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Published byMax Halton Modified over 4 years ago

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How do you know how old it is?

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Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

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Miocene-Pliocene scallops

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Paleocene Calcareous Nannoplankton

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Permo-Triassic Conodonts

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Cretaceous Bivalves

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Neogene Calcareous Nannoplankton

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http://www.priweb.org/ed/ICTHOL/timescale.htm

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Stratigraphic Concepts and Terminology LithostratigraphicGroup Formation Member Bed BiostratigraphicBiozones ChronostratigraphicRocksTime Erathem Era System Period Series Epoch Stage Age

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MesozoicCretaceousCenomanian PaleozoicDevonianGivetian CenozoicPaleoceneThanetian Using Index Fossils

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Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

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Radiometric Dating: the basic idea A product is detectable The rate of production of that product is known Product amount is 0 (or known) at age 0 of sample Product / Rate = Time –example:10g / 0.5g/yr = 20 years

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IsotopesIsotopes: elements with the same atomic number but different atomic mass (number of neutrons). Some isotopes unstable ( 40 K, 14 C; radioisotopes); others are stable ( 39 K, 41 K, 12 C, 13 C) Unstable isotopes (parent) decay to another stable or unstable isotope (daughter) Rate expressed as half-life -- time in which ½ of radioisotopes decay.

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Half Lives for Radioactive Elements Radioactive ParentStable DaughterHalf life Potassium 40 Argon 40 1.25 billion yrs Rubidium 87Strontium 8748.8 billion yrs Thorium 232Lead 20814 billion years Uranium 235Lead 207704 million years Uranium 238Lead 2064.47 billion years Carbon 14Nitrogen 145730 years

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Measuring decay in half-lives

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ParentDaughterHalf LifeDating Range _________________________________________________________________ Carbon-14Nitrogen-145730±300100-70,000 ________________________________________________________________________ Potassium-40Argon-40 Calcium-401.3 billion50,000-4.6 billion ________________________________________________________________________ Uranium-238 Lead-206 4.5 billion 10 million-4.6 billion Uranium-235 Lead-207710 million Uranium-232 Lead-20814 billion ________________________________________________________________________ Rubidium-87Strontium-8747 billion10 million-4.6 billion

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Minerals you can date Potassium 40 is found in: potassium feldspar (orthoclase) muscovite amphibole glauconite amphibole orthoclase muscovite glauconite

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Minerals you can date Uranium may be found in: zircon

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Combining Radiometric and Paleontological Dating

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Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

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http://www.priweb.org/ed/ICTHOL/timescale.htm

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Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

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Relative and absolute age dating of rocks. What is absolute age dating? The Principle of Superposition and rock correlation provide the relative ages.

Relative and absolute age dating of rocks. What is absolute age dating? The Principle of Superposition and rock correlation provide the relative ages.

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