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THE GOLDEN RATIO AS A NEW FIELD OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE - THE PROPOSAL AND JUSTIFICATION Ilija TANACKOV, Jovan TEPIĆ University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 6, Novi Sad, Srbija Milan KOSTELAC University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, Zagreb, Croatia

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The basis of a natural logarithm, number “e”, so-called “Euler number” …. is a real, irrational and transcedental number. The first application of this number was derived by a Scottish mathematician John Napier of Merchiston (15501617) in his study Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio (1614).

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**The well known expression for the number “e”**

was discovered by the Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli, (1654–1705)

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**Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695)**

The first known use of the number “e” was in correspondence from Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716) Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) in 1690 and 1691 AD….

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The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler ( ) was the first who used the letter e as the constant of a natural logarithm in 1727 or 1728, and the first use of letter e in a publication was in Euler's Mechanica (1736) Euler’s work and authority, formed a standard that we consider today. The number e is one of the most significant numbers in modern mathematics.

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**NOTE: Without a modern (arabian) numerical system with decimal places!**

The golden section constant has incomparably richer history dating from ancient times, from Egypt to ancient Greece Parthenon, whose construction started in 447 BC, was designed in the golden section proportions. NOTE: Without a modern (arabian) numerical system with decimal places!

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**NOTE: 200 years after Parthenon**

Euclid (325–265 BC) gave the first recorded definition of the golden ratio: NOTE: 200 years after Parthenon The total length (a+b) is to the length of the longer segment a as the length of a is to the length of the shorter segment b. (a+b)/a = b/a

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Solving:

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Leonardo Pisano Bigollo Fibonacci (1170–1250) mentioned the famous numerical series with initial numbers 0 and 1: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, … 0+1=1 1+1=2 1+2=3 F(n) F(n1)F(n2). 2+3=5 3+5=8 5+8=13

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Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) first proves that the golden ratio is the limit of the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.

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Jacques Philippe Marie Binet (1786–1856), the French mathematician, established recurrence formulae for the sequence of Fibonacci numbers. Edouard Lucas (1842–1891), the French mathematician, gives the numerical sequence now known as the Fibonacci sequence, its present name. Also, Edouard Lucas established a special numerical sequence with initial numbers 2 i 1: 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 29, 47, 199, 521, 2207, 3571, 9349, ….

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**THE GOLDEN SECTION IN THE THEORY OF PROBABILITY**

… the number e has a dominant part in the theory of probability. exponential, Erlang’s, Logistic, Gamma, Gomperc’s, Veilbull’s, Pareto’s, etc….. Normal distribution in CLT….. Great role of number e The elementary function of distribution density of the number e is the exponential distribution, Application of Euclid’s definition of the golden section in the theory of probability is analogue to the following relations, according to Kolmogorov’s axiomatic of probability: (1) The complete system of the probability event 1 is the total value of the segement (a+b) (2) Probability P1 is the segment a (3) The complete probability (1P) is the segment b

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**The value of the constant c is:**

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**Relations of the defined integrals give the exponential equation:**

With the change the exponential equation changes into a square one with the solutions: With spetial properties

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**NEW CLASS OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS**

Hyperbolic functions were introduced in the 1760s independently by Vincenzo Riccati (1707–1775) Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728–1777).

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A great part of the hyperbolic functions was understood later when the Russian mathematician Nikolay Lobachevsky (1792–1856) discovered nonEuclidean geometry and the German mathematician Herman Minkovsky (1864–1909) gave a geometric interpretation of Einstein’s special theory of relativity.

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**The main part has the constant ln, **

The similarity between hyperbolic functions and Binet’s formulae for Fibonacci and Lucas numbers in the continuous domain was first noticed by Stakhov and Tkachenko in 1993, and Alexey Stakhov and Boris Rozin in 2005 gave a detailed explanation. Symetrical hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas functions are connected with classical hyperbolic functions by the following correlations: The main part has the constant ln, the same as with the probabilistic golden section.

