Presentation on theme: "World History Unit 1 Human Origins"— Presentation transcript:
1World History Unit 1 Human Origins Mrs. Saunders, Mrs.TolandAndMr. SanGivanni
2World history is the story of human experience. It is a story of how people, ideas, and goods spread across the earth creating our past and our present. To help us better understand this experience, we will divide history into four main eras:prehistory,ancient times,middle ages, andmodern times.Our story begins during prehistory in east Africa where human life began.
3Archaeologist Pre-History is the time before writing. Archaeologist study these early people by excavating early settlements (known as a Dig).They look for:Bones or human remains (to determine what people looked like),Artifacts (man-made objects) andFossils (animal and plant matter that has been preserved in nature.Archaeologist use Carbon-dating to tell the approximate age of a bone, artifact or fossil.
4AnthropologistsAnthropologist study the culture of early people to get a picture of how they lived.Culture is the way in which people live, including art, science, religion, government, etc.
5Ice Ages – Asia, North America, and Europe Last one ended about 10,000 years ago.
6Ice AgesLand Bridges formed from lower ocean levels and humans migrated across bridgesEurope to British IslesJapan to KoreaAsia to IndonesiaAsia to North America (Bering Strait)A map showing the Bering Strait land bridge. Archaeologists now believe that two different groups of Asian peoples came to North America at least 40,000 years ago.
7First Humans Came from Africa Paleolithic Age Why were they nomadic? (moving from place to place)Need for foodGrowth of GroupsWeatherMigration of animalsHomo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas.Paleolithic Age
8Early HumansHominids are the earliest humans (or human-like creatures) to walk upright.Australopithecus (southern ape) was a hominid that lived 4 to 1 million years ago and lived in nomadic clans.A trail of footprints 3 1/2 million years old found by Mary Leakey, archaeologist, at Laetoli, Tanzania. Some of the oldest hominid evidence found in Africa, these footprints show that human-like creatures were walking upright in East Africa 3 1/2 million years ago.
9AUSTRALOPITHECINE Paleolithic Age 4 million-1 million BC South & East AfricaBrain Size: 500 cm3First humanlike creature to walk uprightOpposable thumbPaleolithic Age
10Early HumansOldest hominid found is “Lucy” discovered by anthropologist Donald Johanson in East Africa.Early hominids had opposable thumbs.
11Humans Overcome Their Environment Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age)2.5 B.C to 8000 B.C.NomadicSimple tools (rocks or sticks)Learned how to make fireLived in clansDeveloped oral languageCreated cave art
12Early HumansHomo Habilis (Handy Man) lived 2.5 million year ago and used simple tools.
13Homo Habilis Paleolithic Age 2.5 million- 1.5 million BC East Africa Brain Size: 700 cm3First to make stone toolsPaleolithic Age
14Early HumansHomo Erectus lived from 1.6 million to 250,000 years ago. These people were more than five feet tall and probably had oral (spoken) languages for exchanging ideas (teaching) and team work.They used fire for warmth, cooking, protection and hunting.They used tools for cutting, digging and scraping.They used skins for clothing and leather strips for lacing.
15Homo Erectus Paleolithic Age 1.6 million-30,000 BC Africa, Asia, EuropeBrain Size: 1,000cm3Developed technology, such as applying tools to meet their needsFirst to migrateFirst to use fireMay have used language1.6 million-30,000 BCAfrica, Asia, EuropeBrain Size: 1,000cm3Developed technology, such as applying tools to meet their needsFirst to migrateFirst to use fireMay have used languagePaleolithic Age
16Early HumansHomo Sapiens (Wise Man) emerges in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago in North Africa.Neanderthals lived from 100,000 to 35,000 years ago and their burial remains indicate a belief in an afterlife (grave with flowers) and medical care of sick (mended broken bones). They were short and stocky with thick brows.
17NEANDERTHAL Paleolithic Age 200,000-30,000 BC Europe and SW Asia Brain Size: 1,450 cm3First to have burial ritesReligious beliefsPaleolithic Age
18Early HumansCro-Magnon Man lived from 40,000 to 10,000 years ago, in the late Paleolithic age, and was similar to modern humans. They were taller and thinner than Neanderthals. Cro-Magnon man used superior hunting strategies and had advanced language skills. (Our Ancestors!)
19CRO-MAGNON Paleolithic Age 40,000-8,000 BC Europe Brain Size: 1,400 cm3Fully modern humansCreated artPlanned hunts and studied animal habitsAdvanced languagePaleolithic Age
21Early HumansThe reconstructed skulls of three prehistoric humans. From left to right: Homo Erectus, Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon.
22COMPARISON OF BRAIN SIZE Skull SizeAustralopithecine Homo Erectus Homo Sapiens
23Human MigrationFrom Africa humans spread to Eurasia (Europe and Asia), to Australia, and finally to the Americas. Human migration was one of the great waves of history.
