Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter one Introduction and Research Methods Introducing Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Strategies for Student Success © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Things You’ll Learn in Chapter 1 Q1 How does your culture influence what you look for in a romantic partner? Q2 Can diet, preschool education, and parental behavior increase a child’s intelligence? Q3 Are older people happier than younger people? Q4 Why do heavy drinkers misreport their alcohol use? Q5 How do spreading your study sessions and practice testing improve test scores? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
What is Psychology? Psychology = scientific study of behavior and mental processes Why scientific study? What is behavior? What are mental processes? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Psychology as Science Psychology uses empirical evidence that can be objectively tested and evaluated Don’t confuse psychology with “pseudopsychologies” (pseudo = false), like horoscopes, psychic powers, and self-help “pop psych” Let’s test your myths about psychology… © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Answers: F T © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

6 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Psychology’s Past Structuralism: first framework for studying psychology; uses introspection to understand sensation, perception Wilhelm Wundt, 1879, Leipzig, Germany ‘Father of Psychology’ Established first psych laboratory Edward Titchener, United States Student of Wundt’s, spread structuralism’s goal of identifying the basic building blocks of mental life Structuralism died out because not useful for studying animals, children, or disorders © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Psychology’s Past Functionalism: how the mind functions and allows animals/humans to adapt to environment William James established first psychology lab in United States Expanded psychology research to include emotions and observable behavior, began psychological testing © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Psychology’s Past Psychoanalytic perspective: the unconscious part of the mind has thoughts, memories, desires that lie outside personal awareness but have strong influence Sigmund Freud, Austria, late 1800–early 1900 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Gender and Minority Influences
Mary Calkins: completed requirements for PhD under William James at Harvard but was denied her degree because of her gender. Became prominent memory researcher Served as first female president of APA in 1905 Margaret Floy Washburn: first female to receive PhD in psychology Francis Cecil Sumner: first African American to earn PhD in psychology in 1920 Kenneth B. Clark: student of Sumner’s, became first Black president of APA; researched harmful effects of prejudice © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Engage your Students! In small groups, have students brainstorm possible causes for some psychological condition (aggression or altruism work well). As you introduce each of the 7 perspectives, ask whether any of the causes they brainstormed fit with each perspective © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 BioPsychoSocial Model
No one perspective on psychology can completely explain the complex human condition Biological Social Psychological © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Culture Focus on the individual does not provide full information about emotions and motivation Must consider the individual in the context of the group Individual vs. collectivist cultures Fill in the blank: “I am _____.” Individualist cultures answer personality factors for “I am” (smart, athletic, shy, etc.), while collectivist cultures answer their role (daughter, student, etc.). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
How does your culture influence what you look for in a romantic partner? Q1 In countries with low levels of gender equality, women are more likely to be attracted a partner based on resources than on physical attractiveness (Zentner & Mitura, 2012) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 The science of psychology
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of research Basic research = focuses on fundamental principles and theories to advance core scientific knowledge Ex: classical and operant conditioning principles explain human and animal behavior Applied research = designed to solve practical, real-world problems Ex: behavior modification research uses operant conditioning to change behavior and treat psychological disorders © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Scientific Method Engage Your Students! If you used the class discussion suggestion in slide 9 as you introduced the perspectives in psychology, how could they test one of their theories? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Can diet, preschool education, and parental behavior increase a child’s intelligence? Q2 After multiple studies have been conducted (replicated), a meta-analysis can combine and analyze data to determine overall trends Meta-analysis on children’s intelligence found healthy diet, quality preschool and interactive reading with parents increase intelligence (Protzko et al., 2013) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 More about Scientific Method
Hypothesis must be testable prediction Variables must be operationally defined Although the term “theory” may be used to mean a guess in everyday language, psychological theories are evidence-based, rigorously tested, and self-correcting Statistical significance demonstrates that a study’s results didn’t occur by chance © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Psychology’s 4 Main Goals
