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How do you know how old it is?. Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics.

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Presentation on theme: "How do you know how old it is?. Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 How do you know how old it is?

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3 Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

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5 Miocene-Pliocene scallops

6 Paleocene Calcareous Nannoplankton

7 Permo-Triassic Conodonts

8 Cretaceous Bivalves

9 Neogene Calcareous Nannoplankton

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14 Stratigraphic Concepts and Terminology LithostratigraphicGroup Formation Member Bed BiostratigraphicBiozones ChronostratigraphicRocksTime Erathem Era System Period Series Epoch Stage Age

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16 MesozoicCretaceousCenomanian PaleozoicDevonianGivetian CenozoicPaleoceneThanetian Using Index Fossils

17 Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

18 Radiometric Dating: the basic idea A product is detectable The rate of production of that product is known Product amount is 0 (or known) at age 0 of sample Product / Rate = Time –example:10g / 0.5g/yr = 20 years

19 IsotopesIsotopes: elements with the same atomic number but different atomic mass (number of neutrons). Some isotopes unstable ( 40 K, 14 C; radioisotopes); others are stable ( 39 K, 41 K, 12 C, 13 C) Unstable isotopes (parent) decay to another stable or unstable isotope (daughter) Rate expressed as half-life -- time in which ½ of radioisotopes decay.

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21 Half Lives for Radioactive Elements Radioactive ParentStable DaughterHalf life Potassium 40 Argon billion yrs Rubidium 87Strontium billion yrs Thorium 232Lead billion years Uranium 235Lead million years Uranium 238Lead billion years Carbon 14Nitrogen years

22 Measuring decay in half-lives

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24 ParentDaughterHalf LifeDating Range _________________________________________________________________ Carbon-14Nitrogen ± ,000 ________________________________________________________________________ Potassium-40Argon-40 Calcium billion50, billion ________________________________________________________________________ Uranium-238 Lead billion 10 million-4.6 billion Uranium-235 Lead million Uranium-232 Lead billion ________________________________________________________________________ Rubidium-87Strontium-8747 billion10 million-4.6 billion

25 Minerals you can date Potassium 40 is found in: potassium feldspar (orthoclase) muscovite amphibole glauconite amphibole orthoclase muscovite glauconite

26 Minerals you can date Uranium may be found in: zircon

27 Combining Radiometric and Paleontological Dating

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32 Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics

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34 Dating in Geology 1) Relative dating –a) Superposition –b) Correlation 2) Numerical (absolute) dating –radiometrics


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