24How does the map show human migration? What theory of the origin of humanity does the map present? How do you know?In general, what does the map suggest that populations did when they reached barriers, such as oceans, that did not allow them to continue in the direction they were going?
25Paleolithic or Old Stone Age PRE-HISTORYSTONE AGEPaleolithic or Old Stone AgeIncludes Ice AgeHunters & GathersMigrated in search of food, water, and shelterInvented the first tools and simple weaponsLearned how to make fireLived in clans and created cave artDeveloped oral languageNeolithic or New Stone AgeNeo means new
26Early Human societies, through the development of culture, began the process of overcoming the limits set by the physical environment.
27Neolithic EraDuring most of history, most humans made their living by hunting and gathering (women mostly gathered). By the end of this time period, Cro-Magnon man had developed art (Jewelry, sculptures, and cave paintings) and complex tools.Some complex tools used were knives, throwing spears, fish hooks, harpoons and sewing needle. Because of improved tools, Cro-Magnon man had improved health and increased food supply, both of which led to increased population.
29Neolithic RevolutionThen about 10,000 years ago people in the Middle East learned how to raise a wild wheat plant, and agriculture (farming and raising livestock) was born -- another big wave of history.Some of the causes of the Neolithic Revolution, or the start of settled agriculture, are a warmer climate and longer growing season. The result is the development of permanent settlements or communities.
30The Neolithic Revolution Early man lived in groups of 2 to 3 dozen people.Men did the hunting.Women gathered fruit, berries, roots, and grasses.The scattering of seeds, about 10,000 years ago, led to the Neolithic Revolution, in other words, agriculture.At first they used slash and burn farming-people cut and burn trees to clear land. Ashes act as fertilizer. The did not stay in one place for a long time, but moved on after a few seasons.
31Domestication of Plants and Animals At about the same time, people began to domesticate wild animals, raising them for food and as a source of power that could pull wagons and plows.The dog was the first animal tamed, followed by the goat, horse and pig.(Pastoral Nomad – wandering herders of goats and sheep.)
32Agricultural originally developed in Africa, China, India, Mesopotamia and Americas (Central and South).
33Neolithic RevolutionAgriculture and irrigation began in an area of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent that stretched from Iraq to Egypt.Agriculture is believed to have been started 9000 years ago in Jarmo, an archeological site in the Zargros mountains in North East Iraq.
34Neolithic RevolutionIn the agricultural village of Catal Huyuk (Catalhoyuk)in south central Turkey there is evidence of crops (wheat, barley and peas) and animals (sheep and cattle). The people of Catal Huyuk believed in a Mother Goddess who controlled crop yields.With permanent homes, people could collect more possessions, which encouraged the invention of new technologies such as pottery making and looms for weaving cloth.
39Agricultural SurplusBecause agriculture could support more people per square mile than hunting and gathering, human population increased from about two million people during the early Stone Age to about 60 million during the late Stone Age.Farmers learned to grow more food than they needed for their own use, resulting in a surplus. Farmers increased food production through irrigation which allowed for the cultivation of more land and technology such as the plow and potters wheel.
43Technology Any improvement in farming technology will always lead to: Improved healthIncreased populationIncreased food surplusIncreased trade
44Specialization of Labor This food surplus will lead to the development of cities and civilization.Agricultural surpluses made it possible to accumulate wealth, and that led to specialization of labor because not everyone had to raise food to make a living. Some people could specialize in non-agricultural work – (craftsmen or artisans) like making pottery, or becoming priests or government officials -- and be supported by others from the agricultural surplus.Traders also emerged and with them came the inventions of the wheel and the sail.
45Transition to Villages Growing population resulted in competition for food. NEOLITHIC ERA
46Transition to villages Economic Changes-Irrigation and other developments produced crop surplus.NEOLITHIC ERA
47Transition to villages Social Changes-cooperation was needed for projectsSocial classes began to emergeReligion became more organizedNEOLITHIC ERA
48Jericho (JAIR-uh-koe) Villages grew near farmlands, and the world’s first known city developed at Jericho in Palestine around 8,000 BC. Walls were built around Jericho to protect its agricultural surplus from nomadic raiders. Warfare, too, might have begun at Jericho.
50AleppoAleppo is a city located in northern Syria. It is strategically located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Euphrates River- in the Fertile Crescent
51AleppoView of the excavations undertaken by Professor Kay Kohlmeyer and his team on the Aleppo Citadel.
52CivilizationAgriculture made civilization possible. No longer were humans constantly on the move searching for food. People could settle in one place, build cities, and make inventions like the plow, wheel, and writing. The complex societies that resulted are what we call civilization, another wave of history and the start of ancient times.
