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Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health Education Project Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health Education Project Beyond Abstinence & Risk: Exploring.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health Education Project Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health Education Project Beyond Abstinence & Risk: Exploring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health Education Project Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health Education Project Beyond Abstinence & Risk: Exploring A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexual Health

2 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 By the end of this presentation, participants will be able to: Identify limitations of the Abstinence Only and Sex as Risk Taking paradigms to healthcare practices Discuss ways that dramatization may affect approaches to adolescent sexuality and teen health outcomes Describe the alternative ABCD paradigm of adolescent sexual and emotional development Explore applications of ABCD paradigm in working with adolescents, parents, and health professionals Objectives

3 Sexual Attraction Sexual Attraction Paradigm of Sexuality Paradigm of Sexuality Biological Sex Biological Sex Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation Sexual Behavior Sexual Behavior Gender Identity/ Expression Gender Identity/ Expression Relationships

4 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Over past three decades, two approaches have predominated in US sexual health policy and practice: Abstinence-only Sex as risk taking Two Narrow Approaches to Adolescent Sexual Development

5 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 What is Healthy Sexuality? Sexuality development is a natural part of human development Often adolescent sexuality is equated with risk

6 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 The Abstinence Only (No Sex) Paradigm Provides a code, not empowerment Gives limited tools for navigating relationships other than marriage Makes sex between teens hard to discuss when it does happen Despite investment of federal funds, not shown to be effective

7 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Sex-as-Risk-Taking Paradigm Makes sex a disease rather than part of development Does not distinguish healthy sexual expression from sexual risk Instills fear, not sense of mastery/control Leaves out the pleasurable and relational contexts of sexuality

8 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Medically-derived risk-assessment/prevention, screening, and treatment approach Results in discussions that are based on: Narrow definitions of sexual health Focus on specific sexual behaviors as part of risk assessment strategy instead of personal development and interpersonal relationships Sex as Risk in Current Practice

9 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 International comparisons show us: That there are other ways to approach adolescent sexual development How different environments impact adolescent sexual health outcomes Looking Outside National Borders

10 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Across developed nations adolescents go through similar developmental processes Schooling extends into the twenties Marriage in late twenties/early thirties First sex typically happens during teen years Shared Experiences in Adolescence

11 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 The U.S. vs. The Netherlands

12 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Similarities Developed countries Went through a sexual revolution Reproductive health technologies Differences Approaches to adolescent sexuality Adolescent sexual health outcomes Socioeconomic, racial and ethnic diversity in populations Why Compare the US and the Netherlands?

13 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 DUTCH TEENS U.S. TEENS Kost et al. 2010; van Lee et al US Teen Pregnancy Rates Much Higher than Dutch Peers Pregnancy, birth and abortion rates in the US and Netherlands per 1,000 females ages 15-19

14 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Disparities Remain When Comparing White Populations DUTCH TEENS U.S. TEENS Pregnancy, birth and abortion rates in the US and Netherlands per 1,000 white females ages Kost et al. 2010; van Lee et al. 2009

15 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 DUTCH TEENS U.S. TEENS UNAIDS, US Teens Have a Higher HIV Rate Percent of population ages15-24 currently infected with HIV

16 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Dutch Teens More Likely to Use Hormonal and Dual Methods DUTCH TEENS U.S. TEENS Abma et al,2010, Ferguson et al, 2008 Percent of Dutch and US Adolescents Using Condoms, Oral Contraception and Dual Methods at First Intercourse

17 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 U.S. Teens Feel Less Positive About First Sexual Experiences DUTCH TEENS U.S. TEENS U.S. FEMALES U.S. MALES DUTCH ADOLESCENTS (MALES AND FEMALES) Albert, 2004 Graaf et al., 2005 Wish I had waited longer to have sex I was ready It was fun It went as far as I wanted it to go Dutch and US Adolescents Reflections on First Sexual Experiences

18 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Why are there such large differences in sexual health outcomes between countries with so many similarities? The Question

19 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Policies, economics and culture play a role: US teens are more likely to be poor and lack access to socioeconomic resources Dutch teens have better access to sexual health education and services Adults approach adolescent sexuality differently because of difference in culture Explaining Differences in Health Outcomes

20 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Study: Examining Cultural Meanings of Adolescent Sexuality Turning to the Research For information on this study, see Not Under My Roof: Parents, Teens and the Culture of Sex (University of Chicago Press) or visit

21 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Interviews With Dutch and US Parents and Teens: Subject Demographics: white, secular and moderately religious, middle Class Interviews: 1-2 hours, taped, transcribed, & analyzed Interview Type: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews 72 interviews with boys and girls, ages parent interviews (mothers and fathers)

