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Chapter 32 Geologic History Relative & Absolute Dating BFRB Pages 245-256.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 32 Geologic History Relative & Absolute Dating BFRB Pages 245-256."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 32 Geologic History Relative & Absolute Dating BFRB Pages

2 Whos got the TIME? -RELATIVE TIME - the order or sequence is known, but not the actual date of occurrence. –Example - the trilobite fossil is older than the dinosaur fossil ABSOLUTE TIME – the actual age of object –Example - the dinosaur fossil is 250 million years old

3 How geologists find the RELATIVE AGES of rocks using RELATIVE TIME

4 The DUH Laws The DUH Laws I.Law of SUPERPOSITION – sedimentary sequence will be OLDEST on BOTTOM and YOUNGEST ON TOP (if undisturbed) II.Law of Original Horizontality – rocks are usually deposited (laid down) flat and level (parallel to the Earths surface) III.Law of Folds and Tilts - the fold or tilt is younger than the rocks that were deposited horizontally. (the rocks were there first so they are older) IV.Law of Cross Cutting - a fault or igneous rock intrusion is younger than the rock layers it has broken or intruded upon. (cut across) V.Law of INCLUDED FRAGMENTS - pieces of rock found buried WITHIN another rock must be OLDER (formed first) ex conglomerate.

5 YOUNGESTOVEROLDEST IN OTHER WORDS, YOOOOO! I. LAW OF SUPERPOSITION

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7 II - Law of Original Horizontality III – Law of Folds and Tilts Sediments, such as those at the bottom of an ocean or lake, are usually deposited in flat layers. When geologists see sedimentary layers that arent horizontal, they know that the layers were deposited first, then tilted later.

8 STEP 1 STEP 2

9 IV Law of Cross Cutting Occurs when magma squeezes into or between layers of pre-existing rock OR… Layers of pre-existing rock are broken by a fault due to compressional or extensional forces

10 IV LAW OF CROSS-CUTTING BY IGNEOUS INTRUSIONS & FAULTS faults Igneous intrusions

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13 V. LAW OF INCLUDED FRAGMENTS

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15 UNCOMFORMITY A buried surface of erosion separating two rock masses Represents a gap in geologic time (because that layer was exposed to the atmosphere for an amount of time in order for the erosion to happen, then another layer came and buried it…)

16 ….a look at the Grand Canyon and 2 types of unconformities... 1 – ANGULAR UNCOFORMITY 2 - DISCONFORMITY

17 1 - Angular Unconformity An unconformity in which the beds below the unconformity dip at a different angle than the beds above it.

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19 2. DISCONFORMITY An unconformity in which the beds above the unconformity are parallel to the beds below the unconformity, though layers are missing.

20 SEQUENCE of events of the formation of an angular unconformity… 1.The lower sediments were deposited as horizontal layers in a body of water 2.These sediments were then raised above water level and tilted during a tectonic event (what type of boundary?) 3.Streams & other forces of erosion carved a nearly horizontal surface across the tilted beds

21 STEP 1 STEP 2

22 SEQUENCE of events… 4.The land surface subsided (or the water level raised), submerging the erosion surface 5.A new series of sediments deposited in horizontal layers on the erosion surface 6.The complicated sequence of tilted and horizontal rocks was again uplifted, exposing them to erosion and producing the outcrop we see today

23 STEP 3 STEPS 4-6

24 Practice – Describe the steps that formed this cross section.

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26 PLAY THE WHICH CAME FIRST GAME! 1). D or L? 2.) M or C? 3.) N or E? 4.) B or A? 5.) I or Q? 6.) Q or J? 7.) M or A?

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28 ABSOLUTE TIME

29 Measuring Absolute Time All methods of measuring absolute time must provide a specific date for that occurrence Tree rings can be used to mark the passing of each season and therefore obtain a numerical age (dendrochronology) –Tree rings can be used to date events up to 3000 years ago

30 Dendrochronology The dating of past events (climatic changes) through study of tree ring growth Discovered by A.E. Douglass from the University of Arizona, who noted that the wide rings of certain species of trees were produced during wet years and, inversely, narrow rings during dry seasons Each year a tree adds a layer of wood to its trunk thus creating the annual rings we see when viewing a cross section

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32 RADIOACTIVE DATING Radioactive elements decay at known, steady rate By comparing the amount of radioactive element that has decayed to the amount of decay product, an absolute age can be calculated –Compare the ratio of PARENT to DAUGTHER materials

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35 Understanding RADIOACTIVITY A radioactive element has an unstable nucleus Over time radiation is given off from the nucleus ( Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays) As the nucleus decays it becomes a different element –For example Carbon–14, a radioactive element, will change to the stable element Nitrogen-14

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37 HALF-LIFE (decay rate) A measure of the time required for half of a radioactive material (parent) to decay into a stable end product (daughter) The amount of time required for one half life is different for each element ESRT page 1 Example Carbon –14 requires 5700 years for half of its mass to decay into a stable product

38 VIF - THE PERIOD OF A HALF LIFE CAN NOT BE CHANGED BY CUTTING THE MATERIAL IN HALF OR BY HEATING OR BY EXTREME PRESSURES UNDER THE GROUND – thats why radioactive dating is so accurate for dating rocks!!!

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40 How does radiocarbon dating work? All plants and animals on Earth are made principally of carbon When an organism dies, the Carbon in begins to degrade into Nitrogen In the 1940s, scientists succeeded in finding out that it takes 5568 years for radiocarbon to disappear, or decay, from a sample of carbon from a dead plant or animal Radiocarbon dating is not accurately able to date anything older than ~50,000 years old because too much of the parent Carbon-14 has turned into the daughter Nitrogen 14 and the relative proportions of the 2 substances is too large to accurately measure.

41 Okay… so if we have 500g of C-14, In 1 half-life (5,700 years) well have __________ In 2 half-lives (__________years) __________ In 3 half lives (__________years) ____________ In 4 half-lives (__________years) ____________ In 5 half-lives (__________years) ____________ In 6 half-lives (__________years) ____________


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