Presentation on theme: "1. Gender Differences In The Relation Of Dyadic Types Of Partner Violence To Depression Among University Students In 15 Nations Murray A. Straus Family."— Presentation transcript:
1. Gender Differences In The Relation Of Dyadic Types Of Partner Violence To Depression Among University Students In 15 Nations Murray A. Straus Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire Durham, NH Website: Zeev Winstok Center for the Study of Society, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel Presented at the Society For the Study Of Social Problems annual meeting, New York 8 August This is one of a series reporting results of the International Parenting Study directed by Angele Fauchier and the Dyadic Types Research Program. Papers on these and related topics can be downloaded from The work was partly supported by National Institute of Mental Health grant T32MH15161, the University of New Hampshire.
2 Questions To Be Addressed 1.What percent of university student couples in 15 nations experienced violence in their relationships in the previous 12 months? 2.Of those who experienced violence, what percent were in each of three Dyadic Types (DTs): Male-Only, Female-Only, Both-Assaulted? 3. What is the relationship between violence in a relationship and depression and does this vary depending on: A. Whether the partner was the victim or the aggressor, or both victim and aggressor? B. Whether it is the male or female partner? Results are somewhat surprising 4. What is a plausible theory to explain them? 5. What are the implications for A.Theories to explain PV? B.Methodology for research on PV? C.Efforts to prevent and treat PV?
3 The International Parenting Study 15 Nations, 11,408 university students Analyses control for variables such as: Age of student Socially desirable responding Parents education
Table 1. International Parenting Study Sample Characteristics for 15 Nations Region Nation N % FemaleMean Age Total %21.07 AsiaTWN Taiwan %20.19 HKG Hong Kong %22.99 EuropeBEL Belgium %19.76 GRC Greece %20.89 ITA Italy %21.82 POL Poland %21.42 RUS Russia %19.48 GBR Scotland %20.24 SVN Slovenia %21.93 CHE Switzerland %23.92 NOR Norway %22.39 ESP Spain %21.55 Middle East ISR Israel %23.82 N. America CAN Canada %23.18 USA United States %
5 Measure s Partner violence: Short form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales Straus, M. A., & Douglas, E. M. (2004). A short form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and typologies for seventy and mutuality. Violence and Victims, 19, Cases will be analyzed by comparing Dyadic Types of partner violence Depression: Major Depression Inventory Olsen, L. R., Jensen, D. V., Noerholm, V., Martiny, K., & Bech, P. (2003). The internal and external validity of the Major Depression Inventory in measuring depressive states. Psychological Medicine, 33,
6 Data Analysis Analysis of covariance Controlled for: Education of father Education of mother (are the results just a reflection of SES? Misbehavior as a child (are results just a continuation of a long –standing pattern) Corporal punishment by father As above Corporal punishment by mother As above Age of student at time of study (because older persons have lower crime rates Limited Disclosure scale (do the results just reflect that willingness to disclose one type of socially undesirable behavior is associated with willingness to disclose other types) Nation in which data was collected There are important differences between nations in the prevalence of crime. National differences in crime, include DT are analyzed elsewhere (cite??). The focus of this study is whether there are effects of DT that are in addition to the national context effects.
