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© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Introducing Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Strategies for Student Success Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Introducing Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Strategies for Student Success Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Introducing Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Strategies for Student Success Chapter one Introduction and Research Methods

2 realworldpsychology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. How does your culture influence what you look for in a romantic partner? Things Youll Learn in Chapter 1 Can diet, preschool education, and parental behavior increase a childs intelligence? Are older people happier than younger people? Why do heavy drinkers misreport their alcohol use? How do spreading your study sessions and practice testing improve test scores? Q1Q1 Q2Q2 Q3Q3 Q4Q4 Q5Q5

3 Psychology = scientific study of behavior and mental processes What is Psychology? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Why scientific study? What is behavior? What are mental processes?

4 Psychology uses empirical evidence that can be objectively tested and evaluated Dont confuse psychology with pseudopsychologies (pseudo = false), like horoscopes, psychic powers, and self-help pop psych Lets test your myths about psychology… Psychology as Science © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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6 Structuralism: first framework for studying psychology; uses introspection to understand sensation, perception Wilhelm Wundt, 1879, Leipzig, Germany – Father of Psychology – Established first psych laboratory Edward Titchener, United States – Student of Wundts, spread structuralisms goal of identifying the basic building blocks of mental life Structuralism died out because not useful for studying animals, children, or disorders Psychologys Past © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Functionalism: how the mind functions and allows animals/humans to adapt to environment William James established first psychology lab in United States Expanded psychology research to include emotions and observable behavior, began psychological testing Psychologys Past © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Psychoanalytic perspective: the unconscious part of the mind has thoughts, memories, desires that lie outside personal awareness but have strong influence Sigmund Freud, Austria, late 1800–early 1900 Psychologys Past © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Mary Calkins: completed requirements for PhD under William James at Harvard but was denied her degree because of her gender. – Became prominent memory researcher – Served as first female president of APA in 1905 Margaret Floy Washburn: first female to receive PhD in psychology Francis Cecil Sumner: first African American to earn PhD in psychology in 1920 Kenneth B. Clark: student of Sumners, became first Black president of APA; researched harmful effects of prejudice Gender and Minority Influences © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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12 No one perspective on psychology can completely explain the complex human condition BioPsychoSocial Model © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological Social Psychological

13 Focus on the individual does not provide full information about emotions and motivation Must consider the individual in the context of the group Individual vs. collectivist cultures Fill in the blank: I am _____. Culture © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 realworldpsychology In countries with low levels of gender equality, women are more likely to be attracted a partner based on resources than on physical attractiveness (Zentner & Mitura, 2012) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q1Q1 How does your culture influence what you look for in a romantic partner?

15 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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18 THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Basic research = focuses on fundamental principles and theories to advance core scientific knowledge – Ex: classical and operant conditioning principles explain human and animal behavior Applied research = designed to solve practical, real-world problems – Ex: behavior modification research uses operant conditioning to change behavior and treat psychological disorders Types of research © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 The Scientific Method © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 realworldpsychology After multiple studies have been conducted (replicated), a meta-analysis can combine and analyze data to determine overall trends Meta-analysis on childrens intelligence found healthy diet, quality preschool and interactive reading with parents increase intelligence (Protzko et al., 2013) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q2Q2 Can diet, preschool education, and parental behavior increase a childs intelligence?

22 Hypothesis must be testable prediction Variables must be operationally defined Although the term theory may be used to mean a guess in everyday language, psychological theories are evidence-based, rigorously tested, and self-correcting Statistical significance demonstrates that a studys results didnt occur by chance More about Scientific Method © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 1.Description – what occurred 2.Explanation – why something occurred (examine causes) 3.Prediction – under what conditions is the phenomenon likely to occur again? 4.Control – how to increase desired outcomes and decrease negative outcomes Psychologys 4 Main Goals © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 RESEARCH METHODS © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Systematic, scientific observation and description Naturalistic observation: observe and record behavior in natural setting, without interference Survey/interview: ask people to report behaviors, opinions and attitudes Case studies: in-depth study of small number of participants Archival research: using previously recorded data Descriptive Research © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 When two variables are related, a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other Can make predictions about one variable based on known changes in the other Correlational Research © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. In a study of 5,000 people in the U.S., as age increases, happiness increases Q3Q3 Are older people happier than younger people?

27 Correlation coefficient is statistical number showing direction and strength of relationship between two variables Correlation does not mean causation Interpreting Correlations © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Required to determine causation Independent variable is manipulated Dependent variable is observed and measured Experimental group = the group that receives the treatment Control group = the group that does not receive the treatment Random assignment = ensures that change in DV is due to IV, not some characteristic of the group Experimental Research © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Controlling Bias Bias Sample bias = research participants dont reflect larger population Experimenter bias = researcher influences outcome in expected direction Participant bias = experimental condition influences participants behavior Social desirability = participant provides dishonest answers to personal, risky, or embarrassing questions Controls Placebo = inactive substance to prevent false positive results from treatment condition Single-blind study = participants dont know what group they are in Double-blind study = neither researcher nor participants know group assignments © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q4Q4 Why do heavy drinkers misreport their alcohol use?

30 Summary of Research Methods © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 realworldpsychology Huber & Malhotra, 2012 Study 1: Participants viewed online dating profiles of fictional people, including religion, education, political preference. Participants rated how much they would like to date someone and that persons physical attractiveness. Study 2: using data from an existing website (OkCupid), measured relationship between shared political views and interest in dating © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. POLITICS AND DATING RELATIONSHIPS

32 Informed consent Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception, with debriefing – In Milgrams famous study of obedience, participants were told they were giving electric shocks to another. Deception was necessary in order to measure true behavior. Confidentiality Ethical Guidelines © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Nonhuman animals are used in only 7 to 8% of psychological research (mostly rats and mice) Animal research produces breakthroughs in medical research, drugs, understanding the brain, sensation and perception, learning, stress and many others Psychologists follow strict procedures for ethical treatment of animal research subjects Animal Research © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Therapists must maintain license Therapy records are confidential Therapists are legally bound to break confidentiality if client threatens harm to self or others, or is suspected of abusing a child or elderly person Psychotherapy Clients © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 STRATEGIES FOR STUDENT SUCCESS © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 1.Familiarization = review the chapter to take full advantage of content. Preface, table of contents, references, etc. help you find things in the text. Read boxes, tables and figures within text for full understanding of the subject 2.Active reading = Dont read a textbook the way you would read a novel! Slow down, focus on details, make notes. – SQ4R: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, wRite Study Habits © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 3.Distributed Practice = Dont cram! Instead, spread your practice/study over time 4.Practice test taking = Practice test taking and Distributed practice are two of the most efficient ways to study and learn. Study Habits © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q5Q5 How do spreading your study sessions and practice testing improve test scores?

38 Establish a baseline to understand how you spend your time now Set up a realistic schedule with daily and weekly to do list Reward yourself for following your schedule Maximize your time by avoiding distraction, wasted efforts Time Management © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What time management techniques work best for you?

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