22 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 US Culture and Adolescent Sexuality: Dramatization

23 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Raging hormones Sex as risk taking Battle of the sexes Falling in love is extraordinary Secrecy between parents and teens United States: Dramatization

24 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Adolescents are completely hormonally driven American mother The concept of Raging Hormones assumes: Teenagers are unable to control urges Disjunction between the onset of hormones, and the development of the cognitive and emotional capacity to handle them Parents role is to contain Dramatization Raging Hormones

25 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Sex is a risk. If youre not looking to have a baby, sex is definitely a risk…. I have had a situation where condoms have broken and I was like, flippin out of my mind ready to puke. I was like Jesus Christ, were dead. Im screwed for the rest of my life. Sixteen-year-old American boy Sex equated with risk and disease Fear based approaches to prevention By parents By healthcare providers Dramatization Sex as Risk Taking By policymakers By Youth

26 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Males want sex, females want love Consequences fall on females Parents must protect females, rein in males Dramatization Battle of the Sexes

27 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Parents: Teens just think they are in love; it is not real Teens: I want to be in love but other teens just want to have sex Dramatization Love is Extraordinary

28 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Dramatization Sex is a Secret [My mother] hasnt asked me [whether I am having sex] and I havent told her…. Id rather her not ask me straight out. Sixteen-year-old American girl Teens keep sex a secret Some parents prefer not to know Secrecy weighs especially on girls

29 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Dutch Culture and Adolescent Sexuality: Normalization

30 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Readiness and self-regulation Sex is preparation Falling in love is common Relationships between the sexes Normal sexuality, not secretive Netherlands: Normalization

31 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Teens are able to self regulate Concept of er aan toe zijn or being ready Parents stress that sexual development should occur gradually Concept of vrijen A range of behavior, not limited to intercourse Normalization Readiness and Self-Regulation [My daughter] is 16, almost 17. I think she knows very well what matters, what can happen. If she is ready, I would let her be ready Dutch father

32 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 It goes without saying that you use them [contraceptives] Sixteen-year-old Dutch boy Preparation is part of readiness for sex Contraception and condom use are expected preparations for sex Normalization Sex as Preparation

33 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 If they really have something special with someone an then [sex] happens, well then who am I? Dutch mother Sex is part of a relationship Reflects mutual desires and interests Parents support relationships Not casual sex Normalization Relationship Between the Sexes

34 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Being in love is a common experience Including for teens In national survey, 63% of Dutch youth say they are very much in love with their current sexual partner Normalization Falling in Love is Common

35 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 It should be normal to talk about during dinner Dutch mother Concept of gewoon or normal sexuality Sex should be normal, acceptable part of life Sex should lead to secrets but discussed openly between family members Sex should not cause conflict and alienation between parents and teenagers Normalization Normal Sexuality

36 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 I wanted to tell my mother. I dont know. It was on my mind. So I told her regardless of the consequences. Sixteen-year-old Dutch girl An open subject is rendered negotiable Parents may not always be completely comfortable with teen sex, but they do not want it to lead to deception Normalization: Normal Sexuality

37 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Can Cultural Approaches to Adolescent Sexuality Change?

38 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Dutch views toward sexuality were NOT always as they are today Pre 1960: Premarital sex disapproved of 1960s-1970s : Shifting views of sexuality 1981: 3 out of 5 Dutch adults no longer objected to sexual intercourse, in the context of a loving relationship Dutch Experience Historically

39 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Critical to changing approach to adolescent sexuality Along with media, academia, clergy Common practice among providers: Acknowledge? Accept adolescent sexuality Prescribe oral contraceptives Provide confidential, low-cost care to adolescents Role of Dutch Healthcare Providers

40 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Role of Dutch Health Providers Positive involvement of general practitioners an influential factor in the introduction of modern contraception and the strong acceptance of family planning The general practitioner, who plays a central role as a provider of contraceptive services, is viewed as the most important and reliable source of information

41 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Conceptualizing a New Paradigm-ABCD 2

42 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Adolescent sexuality is a normal process of psychosocial and biological development Sexuality is a continuum along which youth move as maturity and relationships permit Adults play vital role in providing resources and supporting the development of skills A New Paradigm

43 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 A Develop Autonomy of Sexual Self Knowing about anatomy, reproduction and contraception Knowing about pleasure and enjoyment of sexual contact Recognizing and articulating own wishes and boundaries Owning and controlling sexual decision-making process Anticipating and adequately preparing for sexual activity A New Paradigm

44 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Personal control and self-efficacy in sex negotiation are significantly associated with safer sex behavior Adolescents with a sense of control over their lives (in general and in sexual situations) more likely to abstain from sex or to use condoms when they engage in sexual intercourse Autonomy of Sexual Self

