2Learning…the relatively permanent change in a subject’s behavior to a given situation brought about by his (or her) repeated experiences in that situation, provided that the behavior change cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states of the subject (e.g., fatigue, drugs, etc.).
3Learning“A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience”
4Are These Examples of Learning? Why or Why Not? 1. The cessation of thumb sucking by an infant.2. The acquisition of language in children.3. A computer program generates random opening moves for its first 100 chess games and tabulates the outcomes of those games. Starting with the 101st game, the computer uses those tabulations to influence its choice of opening moves.4. A worm is placed in a T maze. The left arm of the maze is brightly lit and dry; the right arm is dim and moist. On the first 10 trials, the worm turns right 7 times. On the next 10 trials, the worm turns right all 10 times.
5Examples of Learning?5. Ethel stays up late the night before the October GRE administration and consumes large quantities of licit and illicit pharmacological agents. Her combined (verbal plus quantitative) score is 410. The night before the December GRE administration, she goes to bed early after a wholesome dinner and a glass of milk. Her score increases to Is the change in scores due to learning? Is the change in pretest regimen due to learning?6. A previously psychotic patient is given Dr. K’s patented phrenological surgery and no longer exhibits any psychotic behaviors.7. A lanky zinnia plant is pinched back and begins to grow denser foliage and flowers.
6Examples of Learning?8. MYCIN is a computer program that does a rather good job of diagnosing human infections by consulting a large database of rules it has been given. If we add another rule to the database, has MYCIN learned something?9. After pondering over a difficult puzzle for hours, Jane finally figures it out. From that point on, she can solve all similar puzzles in the time it takes her to read them.10. After 30 years of smoking two packs a day, Zeb throws away his cigarettes and never smokes again.
7Watson’s Extreme Environmentalism “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.”John Broadus Watson, 1928
8Types of Learning Observational Learning Associative Learning watch & learnAssociative Learninglink two eventsClassical Conditioningassociate two stimuli and anticipate eventsOperant Conditioningassociate our behavior and its consequence and act according to our best interestChapter outline
9Observational Learning We can learn from other’s experiences and examples.
10Associative Learning Linking two events that occur close together Someone is shot. First you hear the sound of the shot, then see the blood.You associate guns with danger – the linking of events..
13Associative Learning If you’ve seen the movie, Jaws, you probably had a feeling that danger was just around thecorner. This is “associative learning.”
14Conditioning – the process of learning associations Classical – associating two stimuli and thus anticipating events.
15Classical Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli
16Classical and Operant Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events.Operant:We learn to associate a response and its consequence and thus repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment.
17Classical Conditioning Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson.Preview Question 2: How does classical conditioning demonstrate learning by association?SovfotoIvan Pavlov ( )
18Ivan Pavlov Father of Classical Conditioning… …noticed that when he put food (UCS) in adog’s mouth, the dog would salivate (UCR).
19So…he added a neutral stimulus, which became the (CS) and produced a (CR)
22Classical Conditioning Terms UCS – unconditioned stimulusUCR – unconditioned responseCS - conditioned stimulusCR – conditioned responseExtinction – diminishing a conditioning when a response is no longer reinforcedGeneralization – once a response has been conditioned, similar stimuli elicit similar responses
23Pavlov’s ApparatusFigure 5.3 from:Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Harness and mouth tube help keep dog in a consistent position to gather uncontaminated saliva samples
24Before Conditioning Before Stimuli Are Paired Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) elicits Unconditioned Response (UCR)Meat elicits salivationNeutral stimulus (NS) elicits no particular responseThe bell does not lead to a particular response
25During ConditioningConditioning: Neutral Stimulus (NS) is paired with the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)Bell rings, then meat powder is deliveredThis pairing happens a number of times (trials)
26After ConditioningAfter several trials, when the bell rings, the dog salivates (NO FOOD NEEDED!)The Bell is now a Conditioned Stimulus (CS)Salivation is now a Conditioned Response (CR)
28Classical Conditioning Terms AcquisitionFormation of a learned response to a stimulus through presentation of an unconditioned stimulusExtinctionElimination of a learned response by removal of the unconditioned stimulusGeneralizationWhen the classically conditioned reaction occurs to other (similar) stimuli
29AcquisitionAcquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place.In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus.The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
30AcquisitionThe CS needs to come half a second before the US for acquisition to occur.
31ExtinctionWhen the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction.
32Spontaneous RecoveryAfter a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again.
33Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped.
34Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
35Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or mind, unfit for the scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints.Preview Question 4: Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning?
36Cognitive ProcessesEarly behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms.However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972).
37Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning.However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.
38Biological Predispositions Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not.Courtesy of John GarciaJohn Garcia
39Biological Predispositions Even humans can develop classically to conditioned nausea.
40Pavlov’s LegacyPavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures.Preview Question 5: Why is Pavlov’s work important?Ivan Pavlov( )
41Applications of Classical Conditioning Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use.Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response.
42Applications of Classical Conditioning Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making the “coffee break” an American custom.Brown BrothersJohn B. Watson
68Operant & Classical Conditioning 1. Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the other hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events.Preview Question 6: What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning?