53Complex culture with five characteristics CIVILIZATIONSWHAT IS CIVILIZATION?Complex culture with five characteristics1. Advanced cities-center of trade for a larger area.2. Specialized workers-expert at jobs other than farmingNEOLITHIC ERA
54CIVILIZATIONS NEOLITHIC ERA 3. Complex institutions-a long lasting pattern of organization in a community Government, religion and economy became more complex and organized.NEOLITHIC ERA
55CivilizationNot everything about civilization was positive. Complex societies usually meant greater separation of people into classes based on social position or wealth. Civilized societies also tended to be more warlike and more patriarchal (male dominated) than hunter-gatherer bands in which everyone helped to supply food that ensured the group’s survival. Hunting and gathering declined as agriculture became the way most humans made their living. Agriculture became the main source of wealth in most societies until the industrial age.
56CIVILIZATIONS NEOLITHIC ERA Record Keeping-most developed a system of writing.Scribes-record keepersCuneiform-perhaps the oldest system of writingNEOLITHIC ERA
57Record KeepingWriting probably began as a way to record business dealings, especially the exchange of agricultural products. Writing was used to track accounts, record time or seasons (calendar) and record laws. Cities and writing are considered the primary indicators of civilization. When people started to write, prehistoric times ended, and historic times began.
58Writing began as pictographs which were symbols of objects Writing began as pictographs which were symbols of objects. Cuneiform writing developed in Sumer and was wedge shaped.Professional record keepers who could read and write were known as Scribes.Writing
59CIVILIZATIONS NEOLITHIC ERA Advanced Technology-new tools made life easier and work more productive.Bronze Age-when people began using bronze which was harder than copper or stone tools or weapons.NEOLITHIC ERA
60Social Classes and Religion Often a wealthy class of aristocrats controlled the land and collected rents from poor farmers. Society became divided between the “haves” and the “have nots.” People in civilized societies divided themselves into unequal social classes with priests and kings at the top, men came to dominate women, and slavery became common.
61ReligionReligion became more organized and focused on many nature and animal spirits. People began to develop religious rituals.
62On the Banks of the Euphrates River UR IN SUMEROn the Banks of the Euphrates RiverUr, located in Sumer (modern Iraq), was one of the first civilizations. They built temple pyramids called ziggurats.NEOLITHIC ERA
63Domestication of animals New advanced tools Made pottery EFFECTS NEOLITHIC REVOLUTIONCIRMCUMSTANCERising temperaturesNew farming method-Slash and burnDomestication of animalsNew advanced toolsMade potteryEFFECTSSteady source of foodSupport more peopleSurplus of cropsDeveloped weaving skillsEstablishment of villages and permanent settlements
64Humans Overcome Their Environment Neolithic Era (New Stone Age)8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.Advanced tools (reshaping or combining of parts)Developed agricultureDomesticated animalsUsed advanced toolsMade PotteryDeveloped weaving skills
65Bronze AgeThe Stone Age was followed by the Bronze Age when people learned to make bronze tools, ornaments, and weapons. Bronze is made by combining copper with tin, which produces a harder metal than copper alone, and it holds an edge much longer.The Bronze Age was a time of great invention; the wheel, plow, writing, money, cities, armies and chariots all came into use during the Bronze Age in Mesopotamia.
66KEY TERMSThe time period before written languagePREHISTORY
67KEY TERMS A person who roams in search of food, shelter, and water NOMAD
68KEY TERMSThe modern human species that emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.HOMO SAPIENS
71KEY TERMSBeginning of Permanent SettlementsSettled Agriculture
72KEY TERMSA time when people began to live in permanent settled locations and advanced culturally, politically, and scientificallyCivilization
73KEY TERMS The scientific study of the material remains of a man’s past ARCHAEOLOGY
74KEY TERMSObject remaining from a time period, such as a tool or pottery.Artifact
75KEY TERMSA scientific test to analyze fossils and artifacts to determine age.Carbon Dating
76HOMO SAPIENSHomo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
77Hunter Gatherer Societies of the Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) Nomadic ( migrated in search of food, water, and shelter)Invented the first tools and simple weaponsLearned how to make fireLived in clans and created cave artDeveloped oral language
78Societies during the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) Developed AgricultureDomesticated AnimalsUsed advanced toolsMade potteryDeveloped weaving skills
79Archaeological Discoveries Are Changing the present day knowledge of early peoples. Archaeologists study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts.Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifactsStonehenge is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic Age and completed during the Bronze Age.
80StonehengeThis complex of megaliths (which means large stones of ancient construction) was assembled 4000 years ago on the Salisbury plain in Wiltshire, England. Religious belief and practice inspired its construction and dictated its uses. It was begun during the Neolithic period and completed during the Bronze Age.