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Culture and Personality Processes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA Universitat.

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Presentation on theme: "Culture and Personality Processes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA Universitat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Culture and Personality Processes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues Veronica Benet-Martinez University of California at Riverside, USA Universitat Rovira i Virgili March 23-25, 2010

2 DAY 3 Biculturalism: Dynamic Interplay of Cultural Identity, Language, and Personality *Required Readings: Nguyen, A.M, & Benet-Martínez, V. (2007). Biculturalism unpacked: Components, individual differences, measurement, and outcomes. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, Benet-Martínez, V., & Haritatos, J. (2005). Bicultural Identity Integration (BII): Components and socio-personality antecedents. Journal of Personality, 73,

3 Biculturalism: The Dynamic Interplay of Cultural Identity, Language, and Personality

4 WHO IS BICULTURAL/MULTICULTURAL: Any individual who has been exposed to and internalized two or more sets of cultural systems (e.g., beliefs, values, behaviors, languages) Immigrants Ethnic minorities Refugees Sojourners Indigenous/colonized people People in cross-cultural relationships People multi(lingual/cultural) nations

5 OUR INCLUSION CRITERIA: Individual who: Self-identifies as bicultural Has lived 5 or more years in each culture (for non-US born) Has moderate-high identification with each culture Has moderate-high linguistic proficiency in each language

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7 Why study biculturalism? 2002 U.S. Census: 56 million immigrants and their children (20% population) Globalization: Culture no longer bound to geopolitical boundaries Biculturals: Perfect quasi-experimental design to manipulate culture and observe its effects on behavior

8 BICULTURALISM surrounds us … in popular media and the arts

9 BICULTURALISM … in both popular and academic (i.e., cultural studies) literatures

10 BICULTURALISM … in leadership

11 Why are bicultural individuals excluded in most traditional cross-cultural work? Fields emphasis on documenting cultural differences (vs. processes) by comparing mono- cultural samples Traditional (static, trait-like) definitions of culture and acculturation (culture as a chronic, uniform and domain-general worldview) vs. dynamic constructivist approach (culture as an organized set of schemas; Hong et al., 2000).

12 SOCIO-COGNITIVE APPROACH TO CULTURE Culture as shared meaning-systems: sets of ideas, values, beliefs, emotions organized in associative networks, schemas, and implicit theories domain-specificity of schemas: Culture as a toolkit Individuals can posses more than one cultural meaning-system Culture guides behavior only when the relevant meaning systems are cognitively available, accessible, and applicable. (Higgins, 1996)

13 Chinese-American bicultural individuals have both Chinese and American cultural schemas available. The Chinese (American) cultural cues will heighten the accessibility of the Chinese (American) cultural schema. Subsequently, these individuals will apply the more accessible cultural schema if the the schema is applicable to the task at hand. EXAMPLE: BICULTURAL CHINESE-AMERICAN

14 OUR MAIN QUESTIONS : How do individuals who have internalized more than one culture navigate between their different and (often opposing) cultural orientations? [dynamics] How are biculturals two identities organized? [structure + indiv. differences] Consequences of biculturalism? [impact]

15 1. BICULTURALISM: DYNAMICS

16 Cultural Frame-Switching (CFS) in Biculturals Hong, Morris, Chiu, & Benet-Martinez (2000). American Psychologist Biculturals have two sets of cultural schemas Biculturals navigate through their cultural worlds by switching between different cultural interpretive frames (e.g., cognitive, affective and motivational schemas) in response to cultural cues 1. BICULTURALISM: DYNAMICS

17 Cultural Frame-Switching (CFS) Biculturals navigate through their cultural worlds by switching between different cultural interpretive frames or meaning systems (e.g., cognitive, affective and motivational schemas) in response to cultural cues Hong, Morris, Chiu & Benet-Martinez (2000). Multicultural Minds. American Psychologist Hong, Benet-Martinez, Chiu & Morris ( 2003). Boundaries of Cultural Influence. JCCP

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19 Cultural Frame-Switching in Biculturals: Evidence [Hong, Chiu, Morris, & Benet-Martinez, 2000; Hong, Benet-Martinez, Chiu & Morris, 2003] 4 studies, Chinese-American bicultural samples from Hong-Kong and US Manipulation: Activation of US or Chinese cultural meaning system by priming Dep. Variable: Strength of external-internal attributions (explanations given to an ambiguous social event) US/ANGLO PRIMES BEHAVIOR: CHINESE PRIMES STRONGER INTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS (American-consistent behavior) WEAKER INTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS (Chinese-consistent behavior)