69Operant & Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning involves respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a certain stimulus. Operant conditioning involves operant behavior, a behavior that operates on the environment, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli.Classical = automatic responseOperant = deliberate behavior
71Operant Conditioning Learning associations between actions and consequences
72Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its con- sequence
73Operant Conditioning Behavior Increases chances of followed by Reinforcement
74Types of Reinforcement Positive Reinforcementadds good thingsExamples: Money, Praise, FoodNegative Reinforcementtakes bad things awayExamples: removing pain, toothache, hunger
75Types of Reinforcement Increases BehaviorAdd StimulusPositive Reinforcement(+ good things)Remove StimulusNegative Reinforcement(-bad things)Similar to Table 5.1 inKassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
76Types of Reinforcement Increases BehaviorDecreases BehaviorAdd StimulusPositive ReinforcementPositive PunishmentRemove stimulusNegative reinforcementNegative PunishmentSimilar to Table 5.1 inKassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
77Negative Reinforcement Some examples of negative reinforcers – reducing or removing the unpleasant stimulusTaking an aspirin to relieve a headache
78Negative Reinforcement Smoking in order to relieve anxiety
79Negative Reinforcement Feigning a stomach ache to avoid something you don’t want to face.
80Negative Reinforcement Hurrying home in winter to escape the cold
81Negative Reinforcement Putting on your safety belt to stop the buzzing
82Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement has occurred when three conditions have been met:A consequence is presented dependenton a behavior.2. The behavior becomes more likely tooccur.3. The behavior becomes more likely to occur because and only because the consequence is presented dependent on the behavior.
83Positive Reinforcement Study for a test, earn an A on the exam.
85Positive Reinforcement New hairstyle, positive attention and compliments.
86EXAMPLE of Operant Learning Every night after dinner, Pat sits down to watch TV, but before long Pat’s dog Juno is barking and whining. Pats gives him a toy to chew on, and he quiets down. Now he whines every night until Pat gives him a toy.How is Juno’s behavior being learned?
871. What is the Behavior?Barking and whining after dinner
882. What is the consequence of the behavior? i.e. What happens when Juno barks and whines?Juno gets a toy.
893. Is this consequence adding or removing something? Adding something – the toy.
904. Is it positive or negative (a pleasant or unpleasant consequence)?
915. Does this consequence increase or decrease the likelihood of Juno barking and whining in the future.Increase So, is this punishment or reinforcement? Reinforcement
92Juno is learning to bark and whine after dinner through POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
93Law of Effect Underlies all of operant conditioning “Behavior that is rewarded will be repeated”
94Types of Punishment Positive Punishment Adds bad things Example: The driver's speeding results in a ticket and a fineNegative PunishmentTakes good things awayExample: a child talks back, is not allowed to watch television
95Reinforcement versus punishment What works better, reinforcement or punishment?
96Try this Test1.Go to this site:2. Take the test.3. Score the test.4. Hand it in.5. Bring your questions to class.
100Thorndike and Puzzle Boxes Cats put into puzzle boxesSlightly hungryFood outsideTime to escape decreased over attempts
101Thorndike and Puzzle Boxes Cats put into puzzle boxesSlightly HungryFood outsideTime to escape decreased over attemptsBehaviors that worked to escape were repeatedOther behaviors decreased
102ShapingRewarding successively closer approximations of a desired behaviorUseful for teaching new behaviorsExp: puppy paper training
103Shaping A Rat 1) The rat is trained to press a lever to get a reward: 2) The rat has to push a rod and then press the lever to get a reward:3) The rat learns to lift a marble, push a rod and press the lever to get a reward:Now the rat performs all three behaviors
104Rate of ReinforcementContinuous reinforcement: reward after every responseIntermittent reinforcement: only sometimes rewardIntermittent works betterkids and temper tantrums, icky boyfriends/girlfriends
106Reinforcement Schedules Fixed Ratio – reward after a set number of responsesVariable Ratio - reward after a varying number of responsesFixed Interval -reward after a predictable timeVariable Interval - reward after an unpredictable time interval
107Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio- every so manyInterval – every so oftenCan be:After an unpredictable numberAfter a random amount of time
108Fixed-Ratio Schedule Reward after a set number of responses Ex: Frequent shopper at Subway – get free sandwich after 8 purchasesEx: Paid per piece of work produced
109Variable-Ratio Schedules Reward after a varying number of responsesEx: “Good job”Ex: Boyfriend or girlfriend returns your phone call
115Schedules of Reinforcement Steeper lines mean higher response ratesRatio schedules produce higher response rates than interval schedulesFigure 5.12 from:Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:
116ExtinctionMore rapid to fixed ratio than variable ratio reinforcement
117Thus, best is variable ratio An example of variable ratio…
120Work Preference Inventory Handout 19-5 Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic MotivationTo assess your intrinsic motivation, reverse your scores (1 = 4, 2 = 3, 3 = 2, 4 = 1) for items 9 and 14 and then add the numbers in response to items 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 27, 28, and 30.To assess extrinsic motivation reverse your scores (1 = 4, 2 = 3, 3 = 2, 4 = 1) for items 1, 16, and 22 and then add the numbers in response to items 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, and 29.
121Work Preference Inventory Handout Scores on each subscale can range from 15 to 60, with higher scores reflecting greater intrinsic and greater extrinsic motivation, respectively.Mean scores for both male and female students are approximately 45 and 39 on the intrinsic and extrinsic scales, respectively.Research suggests little correlation between scores on the two scales.
122Observational Learning Learning without direct reinforcement
123Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study Children exposed to either aggressive, non-aggressive, or no adult modelChildren are made to feel frustratedChildren then taken to room with Bobo doll and their behavior observedChildren exposed to aggressive model much more aggressive than other children.