Presentation on theme: "Selected archaeological methods on the example of Khirbet Qeiyafa"— Presentation transcript:
1Selected archaeological methods on the example of Khirbet Qeiyafa
2Archaeological survey A method, when archaeologists search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of the daily life
3Regular survey x rescue survey Rescue -"preventive" or "salvage" survey is a survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by, or revealed by, construction or other development. These conditions could include the building of dams where sites of interest might exist in the flood plain, highway projects, or before war operations.Speed, undertakenMay include in situ preservation of any finds, or protective measures taken to preserve an unexcavated site beneath a buildingDevelopers must announce their plans before the architectural work and must allow the archaeological exploration
4Non-intrunsive x intrunsive survey in a non-intrusive survey, nothing is touched, just recorded. An accurate survey of the earthworks and other features can enable them to be interpreted without the need for excavationAn intrusive survey can mean different things. In some cases, all artifacts of archaeological value are collected. This is often the case if it is a rescue survey, but less common in a regular survey.
5Rationales to surveyArtifacts found: Locals have picked up physical artifacts, sometimes held by the local museum but more often collected in private homes or old buildings such as churches and synagogues, and it is unclear where they are coming from.Literary sources: Old literary sources have provided archaeologists with clues about settlement locations that have not been archaeologically documented. Sometimes the texts may be quite recent; for instance, a book on local history may mention an interesting area.Oral sources: In many locations, local stories contain some hint of a greater past, and often they have a basis in history. For instance, someone may remember that a grandfather who used to walk the hills as a shepherd used to talk about columns from an old temple, although the descendant never saw the ruins.Local knowledge: In many cases, locals know where to find something of interest to archaeologists. They may not have reported it because of taking it as part of their world, or because of fearing intrusions on their land or community.Previous surveys: In some places, a past survey may have been recorded in an academic journal. The use of more recent technologies and finds from other sites may provide reason to re-examine the site.
6Lack of knowledge: Many areas of the world have developed limited knowledge about the nature and organization of past human activity at the regional level. (Although one or more sites may be known from an area, often little is known about the wider distribution of contemporary settlements, and how settlement patterns may change over time.) An archaeological field survey is the primary tool for discovering information about previously uninvestigated areas.Archaeological hypotheses: Some kinds of archaeological theories — about changes in agricultural strategies or population density for example — are investigated or tested through the use of archaeological surveys of areas that should or should not contain particular kinds of archaeological materials if the theory is true.
7Why to dig in Khirbet Qeiyafa? Geopolitical importanceSituation between on the borders between Judea and PhilistineOverlooking on the Elah Valley, on the main road from Jerusalem and Hebron to the Costal plainNot a tell sitePreservation is very good, not suffered from postdepositional procesess
12Steps preceeding the research itself Formulation of ResearchImplementation of ResearchData Acquisition(Archaeological Reconnaissance, Surface Survey, Excavation)Data ProcessingData Analysis (Artifacts, chronology,fauna and flora remains, geological analysis)Data InterpretationPublication of Results
13Data AnalysisA) Artifacts: classification, technology, function. B) Chronology: age determination through absolute and relative dating techniques. C) Faunal Remains: identification of animal species. D) Floral Remains: identification of plant species. F) Geological Analysis: sediment analysis.
14Forms of Archaeological Data ArtifactsFeaturesEcofactsSitesRegions
15DatingRelative dating determines the age of artifacts or site, as older or younger or the same age as others, but does not produce precise dates.Absolute dating, methods that produce specific chronological dates for objects and occupations, was not available to archaeology until well into the 20th century.
18Stratigraphy oldest of the relative dating methods based on the law of superposition-like a layer cake, the lowest layers must have been formed first.refers to geological and archaeological layers that make up an archaeological depositOne part / layer is called stratum (pl. strata)
19Stratigraphy in Khirbet Qeiyafa 6 stratasStratum I - Ottoman farmStratum II – Agricutural use from Late hellenistic to Early Islamic EraStratum III – Early hellenistic settlement, late 4th BCStratum IV – Early Iron IIA city, c BC, two gates, probably the Judean cityStratum V – Midlle Bronze II phase
20Relative d. - Seration manipulated graphically Result is a series of „battleship curves“horizontal bars representing percentagesplotted on a vertical axisSource of image:
21Relative d. - Probing 2. Simple Random Sampling 3. Stratified sampling 1. Ground Penetrating Radar2. Simple Random Sampling3. Stratified samplingSources of images:
23The Method of Carbon dating A radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to estimate the age of carbon-bearing materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.When plants fix atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into organic material during photosynthesis they incorporate a quantity of 14C that approximately matches the level of this isotope in the atmosphere. After plants die or they are consumed by other organisms the 14C fraction of this organic material declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of 14C. Comparing the remaining 14C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric 14C allows the age of the sample to be estimated.
25Carbon dating in Khirbet Qeiafa 8 examples of olive pits send to analysis on Oxford Radiocarbon AcceleratorFirst set from the casemate wall /intrusive elements/Two samples were dated to 1628 – 1519 BCFour of 1051 –969 BCOne sample dated on BC
26Absolute d. -Thermoluminescence dating Based on the fact that electronsin all minerals emit light(luminescence)after being heatedSource of image:
27Absolute d. -Archeomagnetic dating dating techniques rely on the fact that the earth'smagnetic field varies over time.databanks were created bygeologists interested in themovement of the planetary polesSource of image:
28Absolute d. - Dendrochronology of tree ringsSource of image:
29Absolute d. -Racemization dating Source of image:
30Racemization datinguses the measurement of the decay rate of carbon protein amino acids to date once-living organic tissueWhile an organism lives, their proteins are composed of only 'left-handed' (laevo, or L) amino acids, but once the organism dies the left-handed amino acids slowly turn into right-handed (dextro or D) amino acidsuses the pace of this chemical reaction to estimate the length of time that has elapsed since an organism's death
31Absolute d. -Oxidized Carbon ratios a dynamical systems formula to establish the effects of the environmental context (systems theory)
32Three dimensional space Horizontal Provenience: Datum: The site datum is a known location in three-dimensional space that serves as a reference point for all horizontal and vertical measurements taken at the site.Grid: The site grid is laid out in reference to the datum. Total Station: A total station is a survey instrument that can measure horizontal and vertical angles, slope, and horizontal and vertical distances.Vertical ProvenienceVertical measurements will also use the site datum as a reference point.During excavation, a laser level will be used to take vertical depth measurements in the excavation unit.
33Total stationAuthor´s image from Khirbet Qeiyafa
45Organization of research Fieldwork alloted by teams, one archeologist (student) and 3-4 volunteersEach team get excavated square 5x5m and excavated from topsoil to virgin soilThe finds are collected into basketsOne basket cannot be used on two different lociWhen excavating floor levels, all sediment is sieved though a 2mm. meshEvery afternoon are finds washedWhen are dry, they are sorted and divided into main categories: pottery, stone, metal and animal bonesThan are all artifacts send to laboratory