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History Of Mining 1. Some primitive mining activity occurred during the stone age when Neolithic Man exploited flint deposits. Some of these early flint.

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Presentation on theme: "History Of Mining 1. Some primitive mining activity occurred during the stone age when Neolithic Man exploited flint deposits. Some of these early flint."— Presentation transcript:

1 History Of Mining 1

2 Some primitive mining activity occurred during the stone age when Neolithic Man exploited flint deposits. Some of these early flint mines consisted of vertical shafts 6 feet in diameter and 30 feet deep. Old mining implements included deer horn picks and the shoulder blade of large animals used as shovels 2

3 History Of Mining The earliest records of organized mining are those of the Egyptians dating from 3000 BC They mined for gold, silver, copper and turquoise in near surface deposits In 50 BC they used prisoners to mine for gold underground 3

4 History Of Mining Fire Setting At the time fire setting was the universal method of driving tunnels through hard rock. Consisted of lighting brushwood fires against the solid rock face and when it was hot rapidly cooling it by throwing water on it. This abrupt cooling would cause cracking and could be broken down with primitive picks and wedges. 4

5 History Of Mining The next race of people to advance the spread of mining were the Romans. They had learned mining methods from the many different nations they had conquered and accumulated considerable experience which had been acquired in the course of centuries by many different races The Romans mined on a large scale throughout Europe and Africa. In most cases they had slaves do the mining 5

6 History Of Mining North American Natives Mined rocks for native copper, flint, chert, siltstone obsidian and ochre. They used these rocks to make tools, weapons and decorative objects. Flint was used for making spear points, arrowheads, knives, scrapers and to start fire. Red ochre was used to paint stories on rocks. Aboriginal people had an extensive trade network and traded these materials throughout the Americas. 6

7 History Of Mining Advances in technology and civilizations indicated in terms of Stone Age. Copper Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. People had to dig trenches, caves, and pits, operations later extended to the excavation of shafts, tunnels and underground chambers. Ancient operations were limited to the technology available. 7

8 History Of Mining By the middle ages (1000 – 1453 AD) advances had been made in mining and metallurgy, although they remained labour intensive. The use of explosives which began around 1627 eliminated much of the arduous work needed to break the rock. Steam was first applied for industrial power around 1700 in Cornwall England. The use of steam locomotives and mine hoists followed a few years later. 8

9 History Of Mining Canadian Mining History In the western hemisphere no underground mining was done before the arrival of the Spanish. Mining had been limited to Placer work. The search for gold was a principal objective of the explorers. In North America, Master Simon, a mining engineer with Samuel de Champlain reported the discovery of silver and iron in Acadia in

10 History Of Mining Canadian Mining History Early sailors and settlers were aware of coal outcrops along the shores of Cape Breton Island. The first coal mine in Canada was on Cape Breton Island. Mining and metallurgical operations began in Eastern North America as settlements proceeded. Small ore bodies of lead (for bullets) and copper were opened, iron deposits were also mined. By the early 1700s, several iron foundaries were in operation in Forges Saint-Maurice at Trois-Rivieres, Quebec. 10

11 History Of Mining Canadian Mining History The first significant mines in northern North America were opened about 1845 to exploit copper ore bodies near Lake Michigan The discovery of placer gold along the Fraser river in 1858 caused a Gold Rush in the interior of British Columbia. In 1896 gold was discovered in the Yukon Territory setting off the exiting and turbulent Klondike Gold Rush 11

12 History Of Mining Canadian Mining History In 1883 during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, nickel-copper ore was discovered near Sudbury Ontario. Shortly after the turn of the century Silver was discovered in Cobalt, then gold in Porcupine and Kirkland Lake. Prospecting continued leading to discovery of copper, lead and zinc ore bodies in Rouyn-Noranda and Val dOr Quebec. 12

13 History Of Mining Canadian Mining History Coal has been mined on Nova Scotia and New Brunswick since the early days of settlement. Coal mining didnt start in the west until the 1830s when the Vancouver Island coal seams were opened near Nanaimo. As the railways brought settlers to the prairies coal seems were mined to provide fuel for local use and foothill and mountain seams were opened to serve both railways and settlers. As the railways pushed their way across the country the population increased in the more remote areas resulting in an increase in mineral exploration, discoveries and new mines. 13

14 History Of Mining Canadian Mining History The growth in export markets particularly in Japan and the use of coal for electric-power generation is now provided by larger open pit mines. 14


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