20 AMERICAN & CHINESE CULTURAL ICONS (cover story 1: How people describe cultures)

21 CHINESE CONDITION

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24 AMERICAN CONDITION

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27 NEUTRAL CONDITION geometric figures or landscapes

28 AFTER PICTURES: WRITE AN ESSAY ABOUT CHINESE (AMERICAN) CULTURE to ensure activation of their Chinese or American cultural meaning system (i.e., facilitate accessibility of cultural implicit theories)

29 Attributional Task (ambiguous social event)

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31 INTERNAL EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS

32 RESULTS

33 CFS --SUMMARY: biculturals have multiple cultural meaning systems and can move between them in response to cultural cues 1. BICULTURALISM: DYNAMICS CFS boundary conditions: Hong, Benet-Martinez, Chiu & Morris (2003)

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35 2. BICULTURAL IDENTITY: STRUCTURE & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

36 What does being bicultural mean to you? Being bicultural makes me feel special and confused. Special because it adds to my identity: I enjoy my Mexican culture, I feel that it is rich in tradition, morality, and beauty; Confused because I have been in many situations where I feel being both cultures isnt an option. My cultures have very different views on things like dating and marriage. I feel like you have to choose one or the other year old 2 nd generation Mexican-American I feel extremely special and proud to be part of another culture…my life is enriched by both cultures and Id probably be less of a person today if I were not Indian… I am an Indian-American, if I could be born again, Id choose to be bicultural year old 1 st generation Indian-American EMERGING THEMES: pride, uniqueness, rich sense of community and history AND identity confusion, dual expectations, and value clashes.

37 BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATION (BII) JCCP: Benet-Martinez et al., 2002; JRP: Haritatos & Benet-Martinez, 2002; JP: Benet-Martinez & Haritatos, 2005 Degree of compatibility and fluidity (vs. conflict and dissociation) perceived between the ethnic and mainstream cultures Compatible Cultural Identities Unconflicted identities Co-exist –I am both –I am Mexican-American Fluid view of culture (similarities, change, complementarity) Biculturalism as an asset (it gives you a wider repertoire of behaviors ) Oppositional Cultural Identities Conflicting identities Dissociation –I am just a Chinese in America –maybe neither ?… Essentialist view of culture (differences, static, polarization) Biculturalism as a challenge (you have to choose? have to be hyper-vigilant as to how to behave) HIGH BII LOW BII

38 BIIS-P: Oppositional vs. Compatible How well does the statement below describe your own experiences as a bicultural? I am a bicultural who keeps American and Chinese cultures separate and feels conflicted about these two cultures. I am simply a Chinese who lives in America (vs. a Chinese-American), and I feel as someone who is caught between two cultures. 1 (definitely not true) to 8 (definitely true)

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41 BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATION (BII) Degree of compatibility and overlap (vs. conflict and dissociation) perceived between ones ethnic and mainstream cultural orientations 2 COMPONENTS: Cultural Blendedness (overlap vs. compartmentalization) Cultural Harmony (compatibility vs. clash) Benet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005). Journal of Personality. Haritatos & Benet-Martinez (2002). Journal of Research in Personality

42 BIIS-2 N = 1,052 biculturals (UC Riverside) 337 Latinos 511 Asian-American 78 African-American 105 European-American 18 Native-American 160 other *365 first generation, 587 second generation, 42 third generation, 45 fourth generation or beyond

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44 Harmony vs. Conflict Parcel 1Parcel 2Parcel 3Parcel 4 Blendedness vs. Compart. Parcel 5Parcel Parcel 7 BIIS-2: Two-Factor Model

45 Measurement Invariance of BIIS-2 across Ethnic Groups Note. Asian American: N = 493. Latino: N = 280.

46 Measurement Invariance of BIIS-2 across Generation Groups Note. First generation: N = 361. Second generation: N = 583.

