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Chapter 9 Rocks and Minerals 6 th Grade Science. Minerals ___________ - a natural, non-living solid with a definite chemical structure. Earths crust contains.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Rocks and Minerals 6 th Grade Science. Minerals ___________ - a natural, non-living solid with a definite chemical structure. Earths crust contains."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Rocks and Minerals 6 th Grade Science

2 Minerals ___________ - a natural, non-living solid with a definite chemical structure. Earths crust contains more than _________ minerals – only two dozen are common. Examples: diamond, quartz, emerald copper Minerals are made up of ______. Particles of _______ are arranged in a particular repeating pattern. Mineral 4,000 kinds crystals

3 Crystals _______ form when minerals are made in nature Each type of mineral has its own unique chemical __________. Differences in minerals result from the way that particles are arranged. Brass – Copper + Zinc –____________because it does not occur naturally Not a mineral structure Mineral

4 Identifying Minerals _________ ____________ __________ ___________ hardness Streak color Shape of crystals cleavage Luster

5 Identifying Minerals Minerals are identified by their ____________ _______________ - a scale to measure hardness of a mineral The range of the harness scale is from 1 (_______) to 10 (______) Talc has a harness of __ / diamond is a _____ ________ - refers to how difficult it is to scratch its surface characteristics Mohs hardness scale hardness SoftestHardest 110

6 Other Mineral Characteristics _______ - a mineral may have different crystals depending on the kinds of materials that make up its ______. The color of a mineral can be seen in its ______. A mineral can also be identified by the ______ of its crystals. _______ - minerals show particular patterns when they are broken along flat planes. Color crystals streak shape Cleavage

7 Luster ______ - the appearance of a mineral in reflected light. A mineral may appear: – __________ Luster Metallic Nonmetallic Greasy Glassy Waxy

8 Value of Minerals Some minerals are ____ which makes them very valuable Some minerals are valuable because they are ______________ - scientists have tried to find ways to reuse minerals or replace them with less expensive materials. Aluminum and tin can be ________ Synthetic forms of gemstones = cubic zirconia rare Natural Resources recycled

9 Assessment Page 249 questions 1 and 2

10 Rocks _____ - a solid, natural material made up of one or more minerals ___________ - as time passes, rock break down, and the minerals in them are recycled – pattern of change The rock cycle takes place over ________ of years. There are three types of rocks: __________, __________, and __________ rock Rock cycle millions sedimentary igneousmetamorphic

11 Sedimentary Rock ______________ - made from pieces of rocks and minerals Sedimentary rock forms in ________ - the oldest rock at the bottom and the newest rock on top. Sedimentary rock is like a _________ - past events captured in each layer. _____ - remains of once living animals or plants Sedimentary rock layers History book fossils

12 Sedimentary Rock Continued Fossils are ONLY found in _____________ Example of sedimentary rock = ________ Limestone is made from _________________ or from dissolved __________ that settle out of seawater. Sedimentary rock limestone Shells of tiny sea animals minerals

13 Igneous Rock __________ - forms from magma – molten rock inside of the earth that cools and hardens Some igneous rock forms ______________ and is only exposed after rocks above have worn away Other igneous rocks form when _____ cools at the Earths surface When lava cools fast - _______________ When lava cools slowly - _______________ Igneous rock Below Earths surface lava Fine-ground rocks form Coarse-grained rock

14 Metamorphic Rock _____________ - forms when heat, pressure, or chemical reactions change one type of rock into another type of rock. Metamorphic rock is made from ___________ or _________. Example: ______ is a metamorphic rock made from________ (sedimentary rock) Metamorphic rock Sedimentary rock Igneous rock marble limestone

15 Compare and Contrast How are the three types of rocks similar and different?

16 Clues to the Past Scientists can tell a great deal about Earths history by looking at _____. ______________ - scientists look at the layers of sedimentary rock and learn about the relative age of each layer and the minerals found in it. Relative dating allows scientists to place past events in ____________ rocks Relative dating Sequential order

17 Fossils ________ - can form when an organisms is buried in soft mud or when parts of the organisms do not rot away. Burrows and footprints can also be fossilized Many fossils were made by animals that are now _____ - helps scientists determine the rocks age. __________ - a fossil of marine animals known as corals fossils extinct Peoskey Stone

18 Assessment How can rocks help scientists learn about the past? What are trilobites and when were they on Earth?

19 Soil ____ - made of weathered rock, air, water, and the remains of living things. __________ - process of breaking down rocks through physical factors such as _____, _________, _______ or__________________. ________ = non-living parts of the soil As rock breaks down small pieces collect on the surface soil weathering frost droughtChanges in temperaturerainwater inorganic

20 Soil Formation _______ and _______ are plants that help break down rock. When rocks are broken down _______are released ___________ - dead or decaying matter such as bacteria, fungi, animals and plants. ______ - dark colored organic matter formed from decayed plant and animal remains- _______________________ mosseslichens minerals Organic matter humus Rich in nutrients needed by plants

21 Layers of Soil Soils form in _____ layers _________- a vertical cross section of the soil and rock underneath ________ - first layer of soil, mixture of small rock pieces, humus, and other organic matter – Most living things are found in the _______ – Loose _____________ often covers the topsoil – Rainwater carries minerals from the topsoil to the 2 nd layer of soil. three Soil profile topsoil Organic matter

22 Subsoil / Parent Rock Layers _______ - less organic matter than topsoil, lighter in color. _________ penetrate the subsoil through rainwater and accumulate _________ - third layer, very little organic matter found in this layer subsoil mineral Parent rock

23 Kinds of Soils ________ - fine grained and hold water – these soils can become waterlogged _________ - medium sized grains – better drainage than clay soils __________ - large-grained, do not retain water Most soils are a mixture ______ - silt and sand in roughly _____ parts Clay soils Silt soils Sandy soils loamequal

24 Factors That Affect Soil ________ - most important factor that determines the type of soil that is formed Climate affects _________ - increased rainfall, warm temperatures, frost-thaw etc. __________ - minerals in the rocks affect the characteristics of the soil – example: reddish colored soil indicates iron-rich minerals __________ - mix the soil and breakdown organic matter climate weathering Kinds of rock earthworms

25 Soils Continued Soil color is affected by the amount of __________ in the soil. Soils with more organic matter are ______ ___________ - affects soil formation because of slope and erosion Mountains have thin layers of ______ Land that is flat has a _________ of topsoil because of minimal erosion Organic matter darker Shape of land topsoil Thick layer

26 Assessment Write an advertisement for an ideal soil for growing plants.


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