45 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Sexual subjectivitysexual body esteem, sense of entitlement to pleasure, sexual self- reflectionis associated with higher levels of self-efficacy in condom use in girls Girls who report more sexual self-efficacy ability to act upon their own needs in a relationshipare more likely to have used condoms at first intercourse. Autonomy of Sexual Self

46 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 B Build Good Romantic Relationships Validate adolescents need for intimacy Assist them in in building egalitarian relationships suited to their life stage Teach about healthy relationships, not just the avoidance of unhealthy relationships A New Paradigm ANOTHER

47 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 B Some criteria for healthy teen relationships Getting to know each other Building trust over time Dealing well with conflict Striving for power equality Enjoying each others company A New Paradigm ANOTHER

48 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Communication with partners about contraception prior to first sex significantly increases contraception use in both genders Open communication in adolescent dating couples increases communication about contraception Building Healthy Relationships

49 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Adolescent sexual activities are more likely to be safe, wanted and pleasurable when: Partners are more equal (in age) Teens feel satisfied by their relationship Teens experience intimacy in their relationship Building Healthy Relationships

50 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 C Foster Connectedness between Adolescents and their Parents & Other Caregivers Honesty and integrity in relationships with care providers –Parents/guardians –Educators –Medical Professionals –Members of the Clergy A New Paradigm

51 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Maintaining connectedness with parents/guardians and other trusted adults is important for many aspects of adolescent health, including sexual health Connectedness

52 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Parent-teenager communication about sex has positive impacts on teen sexual health when: Parents and teenagers have a close relationship Communication about sex is frequent rather than one-time Teenagers feel their parents are open and comfortable in discussing the topic Connectedness

53 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 D2D2 Recognize Diversity in Sexual Development, Orientations, and Values Disparities in Access to Socioeconomic Resources A New Paradigm

54 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Research has found that: Poverty and lack of access to socioeconomic and health resources negatively affect: Many aspects of adolescent sexual health, including STD/HIV rates Pregnancy rates Contraceptive use Teens feelings of self-efficacy Diversity and Disparities

55 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Practicing cultural humility and patient- centered interviewing Recognizes interactions between A-B-C & D 2 Avoid generalizing based on knowledge of some cultures/communities Patients communicate the role of culture in the encounter Cultural Humility

56 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Applying a New Paradigm-ABCD 2

57 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 AUTONOMY: Develop sexual autonomy BUILD: Build good relationships CONNECTEDNESS: Foster connectedness.. DIVERSITY / DISPARITIES: Recognize diversity/ Remove disparities A New Paradigm ABCD 2 = HEALTHY SEXUALITY ABCD 2

58 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How to assess autonomy in an adolescent? How to promote autonomy in anticipatory guidance? Autonomy in Practice

59 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Assess understanding of anatomy, reproduction and contraception Identify sources of information Bridge gaps through education Assess self-efficacy in other domains and problem-solving abilities Autonomy: Pearls for Practice

60 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Acknowledge the pleasurable and enjoyable aspects of sexual contact Normalize desire and arousal Emphasize owning and controlling ones sexual decision-making Help youth examine readiness Promote preparation for sexual activity Autonomy: Pearls for Practice

61 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How can you assess relationship quality in an adolescent in an intimate relationship? How can you promote healthy relationships in anticipatory guidance? Building Relationships in Practice

62 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Discuss peer relationships as lead into romantic relationships Acknowledge the value of relationship-building and the virtues of intimate relationships Encourage youth to discuss Defining a healthy relationship Communication with partners Sex-related communication Conflict resolution Building Relationships: Pearls for Practice

63 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How can you assess connectedness with caregivers and other adults? How can you foster connectedness in anticipatory guidance? Fostering Connectedness in Practice

64 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Parents usually not primary source of information Many parents feel unsure about how best to approach the topic Discussions about sexuality limited to one Big Talk Communication about sex not very extensive Parent-teen conversations about sex often one-way Based on the experiences and perception of the parent Connectedness: The Caregiver Role in Education

65 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Guiding Patients Towards Connectedness Parental Involvement vs Parentectomy: Encourage honest and open communication if possible between caregiver and teen Encourage parents to communicate their values and beliefs but recognize that their children may have different perspectives and experiences

66 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Talking to Adolescents: Examine patients perspective of relationship with caregiver Examine barriers for conversation with caregiver about romantic/sexual relationships Offer to be a resource to both parents and teens Connectedness: Pearls in Practice

67 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Talking to Caregivers: Acknowledge to caregiver talking about relationships is difficult, but healthy Help caregiver understand the importance of modeling healthy relationships Connectedness: Pearls in Practice

