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Interpersonal Communication Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si.

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Presentation on theme: "Interpersonal Communication Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interpersonal Communication Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si

2 Reciprocal message processing : when two or more individuals mutually take account of and adjust to one anothers verbal or non verbal behaviour Interpersonal communication = Reciprocal message processing

3 Interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication include a messages that occur between two, interdependent persons; IPC messages are offered to initiate, define, maintain, or further a relationship. Interpersonal communication is more than just saying a polite hello to the salesclerk in our favorite department store and then scurrying away never to be seen again. Instead, it refers both to the content and quality of messages relayed and the possibility of further relationship development

4 Relationship Relationship : Way of talking about friendship Specific May involve emotional or sexual intimacy General concept One to one social unit ; Ex : Parent and child, employer employee, doctor – patient, teacher – student etc

5 Interpersonal Communication from psychological perspective Related with : which is who you are and what you bring to the interaction. Your needs, desires, values, personality, etc., all form the psychological context (note : "You" here refers to both participants in the interaction.)

6 Principe of Interpersonal communication Source : Donnel King

7 Principe of Interpersonal Communication inescapableIrreversible ComplicatedContextual

8 We can't not communicate. Everything is communication – verbal or non verbal Remember a basic principle of communication in general: people are not mind readers. Another way to put this is: people judge you by your behavior, not your intent. inescapable

9 You can't really take back something once it has been said. A Russian proverb says, "Once a word goes out of your mouth, you can never swallow it again." irreversible

10 Theorists note that whenever we communicate there are really at least six "people" involved: 1) who you think you are; 2) who you think the other person is; 3) who you think the other person thinks you are; 4) who the other person thinks /she is; 5) who the other person thinks you are; and 6) who the other person thinks you think s/he is. Interpersonal communication is complicated

11 Psychological context, Relational context Situational context Environmental context Cultural context Interpersonal communication is contextual

12 which is who you are and what you bring to the interaction. Your needs, desires, values, personality, etc., all form the psychological context. ("You" here refers to both participants in the interaction.) Psychological context,, which concerns your reactions to the other person--the "mix." Relational context deals with the psychosocial "where" you are communicating. An interaction that takes place in a classroom will be very different from one that takes place in a bar. Situational context

13 deals with the physical "where" you are communicating. Furniture, location, noise level, temperature, season, time of day, all are examples of factors in the environmental context. Environmental context includes all the learned behaviors and rules that affect the interaction. If you come from a culture (foreign or within your own country) where it is considered rude to make long, direct eye contact, you will out of politeness avoid eye contact. If the other person comes from a culture where long, direct eye contact signals trustworthiness, then we have in the cultural context a basis for misunderstanding. Cultural context

14 Interpersonal Attraction Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si

15 What is attraction? anything that draws two or more people together characterized by affection, respect, liking, or love ("Interpersonal attraction," 2010).

16 major factors that influence interpersonal attraction Propinquity / Proximity Similarity Physical attractiveness Responsiveness and reciprocal liking CompetenceReward Stress (Low) self esteem Social isolation l-attraction-what-matters-first.html l-attraction-what-matters-first.html ;

17 Propinquity / proximity physical or psychological proximity between people Ex : people who works in a same division and same floor has a similarity in nature.

18 Propinquity / proximity The propinquity effect : the tendency for people to form friendships or romantic relationships with those whom they encounter often, forming a bond between subject and friend.

19 Types of propinquity Industry/Occupational Propinquity in which similar people working in the same field or job tend to be attracted to one another. Residential Propinquity, in which people living in the same area or within neighborhoods of each other tend to come together Acquaintance Propinquity, a form of proximity in existence when friends tend to have a special bond of interpersonal attraction. "virtual propinquity" to work on virtual relationships where people are connected virtually

20 Similarity People tend to choose and feel comfortable if life or stand around people who have similarity with them Value, attitude, beliefs, social class, religion, ideology etc –> depend on their preference

21 Physical attractiveness Its hard to explore.. sympathy PA stereotype : - People who has a physical attractiveness has a good/ better ability - Beautiful : more successful and happier - Tall and big = natural born leader - Berscheid, E., & Walster, E., Physical Attractiveness. In L. Berkowitz (ed., ) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Vol. 7, 1974. Exerpts

22 attractive children and adults are treated more favourably than unattractive children and adults (e.g. Langlois et al., 2000)

23 Similarity..(2) Theories which related with similarity Cognitive Consistency (Fritz Heider) Reinforcement and behaviourism (Bryne, 1971)

24 People prefer to be consistent because its easier to understand – safe Someone wanted to have a similarity with the people they like / adore to make cognitive consistency Teori Cognitive Consistency (Fritz Heider)

25 Atraction and similarity has a linear correlation. Basic perception : similarity = rewards ; different = awful/ bad idea Ex :Moslem sisterhood in other countries Reinforcement and behaviorism (Bryne, 1971)

