why contrast effect? (several possible motivational and/or cognitive arguments) Low BII = see 2 cultures as oppositional/hard to integrate; describe the 2 cultures as opposite poles of a continuum Polarization of cultural meaning systems in low BIIs leads to post-priming spread of activation to the ‘other’ culture (e.g., seeing US primes -> thinking about China)
61SUMMARY: cultural frame-switching is moderated by the compatibility vs. opposition perceived between the two cultural orientations, or Bicultural Identity Integration (BII).High BII (compatible identities): cultural cues culturally ‘appropriate’ behavior Low BII (oppositional identities): cultural cues culturally ‘inconsistent’ behavior (“cultural reactance”)
62Bicultural Identity Integration & Self/Group Personality Stereotypes biculturals with integrated cultural identities have social perceptions of themselves and their cultural in-groups that are closely alignedtogether, supporting social identity theory (self-stereotyping, self-projection) BLENDEDNESS OF COMPONENTMiramontez, Benet-Martínez & Nguyen (in press). Self & Identity
64Bicultural Identity Integration & Social Networks BII relates to having more host- culture friends (grey circles) and richer connections among themMok, Morris& Benet-Martínez (2007). Structures of Social Networks among First-Generation Biculturals. JCCP
653. BICULTURALISM: OUTCOMES What are the costs and benefits of biculturalism?
66Biculturalism & Adjustment: A Meta-Analysis Nguyen & Benet-Martinez (2008)40 studies (164 rs)Fixed-effects: participants as unit of analysisRandom-effects: studies as unit of analysis
67Biculturalism & Cognitive Complexity of Essaysthat biculturals, by virtue of their frequent experiences attending to, processing, and reacting to different cultural contexts, process socio-cultural information in more cognitively complex ways than monoculturals.--literatures: expertise, multi-tasking, self-relevant knowledgeBenet-Martínez, Lee & Leu (2006). Biculturalism & Cognitive Complexity. JCCP
68Bicultural ≈ FrogBICULTURALS can understand culture because they are both participants and observers of each culture (we can talk about ‘air’ and ‘water’) and these meta-cognitive skills translate to other domains (e.g., empathy, prespective taking, reduced prejudice, etc.)Traditional monoculturals can not talk in complex ways about their culture (like fish cannot talk about ‘water’ or we cannot talk about the ‘air’ we breath)
69CFS and BII in other cultural groups Espinoza, Benet-Martinez, & Zarate (in progress). Gringo y Mexicano? Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) and cultural frame-switching in Mexican-American biculturals.
70BEING BICULTURAL/BILINGUAL = Moving /Being Pulled In Two Directions ? “How much is the parrot?” a woman asked. “Wow, ma’am,” uttered the owner, “this is a very expensive parrot, because he speaks both Spanish and English.” “Oh really? Can you get him to speak in both languages?” “Sure you can. Look, it’s quite simple: If you pull the left leg he speaks English.” And he pulled the parrot’s left leg. “Good morning,” said the bird. “And if you pull the right leg like this, he speaks Spanish.” And the parrot said: “Buenos Dias!” At which point the woman asked: “What happens if you pull both of his legs, will he speak Tex-Mex?” “Noooo,” answered the parrot. “I will fall on my ass !!”(Mexican American folk tale)=This vignete illustrates what some of my research findings suggest: that is, that being biculturals can be sometimes confusing and feel like being pulled in different directions