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2 lith.gif&imgrefurl= t=12&um=1&tbnid=9dzH89O1AdfhTM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=110&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dearth%2Bscience%2Bsystems%2Bvenn %2Bdiagram%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4BBYA_en___US251%26sa%3DN

3 Relative Age can be determined by the Principle of Superposition -assuming no change in the layers, the oldest are on the bottom and the youngest are on the top.

4 Radioactive dating can determine the Absolute Age of rocks.

5 Isotopes are elements that differ in number of neutrons. Some isotopes decay emitting energy Radioactive Rate at which elements decay determines rocks absolute age Radioactive isotopes include: Potassium, rubidium, strontium, uranium, and lead.

6 Unstable nuclei emits one or more particles or energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation Nuclear radiation is the energy or matter released during the decay

7 Alpha +2 chargeα Beta -1 chargeβ Gamma 0 chargeγ

8 Alpha -Atomic # goes down by 2-Mass goes down by 4;can penetrate a piece of paper Uranium-238 decays through a decay into Thorium-234 Beta -Atomic # goes up by 1-Mass has no change; can penetrate a piece of aluminum Gamma -Atomic # and mass have no change; very powerful light energy; can penetrate lead 238 92 U ______________234 90 Th 234 90 Th ______234 91 Pa ______234 92 U

9 Release of high-energy neutron by a neutron-rich nuclei during radioactive decay No Charge Travel farther than alpha and beta particles

10 Half-life is the time required for half a sample of radioactive nuclei to decay Half-life rates of common isotopes: Carbon-14 5,730 years Thorium-229 7,340 years Lead-202 52,500 years Uranium-238 4,468,000,000 years Rubidium-87 4,750,000,000 years

11 Virtual Dating Science CoursewareVirtual Dating Science Courseware viewed on July 19th 2008

12 Radiometric Dating Berkley Radiometric Dating Berkley on July 19 th 2008

13 2.jpg&imgrefurl= NM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhalf%2Blife%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4BBYA_en___US251%26sa%3DN

14 Nuclear Strong Force-interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in a nucleus Contributes to stable nuclei Too many neutrons or protons cause nucleus to become unstable

15 Nuclear Fission-process when a nucleus SPLITS into two or more smaller fragments Energy is released Neutrons released can start a chain reaction Chain reactions can be controlled on August 21st 2008

16 Nuclear Fusion-process when light nuclei combine at extremely high temperatures, forming heavier nuclei and releasing energy tor/img/2.jpg&imgrefurl= m&h=300&w=300&sz=14&hl=en&start=9&um=1&usg=__pJbSvkXpHCoit9iMZ47jR9UXpYc=&tbnid=snU7uPDsocrZ6M:&tbnh=116&tbnw=116& prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsun%2Bfusion%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4BBYA_en___US251%26sa%3DN accessed on August 21st 2008

17 ash_Activities/Half-life_activity.pdf accessed on July 18 th 2008 ash_Activities/Half-life_activity.pdf accessed on August 21 st 2008 access on July 18 th 2008 accessed on August 21st 2008 Dobson, K., Holman, J. and Roberts, M. Holt Science Spectrum : A Physical Approach. (2001) New York: Holt, Rinehardt and Winston. (Chapters 7 and 17) Note: All websites accessed on July 18 th, July 19 th or August 21 st 2008.

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