Dyadic Types (DTs) Everyone Agrees On The Need To Take Into Account The Behavior Of Both Partners To Deal With Relationship Issues. But Few Do DTs are a practical method of doing taking the behavior of both partners into account Three DTs: * Male Partner Only * Female Partner Only * Both partners engage in the behavior Practical because DTs obtained by just cross tabulating the behavior of the male partner by that of the female partner If the behavior is an interaction in which both participated, such as violence, data obtained from just one of the partners, has the same validity (or lack of) as when both partners
Dyadic Assault Types For Dating Relationships Among 11,408 University Students in 15 Nations - Any Assault Straus, M. A., & Winstok, Z. (2013). Gender Differences in the Relation Of Dyadic Types Of Partner Violence To Depression Among University students in 15 nations. Paper presented at the Society For The Study Of Social Problems Annual Meeting, New York. 8 10% 47% 43% Q 1. What percent of university student couples in 15 nations experienced violence in their relationships in previous 12 months? Prevalence Men 14% Women 18% Q 2 Of those who experienced violence, what percent were in each of three Dyadic Types (DTs):
9 Are These Percentages Unique To This Student Sample? U.S. National Comorbidity Study (N=8,098)* % * Kessler, R. C., Molnar, B. E., Feurer, I. D., & Appelbaum, M. (2001). Patterns and mental health predictors of domestic violence in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. International Journal Of Law And Psychiatry, 24(4-5), Predominant Pattern Is Both-Violent Male-Only and Female-Only about same % Same pattern as in current study and in more than 50 studies** which found:
Ada[ted from Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Selwyn, C., & Rohling, M. L. (2012). Rates of Bidirectional Versus Unidirectional Intimate Partner Violence Across Samples, Sexual Orientations, and Race/Ethnicities: A Comprehensive Review. Partner Abuse, 3(2), doi: / studies 10
Dyadic Types Can be Important For Understanding and Treating Almost All Types Of Relationship Behaviors (Results for `14,282 University Student Dating Couples)_ Dyadic Type Gender of Respondent % Male Only % Female Only % Both Any AssaultFemale Severe AssaultFemale Any Injury-Perpetration Female Severe Injury-PerpetrationFemale Any Psych AggressionFemale Severe Psych AggressionFemale Any Sexual CoercionFemale Verbal Sexual CoercionFemale Physical Sexual CoercionFemale IntransigentFemale13978 Percentages are similar when based on reports by male students
Is the High Percent of Women Who Assault Self-defense? Studies on who hit first found it was female partner half the cases Hamberger, % Bland & Orn, % Straus, % Stets [, 1990 #4608]58% DeMaris, % Capaldi [, 2007 #11544] 46% the median %- Gryl, Stith, & Bird, % Saunders, % Fiebert, Gonzalez, % Molidor & Tolman,, % OKeefe, % 9 Studies which asked women whether it was in self-defense: Median = 19%, range:5 to 47% None of the studies found that a majority of women acted in self-defense Almost half of the eleven comparisons found a higher percent of men than women acting in self-defense
13 Question 3. What is the relationship between violence in a relationship and depression and does this vary depending on: A. Whether the partner was the victim or the aggressor, or both victim and aggressor? B. Whether it is the male or female partner?
14 Relation of Dyadic Types Of Partner Violence To Depression Dating Relationships Of University Students In 15 Nations (N=11,408) Women Men No Violence: Women higher in depression than men Sole Perpetrator: Male perpetrators higher in depression than female Sole Victim: Women victims higher in depression than male victims Both Assault, i.e. both are victims and also perpetrators: Men higher in depression
15 Relation of Dyadic Types Of Partner Violence To Depression Dating Relationships Of University Students In 15 Nations (N=11,408 ) Women Men When men assault, either as sole perpetrator or both, male depression higher. Suggests either depression as a cause or male guilt, or both Women have highest depression when they are the sole victims of assault or both a victim and a perpetrator Gender Difference In link between PV and depression: Increase in depression is greater for men than women, except when men are the sole victims
16 Summary Both-Assault Dyadic Type The most prevalent Dyadic Type of partner violence Most closely associated with depression – not surprising Both most harmful is consistent with other studies, including studies of harmful effects for children Male-Only and Female-Only Dyadic Types Also associated with more mental health problems than among non-violent couples, but less so than the Both Assault DT. Comparing the sole perpetrator with being the sole victim Men are higher in depression when they are the sole perpetrators than when they are the sole victims Women are higher in depression when they are the sole victims than when they are the sole perpetrators What might explain these unexpected result?
