Presentation on theme: "Study on the Injection System for Compact Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry Do Gyun Kim, Joonyeon Kim, H. C. Bhang Department of Physics, Seoul National University."— Presentation transcript:
Study on the Injection System for Compact Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry Do Gyun Kim, Joonyeon Kim, H. C. Bhang Department of Physics, Seoul National University C. C. Yun Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University Jong-Won Kim National Cancer Center
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for isotopic analysis. For the last few decays, AMS technique is widely used for radiocarbon dating, environment research, biology, and so on. Radiocarbon dating 14 C is needed to separate from the 14 N, 13 CH and 12 CH 2 Mass resolving power of a cyclotron = M/ΔM 83,000 between 14 C and 14 N 1,900 between 14 C and 13 CH 3 MV AMS ( 1999) 1 MV AMS ( 2007)
Tandem AMS Negative ion source: prohibit 14 N (negative electron affinity) Bending magnet: select carbon isotope and their molecular isobars Negative ion acceleration: up to terminal voltage Stripper stage: change the charge state into positive suppress the molecular isobars Positive ion acceleration: up to terminal voltage* electric charge Ion selection: 14 C – count the particle (SSB detector) 12 C & 13 C – reading the current Schematic configurations of the Tandem AMS system. Beam energy: several MeV Size: ~ 7x5m 2 (for NEC 500kV tandem AMS system) Difficult in maintenance (ex. SF6 insulating gas)
Cyclotron AMS Schematic configurations of the cyclotron AMS system. Negative or Positive ion source: Negative ion source for carbon dating Rf buncher: focusing the beam in the longitudinal direction Bending magnet & slit system select carbon isotope for alternate acceleration Quadrupole triplet: matching the transverse phase space Cyclrotron : alternate acceleration of 12C, 13C and 14C Ion selection : Rf frequency response curve (using MCP) 14 C sample blank Mass resolving power (m/Δm): ~1900 (14C&13CH) Beam energy: ~100keV Size: ~ 3x2.5m 2
Previous Cyclotron AMS 1. LBL(Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory) Cyclotrino: first cyclotron AMS Very low transmission efficiency: 5x10 -5 (0.2 counts/min for a source current of 10 μA) 2. SMCAMS (Shanghai mini cyclotron AMS): recent cyclotron AMS Transmission efficiency: ~0.1 (25 cps for a source current of 40~50 μA) Unstable cyclotron magnet system
Design of Cyclotron AMS We plan to adopt RF buncher and flat-topping RF system to improve transmission efficiency Flat-topped RF wave by the third harmonic frequency added Beam phase acceptance: ~ 30° A beam is bunched at the injection line by RF buncher The sawtooth RF buncher we chose is similar to the one built at GANIL* The RF frequency of the AMS cyclotron : ~0.5 MHz The number of harmonics considered is around 20. The frequency of the buncher is in the range of 10 MHz. * A. Chabert et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 423 (1999) 7.
Design of Injection Beam Line RF buncher It is loacated rather in the upstream (F1) of the beam line to reduce the required RF voltage. 90° dipole magnet Bending radius: 30 cm Edge angles: ~30° (vertical focusing) Slit system Pre-selection of the isotopes of carbon Quadrupole triplet Electrostatic or magnetic Matching the transverse phase spaces
Design of Injection Beam Line The design of an injection beam line, which extends from the extraction of ion source to the injection at the cyclotron, was carried out using TRANSPORT and TURTLE program Transverse envelopes of a 14 C beam simulated using TRANSPORT Beam separation at the focal point F2 simulated using TURTLE.
Ion Source Assembly The ion source assembly mainly consists of filament, anode, extraction electrode, and gas inlet. The extraction system is designed to extract ions with extraction voltage up to 30kV. Aperture diameters of anode and extraction electrode is 0.5mm and 3mm. The extraction electrode is designed to be replaceable for adjustment the gap distance. The front part of the einzel lens is designed to accommodate the extraction electrode.
Beam Extraction Test Carbon beam extraction test (Co2 gas), Digital camera image Extraction voltage: 15kV, Beam size: 4*4mm 2 Einzel lens voltage: 11.5kV) Einzel lens voltage: 11.0kV Einzel lens voltage: 11.5kV Einzel lens voltage: 12.0kV
Rf Buncher System Sawtooth Rf driver A triode tube is used as switching device with an input of duty variable square pulses -Duty variable Pulse signal is fed to Triac. -Buncher is a kind of capacitor, so the electric potential of inner cylinder oscillate like as saw-tooth wave.
Rf Buncher System Buncher is located right after the Einzel lens. This location allows use of a lower voltage and a longer drift space. This can reduce beam-energy spreads, but the coupling of rf bunching effect with the dipole bending seems to make the width of beam phase bunched at the injection point difficult to be controlled. Beam energy spreads versus the distance of drift space for two different rf voltages. Motions of 6D phase spaces and the beam envelopes calculated using TRACE3D.
Design of Dipole Magnet A 90 dipole magnet has been designed using RADIA software. Bend radius: 30cm Edge angel: 30° Pole gap: 45mm Magnetic rigidity ( 14 C, 30keV): ~0.1 Tm Required magnetic field: ~3.1 kG Total current : ~6000 A Bump size (Bump height: 0.5mm) Inner bump: 9mm, Outer bump: 15mm Good field region(ΔB/B<0.1%): ~4 cm
Conclusions Beam extraction experiments was performed using CO2 gas. 90 dipole magnet will soon be constructed (next month). Rf buncher is manufactured. But the sawtooth RF driver will be modified (10MHz). Comparison of the beam optics calculations with the beam measurements will help in better matching the beam phase space to cyclotron acceptance. We expect that optimal injection line design will be revealed by this work.