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Dating Decline Gurkha Regiment Victory Parade Pall Mall 1919 But the dates: WWI inter-war Constitutional Challenges mandate challenges WWIIresource drain.

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Presentation on theme: "Dating Decline Gurkha Regiment Victory Parade Pall Mall 1919 But the dates: WWI inter-war Constitutional Challenges mandate challenges WWIIresource drain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dating Decline Gurkha Regiment Victory Parade Pall Mall 1919 But the dates: WWI inter-war Constitutional Challenges mandate challenges WWIIresource drain 1947 – India 1956 – Suez 1960s – all over the result:a Commonwealth of Nations

2 Decline or re-definition?

3 20C: decolonization in a neo-colonial world formal, political Nationalist aspirations communal identities metropolitan interests settler society Superpower meddling INC supporters

4 Arguments for Empire Military:garrisons in Empire [19C strategy] use of Indian army restricted from 1920s asset in WWII in Europe/ceased to outside Economic case:growing industrialization in Canada, India, Australia – lost traditional benefit net gain Moral argument:pride emotional commitment But, pressure from outside and inside

5 Three paths to a postcolonial world: 1. rapid disengagement 2. constitutional disengagement 3. armed resistance complicated by: neo-imperial intervention never simple

6 Pre 1945 disengagement ugly: geographies of identity in Palestine German colony, Haifa Bahai World Center Ein Hod artists colony

7 כְּפַר רוּפִּין kibbutz movement in modern Israel Nirdavid (1946)

8 Britain and Palestine Arab history of fighting for local autonomy Zionism:19C roots British mandated territories Holocaust domestic political pressure Israel created (1947) Palestine divided

9 1876 the Lions Share vs. a bedraggled lion by 1956 What had changed?

10 Operation Kadesh State of Israel: 1949 Suez Crisis: 1956

11 Harold Macmillans diary Nassar as an asiatic Mussolini

12 That was: rapid disengagement[with a past] Next: constitutional negotiations [with complications]

13 Colonies and Mandates Ram Mohan Roy Nationalism in 19C:intellectual movements popular anti-colonialism religious revival Mohandas Gandhi Promise of WWI:human Progress possibilities as administrators gone experience of Europe in war used to political/military purpose hopes dashed: Peace Conference in colonies

14 Interwar British rule in India Defense of India Regulations Ghadar conspiracy Komagata Maru Rowatt Acts (1919) hartal Jallianwala Bagh massacre Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Sir Michael O'Dwyer wrote: Your action is correct. Lieutenant Governor approves.

15 Creation of a Successful anti-colonial movement charismatic leader ahimsa – resisting by non-resistance World War

16 Indian Independence Indian Nationalist Congress (INC) small elite mass movement Mohandas K. Gandhi satyagraha; swadeshi; ahimsa Jawaharlal Nehru Muslim League Mohammed Ali Jinnah last British Viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten

17 Independence, 15 August 1947 and Partition creates India and Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Lord and Lady Mountbatten

18 Independence – Partition August 1947

19 Characterizing Withdrawal

20 That was: constitutional negotiations [with complications] Next: armed resistance complicated by: neo-imperial intervention and, constitutional negotiations

21 The Mickeys were hard men and only hard methods would work with them. It was a war to save white civilization in Kenya and in war people get killed. - A white policeman in Kenya

22 Kenya: Commerce and Civilization IBEA (1887) Lunatic Express to Lake Victoria south Asian railway workers, become shopkeepers, urban artisan class the Happy Valley set

23 Decolonization in Africa Issues of a Settler Society:Kenya pop.:various local groups kikuyu colonial administrators south Asian laborers and m.c. white farmers and business Mau Mau Rebellion Independence 1962

24 Organizing resistances 1920s education jobs FGC 1930s/40s mau mau

25 White shareholders this alone is complex There was no white perspective: Settler society:well-off investors de-mob soldiers Government-appointed administrators British liberal society British conscripts dads army

26 Mau lost land locked into waged labour political leaders jailed attacked cattle, and people [32 killed altogether] forest resistance oathing ceremonies womens work arrested concentration/re-education camps

27 British Africa: Northern Rhodesia fewer white settlers Copper administered by Colonial Office Southern Rhodesia significant no. white settlers displaced black societies farming, mining Political power1923 internal self-governance Nyasaland large population; generally poor administered by Colonial Office

28 CAF: a White and Black Issue African opposition:Kenneth Kaunda (Northern Rhodesia) Hastings Banda (Nyasaland) 1959: political posturing media positioning popular protest White Settlerswidespread detention orders Rhodesian Front British governmentindependence referendum Harold Macmillan NyasalandMalawi northern RhodesiaZambia southern Rhodesia1965 Declaration of Independence international sanctions/guerilla war – Zimbabwe

29 Neocolonialisms 1960Ghanaian Independence constitutional process bauxite Kwame Nkrumah 1966 deposed – CIA backed coup Akosombo Dam Volta River British-planned IMF, UK, American-financed interest rate fixed (high) 20% electricity for Ghana – cannot access profits


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