26 Responsiveness and reciprocal liking we like those who are responsive to us and we like those who like us

27 Emotional Pressure (stress) People in stressful condition needs other people Anxiety producing situations -- emotional presure produce need of love/atention (Schachter, 1959) Ex : a stressful student need support from his/her friends sorority / sisterhood

28 (Low) self esteem People who have low self esteem tend to easier to accept affiliation ( such as : love, care, etc )

29 Social Isolation Human is a social creature When people has isolated, increasing the probability of like others The Gain-Loss Theory or model of interpersonal attraction is concerned with the effect that a sequence of positive, negative, or positive and negative evaluations about a person may have about that person's attraction to the person or persons making those evaluations. For example, when giving feedback to individuals on how they have performed on a task, is it better to start with what they have done well or what they need to improve? nrelationships/n237.xml

30 Competence Who is he / he? How is their competencies ? People tend to believe someone else who has competencies of what he said Ex = doctor – patient

31 rewards What did you get if you pay attention to somebody ? Positive or abandon negative feelings

32 Effect of Interpersonal Attraction toward interpersonal communication Rational and emotional judgment Perception of communicate effective ; communicator and communicate has a similar perception Communication effectiveness

33 Classification of Interpersonal Communication Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si

34 Dyadic and triadic relationship Task and social relationship Duration :Short and long term relationship Casual and intimate relationship Dating, love and marital relationship

35 Dyads = two person unit spouse, Triads = three person relationship six possibilities message process pairing A and B ; A and C ; B and C ; A+B with C ; A+C with B B ; B+C with A Dyadic and triadic relationship

36 Relationship based on Purpose of coordination action personally ------ social oriented goal Ex : teacher – student ; taxi driver – passenger Task and social relationship

37 Short term vs long term Low investment high investment Little history lengthy history Identities negotiableidentity fixed Duration :Short and long term relationship

38 Based on depth or intimacy level Acquantance --- casual relationship ---intimates Casual and intimate relationship

39 Dating, love and marital relationship

40 Relational Patterns Diyah Ayu Amalia Avina M.Si

41 Relational patterns Supportive and defensive climate Dependencies and Counter dependencies Progressive and regresive spirals Self – fulfilling and self- defeating Prophecies

42 Relational patterns The orientation of individuals within relationships and their patterns of communicating with one another create the climate of communication. Climates and individual behaviors can be characterized along a continuum from highly supportive and highly defensive. Supportive and defensive climate

43 Defensive Climate isthe climate in which conflict is managed is important. Dyads should avoid a defensive climate, which is characterized by these qualities: judging and criticizing other group members. Evaluation: imposing the will of one group member on the others. Control: using hidden agendas. Strategy: demonstrating indifference and lack of commitment. Neutrality: expressing dominance. Superiority: being rigid in ones willingness to listen to others. Certainty:

44 Supportive climate individuals should foster a supportive climate, marked by these traits: presenting ideas or opinions. Description: focusing attention on the task. Problem orientation: communicating openly and honestly. Spontaneity: understanding another persons thoughts. Empathy: asking for opinions. Equality: expressing a willingness to listen other the ideas of others. Provisionalism:

45 Relational patterns Dependency relationship = one of individual of relationship who is highly dependent on another for support, money, job, leadership, or guidance Ex : husband dependent on wife ; always agree Counter dependent in contrast -- disagrees Dependencies and Counter dependencies

46 Relational patterns In a spiral, one partners behavior intensifies that of the other. Progressive and regresive spirals Progressive : in which one partners behavior leads to increasing levels of satisfaction for the other. In progressive spirals, the reciprocal messages processing if the interactions leads lo a sense of positivenessin the expriences. Regressive :, where one partners communication leads to increasing dissatisfaction. Stopping regressive spirals from getting out of control depends on the open communication between the two individuals. In these circumstances- regressive spirals there is increasing discomfort, distances, frustation, and dissatifaction for everyone involved.

47 Relational patterns Self – fulfilling and self- defeating Prophecies

48 Factor that influence pattern Stage of relationship and context Interpersonal needs and styles powerConflict

49 The nature of interpersonal patterns also varies depending on the context in which conversation is taking place. Together, these two factors account for much of the variation on the patterns of communication within relationship. 1. Stage of Relationship and Context

50 Often noted as especially important in this way are the interpersoal needs fection, inclusion, and control. We each develop our own specific needs relative to control, affection, and inclusion, as we do in other areas. Interpersonal style also plays a key role in shaping the communication patterns that emerge in relationships. Interpersonal Needs and Styles

51 Interpersonal communication within relationships is also shaped by the distribution of power. Where one individual is employed by the other, for instance, the relationship is asymmetrical, or uneven, in terms of the actual power each has in the job situation. 3. Power

52 The presence of conflict anincompatibility of interest between two or more people giving rise to struggles between themcan have a major impact on communication dynamics. Conflict

53 three general communication strategies used in conflict resolution: Passive-indirect methods. Avoiding the conflict – producing situation and people Distributive methods. Maximizing ones own gain and the others losses Integrative methods. Achieving mutually positive outcomes for both individuals and the relationship

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