17 Question 4. What is a plausible theory to explain the results? The difference between men and women in the relation of partner violence to depression reflects differences in culturally and biologically based gender roles Two relevant role differences are Greater saliency and importance of Status maintenance and enhancement for men Safety for women An underlying principle is that threat to central aspects of the self are associated with an increased probability of depression For men, lost of status if their violence becomes known is a bigger threat than lack of safety when they are victim of violence by their partner For women, lack of safety when they are attacked by their partner is bigger threat than loss of status if their violence becomes known.
18 Paper On The Theory In Preparation Will explain the basis for believing the assumptions are valid., for example the link between threat to the self and depression * Will provide specification of the theoretically based relationships Winstok and Straus, Gender Differences In Salience Of Status Enhancement and Safety In Relationships And Gender Differences In the Link Between Partner Violence and Depression
19 Q 5 Implications For Theory, Methods, And Practice Theory Explanations of the causes or the effects of PV need to take into account that studies world-wide found that Male-Only: about 25% Female-Only: about 25% Both-Assault: about 50% of couples Self-defense explains female violence only 10-20% of the time Method DTs need to be identify in all research on partner violence Necessary and practical to obtain data on both partners Can be done even when only one partner is the research participant
20 Implications (continued) Practice Because about half of all partner violence cases are in the Both- Assault type, including women seeking help from shelters: Service providers need to determine which DT applies to a particular client and why Determining the Dyadic type is second only to determining safety
21 Some References On Dyadic Types Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Selwyn, C., & Rohling, M. L. (2012). Rates of Bidirectional Versus Unidirectional Intimate Partner Violence Across Samples, Sexual Orientations, and Race/Ethnicities: A Comprehensive Review. Partner Abuse, 3(2), doi: / Straus, M. A., & Michel-Smith, Y. (In press). Mutuality, Severity, And Chronicity Of Violence by Father- Only, Mother-Only, And Mutually Violent Parents As Reported By University Students In 15 Nations. Child Abuse and Neglect. Straus, M. A. (2013, April 25). Dyadic Aggression types: An Extremely simple and extremely powerful tool for research, Theory, prevention, & treatment of family violence that is practical for use by almost all researchers and clinicians. Paper presented at the Violence, Conflicts and Unity in Family Context: A Reappraisal of Therapeutic and Judicial Doctrines, University of Haifa. Straus, M. A. (1992). Children as witnesses to marital violence: A risk factor for life long problems among a nationally representative sample of American men and women. In D. F. Schwartz (Ed.), Children and Violence: Report of the Twenty Third Ross Roundtable on Critical Approaches to Common Pediatric Problems (pp ). Columbus, Ohio: Ross Laboratories. Straus, M. A. (2013). Dyadic Types in the PASK project. Partner Abuse, 4(2). Other References Straus, M. A. (2004). Cross-cultural reliability and validity of the revised conflict tactics scales: A study of university student dating couples in 17 nations. Cross-Cultural Research, 38(4), Straus, M. A. (2009). The National context effect: An Empirical test of the validity of Cross-National research using unrepresentative samples. Cross-Cultural Research, 43(3), doi: /
22 References On the Conflict Tactics Scales Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), doi: / Straus, M. A., & Douglas, E. M. (2004). A short form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and typologies for seventy and mutuality. Violence and Victims, 19, Straus, M. A. (2004). Cross-cultural reliability and validity of the revised conflict tactics scales: A study of university student dating couples in 17 nations. Cross-Cultural Research, 38(4), Straus, M. A. (2012). Blaming the messenger for the bad news about partner violence by women: the Methodological, theoretical, and value basis of the purported invalidity of the Conflict Tactics Scales. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 30(5), doi: /bsl.2023 Straus, M. A., & Mickey, E. L. (2012). Reliability, validity, and prevalence of partner violence measured by the conflict tactics scales in male-dominant nations. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, doi: /j.avb