47 LOW BII: Predictors: External Acculturation Stressors (+linguistic, +interpersonal, +discrimination, +cultural isolation) Internal Personality traits (+Neuroticism, -Openness) Outcomes: * Anxiety & depression symptoms (+) Benet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005). Journal of Personality. Haritatos & Benet-Martinez (2002). Journal of Research in Personality Cheng, Benet-Martinez & Bond (in press). Journal of Personality

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49 CFI =.99, RMSEA =.07

50 N=94 2 nd generation multi-ethnic biculturals CFI =.98, RMSEA =.049

51 Benet-Martinez, Haritatos, & Santana (under review)

52 LOW BII: Predictors: External Acculturation Stressors (+linguistic, +interpersonal, +discrimination, +cultural isolation) Internal Personality traits (+Neuroticism, -Openness) Outcomes: * Anxiety & depression symptoms (+) Benet-Martinez & Haritatos (2005). Journal of Personality. Haritatos & Benet-Martinez (2002). Journal of Research in Personality Cheng, Benet-Martinez & Bond (2008). Journal of Personality

53 2b. BICULTURAL IDENTITY INTEGRATION: PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES

54 Do variations in BII moderate biculturals cultural frame-switching? Yes! High BII (compatible identities): cultural cues culturally consistent behavior (assimilation) Low BII (oppositional identities): cultural cues culturally inconsistent behavior (contrast effect –ie., cultural reactance) Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee & Morris (2002)

55 STRENGHT OF EXTERNAL & INTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS AMERICAN PRIMES CHINESE PRIMES NEUTRAL PRIMES (landscapes) 2 INDEPENDENT VARIABLESDEPENDENT VARIABLE BII Compatible vs Oppossitional Identities Benet-Martinez, Leu, Lee & Morris (2002). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psych.

56 BIIS-P: Oppositional vs. Compatible How well does the statement below describe your own experiences as a bicultural? I am a bicultural who keeps American and Chinese cultures separate and feels conflicted about these two cultures. I am simply a Chinese who lives in America (vs. a Chinese-American), and I feel as someone who is caught between two cultures. 1 (definitely not true) to 8 (definitely true)

57 CULTURAL REACTANCE (low BIIs) vs. CULTURAL ASSIMILATION (high BIIs)

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59 These priming effects were not mediated by any acculturation variables (language, time in US, strength of Chinese and US identificat.) Neutral primes? (primes: landscapes) There were no significant attributional differences between low and hi BII why? moderator role of BII is specific to cultural meaning (vs. general reactance or resistance)

60 Why contrast effect? (several possible motivational and/or cognitive arguments) Low BII = see 2 cultures as oppositional/hard to integrate; describe the 2 cultures as opposite poles of a continuum Polarization of cultural meaning systems in low BIIs leads to post-priming spread of activation to the other culture (e.g., seeing US primes -> thinking about China)

61 SUMMARY: cultural frame-switching is moderated by the compatibility vs. opposition perceived between the two cultural orientations, or Bicultural Identity Integration (BII). High BII (compatible identities): cultural cues culturally appropriate behavior Low BII (oppositional identities): cultural cues culturally inconsistent behavior (cultural reactance)

62 Bicultural Identity Integration & Self/Group Personality Stereotypes Miramontez, Benet-Martínez & Nguyen (in press). Self & Identity

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64 Bicultural Identity Integration & Social Networks Mok, Morris& Benet-Martínez (2007). Structures of Social Networks among First- Generation Biculturals. JCCP BII relates to having more host- culture friends (grey circles) and richer connections among them

65 3. BICULTURALISM: OUTCOMES

66 Biculturalism & Adjustment: A Meta-Analysis Nguyen & Benet-Martinez (2008) 40 studies (164 rs) Fixed-effects: participants as unit of analysis Random-effects: studies as unit of analysis

67 Biculturalism & Cognitive Complexity Benet-Martínez, Lee & Leu (2006). Biculturalism & Cognitive Complexity. JCCP Complexity of Essays

68 Bicultural Frog

69 CFS and BII in other cultural groups Espinoza, Benet-Martinez, & Zarate (in progress). Gringo y Mexicano? Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) and cultural frame-switching in Mexican-American biculturals.

70 BEING BICULTURAL/BILINGUAL = Moving /Being Pulled In Two Directions ? How much is the parrot? a woman asked. Wow, maam, uttered the owner, this is a very expensive parrot, because he speaks both Spanish and English. Oh really? Can you get him to speak in both languages? Sure you can. Look, its quite simple: If you pull the left leg he speaks English. And he pulled the parrots left leg. Good morning, said the bird. And if you pull the right leg like this, he speaks Spanish. And the parrot said: Buenos Dias! At which point the woman asked: What happens if you pull both of his legs, will he speak Tex-Mex? Noooo, answered the parrot. I will fall on my ass !! (Mexican American folk tale)

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