Relative Age can be determined by the Principle of Superposition -assuming no change in the layers, the oldest are on the bottom and the youngest are on the top.
Radioactive dating can determine the Absolute Age of rocks.
Isotopes are elements that differ in number of neutrons. Some isotopes decay emitting energy Radioactive Rate at which elements decay determines rocks absolute age Radioactive isotopes include: Potassium, rubidium, strontium, uranium, and lead.
Unstable nuclei emits one or more particles or energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation Nuclear radiation is the energy or matter released during the decay
Alpha -Atomic # goes down by 2-Mass goes down by 4;can penetrate a piece of paper Uranium-238 decays through a decay into Thorium-234 Beta -Atomic # goes up by 1-Mass has no change; can penetrate a piece of aluminum Gamma -Atomic # and mass have no change; very powerful light energy; can penetrate lead 238 92 U ______________234 90 Th 234 90 Th ______234 91 Pa ______234 92 U
Release of high-energy neutron by a neutron-rich nuclei during radioactive decay No Charge Travel farther than alpha and beta particles
Half-life is the time required for half a sample of radioactive nuclei to decay Half-life rates of common isotopes: Carbon-14 5,730 years Thorium-229 7,340 years Lead-202 52,500 years Uranium-238 4,468,000,000 years Rubidium-87 4,750,000,000 years
Virtual Dating Science CoursewareVirtual Dating Science Courseware viewed on July 19th 2008
Radiometric Dating Berkley Radiometric Dating Berkley on July 19 th 2008
Nuclear Strong Force-interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in a nucleus Contributes to stable nuclei Too many neutrons or protons cause nucleus to become unstable http://www.atomki.hu/atomki/NuclSpect/nucleus.jpg
Nuclear Fission-process when a nucleus SPLITS into two or more smaller fragments Energy is released Neutrons released can start a chain reaction Chain reactions can be controlled http://ozymandias1.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/chain-reaction.jpghttp://ozymandias1.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/chain-reaction.jpg on August 21st 2008
Nuclear Fusion-process when light nuclei combine at extremely high temperatures, forming heavier nuclei and releasing energy http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/05/sci_nat_iter___the_next_generation_fusion_reac tor/img/2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/05/sci_nat_iter___the_next_generation_fusion_reactor/html/2.st m&h=300&w=300&sz=14&hl=en&start=9&um=1&usg=__pJbSvkXpHCoit9iMZ47jR9UXpYc=&tbnid=snU7uPDsocrZ6M:&tbnh=116&tbnw=116& prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsun%2Bfusion%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4BBYA_en___US251%26sa%3DN http://www.atomicarchive.com/Fusion/Images/fusion.jpghttp://www.atomicarchive.com/Fusion/Images/fusion.jpg accessed on August 21st 2008
http://www.idahogeology.org/FieldWorkshops/Island_Park_2007b/C ash_Activities/Half-life_activity.pdf accessed on July 18 th 2008 http://www.idahogeology.org/FieldWorkshops/Island_Park_2007b/C ash_Activities/Half-life_activity.pdf http://richardbowles.tripod.com/chemistry/radio/radio.htm accessed on August 21 st 2008 http://richardbowles.tripod.com/chemistry/radio/radio.htm http://nemo.sciencecourseware.org/VirtualDating/ access on July 18 th 2008 http://nemo.sciencecourseware.org/VirtualDating/ http://astro.berkeley.edu/~dperley/areopagus/isotopetable.html accessed on August 21st 2008 http://astro.berkeley.edu/~dperley/areopagus/isotopetable.html Dobson, K., Holman, J. and Roberts, M. Holt Science Spectrum : A Physical Approach. (2001) New York: Holt, Rinehardt and Winston. (Chapters 7 and 17) Note: All websites accessed on July 18 th, July 19 th or August 21 st 2008.