Description – what occurred Explanation – why something occurred (examine causes) Prediction – under what conditions is the phenomenon likely to occur again? Control – how to increase desired outcomes and decrease negative outcomes © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Research methods © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Descriptive Research Systematic, scientific observation and description Naturalistic observation: observe and record behavior in natural setting, without interference Survey/interview: ask people to report behaviors, opinions and attitudes Case studies: in-depth study of small number of participants Archival research: using previously recorded data © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Correlational Research
When two variables are related, a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other Can make predictions about one variable based on known changes in the other Are older people happier than younger people? Q3 In a study of 5,000 people in the U.S., as age increases, happiness increases © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Interpreting Correlations
Correlation coefficient is statistical number showing direction and strength of relationship between two variables “Correlation does not mean causation” Engage Your Students! Would the following pairs have positive, negative, or zero correlation? Health and exercise Hours of TV viewing and student grades Level of happiness and level of helpfulness Hours of sleep and number of friends Level of extraversion and level of loneliness Positive Negative Zero © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Experimental Research
Required to determine causation Independent variable is manipulated Dependent variable is observed and measured Experimental group = the group that receives the treatment Control group = the group that does not receive the treatment Random assignment = ensures that change in DV is due to IV, not some characteristic of the group © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Controlling Bias Q4 Why do heavy drinkers misreport their alcohol use? Controls Bias Sample bias = research participants don’t reflect larger population Experimenter bias = researcher influences outcome in expected direction Participant bias = experimental condition influences participant’s behavior Social desirability = participant provides dishonest answers to personal, risky, or embarrassing questions Placebo = inactive substance to prevent false positive results from treatment condition Single-blind study = participants don’t know what group they are in Double-blind study = neither researcher nor participants know group assignments © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 Summary of Research Methods
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
POLITICS AND DATING RELATIONSHIPS Huber & Malhotra, 2012 Study 1: Participants viewed online dating profiles of fictional people, including religion, education, political preference. Participants rated how much they would like to date someone and that person’s physical attractiveness. Study 2: using data from an existing website (OkCupid), measured relationship between shared political views and interest in dating Engage Your Students! Did the two studies use descriptive, correlational, or experimental research (consider each study separately)? 2. If you chose… descriptive: is it naturalistic observation, survey/interview, case study, or archival? Correlational: is this positive, negative, or zero correlation? Experimental: label the IV, DV, experimental groups, and control group © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ethical Guidelines Informed consent Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception, with debriefing In Milgram’s famous study of obedience, participants were told they were giving electric shocks to another. Deception was necessary in order to measure true behavior. Confidentiality © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Animal Research Nonhuman animals are used in only 7 to 8% of psychological research (mostly rats and mice) Animal research produces breakthroughs in medical research, drugs, understanding the brain, sensation and perception, learning, stress and many others Psychologists follow strict procedures for ethical treatment of animal research subjects © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Psychotherapy Clients
Therapists must maintain license Therapy records are confidential Therapists are legally bound to break confidentiality if client threatens harm to self or others, or is suspected of abusing a child or elderly person © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Strategies for student success
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Study Habits Familiarization = review the chapter to take full advantage of content. Preface, table of contents, references, etc. help you find things in the text. Read boxes, tables and figures within text for full understanding of the subject Active reading = Don’t read a textbook the way you would read a novel! Slow down, focus on details, make notes. SQ4R: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, wRite © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Study Habits Q5 How do spreading your study sessions and practice testing improve test scores? Distributed Practice = Don’t cram! Instead, spread your practice/study over time Practice test taking = Practice test taking and Distributed practice are two of the most efficient ways to study and learn. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Time Management Establish a baseline to understand how you spend your time now Set up a realistic schedule with daily and weekly “to do” list Reward yourself for following your schedule Maximize your time by avoiding distraction, wasted efforts What time management techniques work best for you? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

39 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.


Download ppt "© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google