Presentation on theme: "Final Review – part 1 The Fourth Dimension Please focus on topics in mentioned in this review. There will be approximately 25 questions on the Fourth Dimension."— Presentation transcript:
Final Review – part 1 The Fourth Dimension Please focus on topics in mentioned in this review. There will be approximately 25 questions on the Fourth Dimension (mult.choice/T-F). It would be to your benefit to use assignment 4 as a study guide!! We want all of you to be prepared for the exam but DO NOT OVER-STUDY.
Final Exam Review – Environments of Rock Formation Igneous Rocks In a Lava flow http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/crystallization_rollover/c rystallization_rollover.html In a magma chamber http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/volc_rollover/volc_rollov era.html --When will you have finer grains rocks vs. coarser grain igneous rock? --How do rocks behave when heated in comparison when they are cold? --Difference between vesicular and non-vesicular and where are they found?
Final Review--Environments of Rock Formation Understand the process sedimentary rocks undergo in a salt water lake environment http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/rocks_origin_intergrow th.html http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/salt_solution_rollover/s alt_solution_rollover.html Understand the process igneous rocks undergo in a magma chamber and lava flow http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/crystallization_rollover/cry stallization_rollover.html http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/volc_rollover/volc_rollover a.html Understand the process metamorphic rocks undergo when heat and pressure are applied http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/meta_rollover/m eta_rollover.html
Final Exam Review -- Mineral Assemblages You will be responsible to determine percentages of minerals using the mineral Assemblage Chart (a). Chart (b) is an example of how to read the mineral assemblage chart. See link for specific details. (a) (b) MineralFromToLength Calcium rich feldspar 0%20% Pyroxene20%38%18% Olivine38%100%62% TOTAL100% http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/cor e/topics/rocks/rock_comp_igneous.htm Example Question: Based on chart (b), a rock with composition Y contains how much feldspar? Ans. 20 %
Final Review--Determining Rock Origin --Look at the mineralogy of the rock: the minerals that the rock contains. --Look at the 'texture' of the rock: the sizes, shapes and arrangement of the grains. --Look at the 'structure' of the rock: larger scale features, such as layering or discontinuities. --Look at field relationships: the size and shape of the rock body and how it relates to other rock bodies. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/rock_orig in_determine.html
Final Review – Rock Texture Understand the differences in the texture of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. For example: If a geologist finds in the field a rock with poorly sorted grains with a clastic texture what class of rock would it belong too? Answer: sedimentary http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/rock_texture /rock_texture.html
Final Exam Review – Field Relationships Origin of Slaty Cleavage Ex. What can occur near the contact between an igneous intrusive body and sedimentary rock? Ex. What is the metamorphic equivalent of shale? http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/field_relationships/slaty _cleavage_origin.html Origin of Cross-Cutting Rock Bodies --review and have an understanding Igneous Origin --review and have an understanding http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/field_relationships/lava_ sill.html Metamorphic Origin --Review scenarios of plate tectonic examples and metamorphism http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/rocks/field_relationships/field _meta.html
Final Exam Review – Relative Age Know the definition and understand the differences between each of these concepts LAW OF SUPERPOSITION LAW OF LATERAL CONTINUTIY LAW OF CROSS-CUTTING RELATIONSHIPS LAW OF ORIGINAL HORIZONTALITY THE LAW OF BIOTAL SUCCESSION THE USE OF PRIMARY STRUCTURES --How could you determine the top side of a rock vs. the bottom side using primary structures? http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/time/froshlec8.html
DECIPHERING A SAMPLE OF EARTH HISTORY You will be given an example very similar to this and have to determine: --the sequence of events --appropriate law (ex. The relative age of Intrusion C and fault F-F can be determined by? Ans. Cross-cutting relationships.) --determine the age of a layer based on information given http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/time/froshlec10.ht ml
A supplement to Radiometric Dating When calculating the age of a rock using radiometric dating we can create a table to better see the incremental changes between the parent- daughter ratio. This is an explanation of the construction of the table presented from the website. On the exam you will be responsible to answer 4 questions in regards to radiometric dating by filling in blank portions of the chart. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/time/froshlec9.html
Radiometric Dating Follow this example: After careful analysis, a geochronologist determines that an unweathered, unmetamorphosed mineral sample contains 8 trillion atoms of the radioactive element U-235 and 504 trillion atoms of its decay product Pb-207. Half life of Uranium is 704 million years 1 st :Distinguish the parent from the daughter: Samples contains 8 trillion atoms of the Parent (radioactive element) U-235 Sample contains 504 trillion atoms of the daughter (decay product) Pb-207 2 nd Determine the parent/daughter ratio. Divide the number of daughter atoms over the number of parent atoms to get the following: 504/8= 63 So for every 1 parent atom we have 63 daughter atoms giving us a 1:63 ratio parent-daughter ratio. By creating the table we can figure out how my half-lives or years it take to get the 1:63 parent-daughter ratio.
Radiometric Dating Parent U-237Daughter Pb-207 Parent/ Daughter ratio Half lifeTime Elapsed 101:000 1/2 1:11704 1/43/41:321408 1/87/81:732112 1/1615/161:1542816 1/3231/321:3153520 1/6463/641:6364224 Line 1: The table always begins with 1 parent and 0 daughter giving you a 1:0 ratio. Line 2: Next take HALF of the parent from previous line (half of 1 is ½). The numerator will give you the parent portion of the ratio (which will always be 1). Line 2: Then to get the daughter portion complete the fraction to equal 1 ( ½ + ½ =1). The numerator of the daughter fraction will give you the second half of the parent-daughter ratio. Line 2: This means 1 half life has occurred. Line 2: Time Elapsed is increased by the years of the half life (in our case is 704 million years) Half life of Uranium is 704 million years Remember our goal is to get to this ratio
Radiometric Dating Parent U-235 Daughter Pb- 207 Parent/ Daughter ratio Half lifeTime Elapsed 101:000 1/2 1:11704 1/43/41:321408 1/87/81:732112 1/1615/161:1542816 1/3231/321:3153520 1/6463/641:6364224 Repeat the procedure described in the previous slide to complete the table until you have reached the ratio you determined in the initial question (1:63). Line 3: Parent= half of Line 2 (half of ½ = ¼) Line 3: Daughter = 1- ¼ = ¾ Line 3: Ratio= 1:3 Line 3: Add 1 to the previous half life (1+1=2) Line 3: Time Elapsed= 704+704=1408 The ratio 1:63 tell us that 6 half lives have passed corresponding to 4224 million years or 4.2 billion years. (Remember that a million has 6 places, and billions has 9).
Radiometric Dating 1 st Distinguish the parent from the daughter: Samples contains 7 trillion atoms of the Parent (radioactive element) C-14 Sample contains 105 trillion atoms of the daughter (decay product) N-17 2 nd Determine the parent/daughter ratio: Divide the number of daughter atoms over the number of parent atoms to get the following: 105/7=15 Parent-daughter ratio is 1:15 Now we work out a table until we reach the 1:15 ratio. Example 2: A piece of bone contains 7 trillion atoms of Carbon 14 and 105 trillion atoms of its decay product Nitrogen 14. Half life of Carbon is 5,730 years
Radiometric Dating Parent C- 14 Daughter N-14 Parent/ Daughter ratio Half lifeTime Elapsed 101:000 1/2 1:115730 1/43/41:3211460 1/87/81:7317190 1/1615/161:15422920 Following the procedure from the previous example you complete the table until you hit the parent-daughter ratio determined from your question (1:15) We then noticed that to have a ratio of 1:15 4 half lives had passed equivalent to 22,920 years, so the bone is more or less that age.