68 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How do we create best practices for diverse populations? How do we utilize knowledge about health disparities in communities without making assumptions about individual patients? Recognizing Diversity and Disparities in Practice

69 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Where is the patient in his/her sexual development? How do cultural, religious beliefs play into patient values around sexuality? What barriers exist for patients to access health services and health information? How do socioeconomic forces shape patients experiences with clinicians? Diversity and Disparities: Pearls for Practice

70 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 NORMALIZE adolescent sexual development Provide access to comprehensive and accurate reproductive and sexual health information and care Promote affirming discussions about sexual feelings and arousal, decision-making, responsibility, and relationships Change from parentectomy to parental involvement when appropriate/possible Reframe research focus to go beyond risk to help inform and support a paradigm shift ABCD 2 : Overall Practice Implications

71 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Sexual development is a natural part of adolescence Cultural approaches to sexuality can affect clinical practice and patient outcomes Traditional clinical approach in the U.S. is primarily one of risk-assessment New paradigm needed to recognize healthy sexuality beyond abstinence and risk Conclusions

72 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Providers can advocate to normalize adolescent sexual development, and provide youth with necessary resources In schools In group practice In professional organizations In communities With policymakers Beyond Individual Practice

73 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Exercise: Case Studies

74 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Be aware of our own feelings about adolescent sexual behavior How comfortable are you talking to adolescents? What are your feelings/beliefs about adolescent sexuality? Are you able to separate your own values to effectively counsel your patient? FIRST: Provider Values Clarification

75 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH year old female She has decided to have sex for the first time Wants to know where her boyfriend can get tested for STIs Case: Janice

76 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How would you respond to Janice and her service request? How could you assess her autonomy? How can you create positive communication about sexual decision making? Case: Janice

77 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH year old female Comes to the clinic for emergency contraception Has received at the ED before Reports inconsistent condom use with her current boyfriend Case: Shana

78 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How would you respond to Shanas service request? How could you use a conversation about condom use to discuss healthy relationships? Case: Shana

79 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH year old male His mother comes in concerned her son may be having sex She requests information on pregnancy and STIs she can give him to encourage abstinence Case: Eric

80 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How do you respond to Erics mother and her service request? How can clinicians foster communication between adolescents and adults in regard to sex and sexual health? What other adults might be in Erics life to give Eric support around sexual decision- making? Case: Eric

81 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How might this parent encounter have differed if this mother was concerned about her daughter rather than her son? How might you promote the concept of relationship between the sexes in this parent encounter? Case: Eric

82 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH year old female Scheduled visit for Depo- Provera shot and instead indicates desire for pregnancy Living with the same foster family since age 7 Foster family is part of a conservative Dominican- American community Case: Maria

83 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How do you respond to Maria? What are some questions you would ask about family, community, and partner support to help her make decisions about childbearing? How can you recognize diversity of patients and cultural backgrounds in family planning discussions? Case: Maria

84 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 How can you recognize disparities in health education and access in a conversation about family planning? How can you help this patient access health and community resources? Case: Maria

85 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Thank You

86 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Resources for Medical Providers AAP Adolescent Health Adolescent Health Working Group: Resources for Providers d=79&tpid=2http://www.ahwg.net/knowledgebase/nodates.php?pi d=79&tpid=2 Adolescent Reproductive Health Education Project Curriculum available at Planned Parenthood Tools for Educators tmhttp://www.plannedparenthood.org/resources/index.h tm Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Additional Resources

87 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Resources for Parents Advocates for Youth: Parents Sex Ed Center homehttp://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents-sex-ed-center- home Adolescent Health Working Group: Resources for Parents/Caregivers s.php?pid=80&tpid=4http://www.ahwg.net/knowledgebase/nodate s.php?pid=80&tpid=4 American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children Website spxhttp://www.healthychildren.org/English/Pages/default.a spx Planned Parenthood Tools for Parents Additional Resources

88 Beyond Abstinence and Risk: A New Paradigm of Adolescent Sexuality PRCH 2012 Resources for Educators and Teens Healthy Children Radio: Adolescent Dating Violence, featuring Elizabeth Alderman, MD, FAAP Healthy Children Radio: Adolescent Dating Violence SexEdLibrary(a project of SIECUS with resources for providers of sexuality education) The (DASH) Web site was developed to raise awareness of the magnitude and dangers of teen dating abuse; educate and encourage teens to engage in healthy relationship behavior; help teens, and parents, to recognize and act upon warning signs; and provide resources to identify places of help for teens in distress, or in potentially dangerous dating situations.www.datingabusestopshere.com Additional Resources


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