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**THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CONSTANTS e AND ,**

The established relations between Fibonacci and Lucas numbers with hyperbolic functions, as well as the function of the golden section function in the probabilistic golden section of the elementary exponential distribution, intuitively leads us to the connection between these two significant constants. One of the possible relations is defined by this theorem. Theorem: For sufficiently large n and ch Lucas numbers in continuous domain, exponential relationship between consecutive ch Lucas numbers and the ratio of ch Lucas numbers with derivative of ch Lucas numbers provide natural number e.

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**First derivation of ch Lucas numbers in continuous domain is:**

Proof: in compliance with Binet’s, Stahov and Rozin formuale for ch Lucas numbers are obtained for even values First derivation of ch Lucas numbers in continuous domain is:

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**The ratio between derivation of ch Lucas numbers and ch Lucas numbers converges to 2ln:**

Now it is :

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Finding the logarithms of the left and right side of the previous expression results in obtaining their identity: Which proves the theorem

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**The expression has an extremely fast convergence**

The expression has an extremely fast convergence. The sixteenth member reaches the accuracy of 10 EXP (12), incomparably faster than the well known Bernoulli expression for the number e The established relations between the constants e and , shown in the new class of hyperbolic functions, in the probabilistic goldes section of the elementary exponential distribution and the conditions of ch Lucas numbers convergence, emphasize the possibility of the existence of a special class of Markovian processes related to .

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**NEW, NON PUBLISHED RESULTS**

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**GOLDEN RATIO IN MODERN SCIENCE**

The golden ratio constant, probably the oldest mathematical constant, has not been considered in recent mathematical history. Probably the reason is the wide usage of the Golden ratio in socalled “esoteric sciences”. There is a well known fact that the basic symbol of esoteric, the pentagram, is closely connected to the Golden ratio.

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**However, in modern science, an attitude towards the Golden ratio is changing very quickly.**

The Golden ratio has a revolutionary importance for development in modern science. In quantum mechanics, El Nashie is a follower of the Golden Ratio and shows in his works. El Nashie's theory will lead to Nobel Prize if experimentally verified. New theoretical and partially experimental results confirm the correctness of his theories.

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**After quantum, the golden ratio constant was established in chemical reactions**

DNA complied with the golden ratio after the atom compliance with the golden ratio, and it was also transferred to other complex biological structures

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The old observation of Charles Bonnet about phyllotaxis plants was confirmed, then it was expanded to others, nonphyllotaxis species of plants.

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2, 3, 5, 8 …. Fibonacci sequence

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A B A/B=1, … B A A/B=1, …

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CONCLUSION Markovian decision processes is the method of artificial intelligence which has been classified into the field of probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning. It is based on exponential distribution. The exact relation between the constants e and , which are shown, state the golden ratio phenomena as a special case of Markovian processes. The importance of the golden ratio constant has been proved from subatomic systems, over atoms and chemistry, genes, neurology and brain waves, plants, human body proportions, the Solar system, to the universe. In this domain there is inspiration for most methods of artificial inelligence, like Genetic algorithms and Genetic programming, Neural networks, gravitational search algorithm, etc. The golden ratio domain leads to the hypothesis that artificial intelligence methods are special analytical sectors of the golden ratio. In that way, the basis for the introduction of the phenomenon of the golden ratio in the area of artificial intelligence has been set.

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The improvement of the suggestion starts from the artificial intelligence definition, which is determined as a capability of an artificial system to simulate the functioning of human thinking at the level of perception, learning, memory, reasoning and problem solving. The concept of artificial intelligence, at the moment, does not have at its disposal models for emotions and ideas simulation, and their transfer between intelligent agents. Artificial intelligence has not achieved an anologue method for creativity yet, which is one of dominant characteristics of human intelligence. Creativity is, first of all, necessary for the adaptation in a new, not previously learnt system of events. Creativity, at the same time, is a human need which is especially expressed through art. The golden ratio constant has been declared as an aesthetic constant through architecture, since Parthenon, and as a constant of harmony, and according to Pitagora, harmony is in the basis of the universe. First important step is the introduction of the Golden Mean and Mathematics of Harmony into university education.

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