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Lecture 17 Review for Exam 2. Chapters Covered Chapter Title Lecture 8Time and Geology10 9Mass Wasting11 10Streams and Floods12 11Ground Water13 12Glaciers.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 17 Review for Exam 2. Chapters Covered Chapter Title Lecture 8Time and Geology10 9Mass Wasting11 10Streams and Floods12 11Ground Water13 12Glaciers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 17 Review for Exam 2

2 Chapters Covered Chapter Title Lecture 8Time and Geology10 9Mass Wasting11 10Streams and Floods12 11Ground Water13 12Glaciers and Glaciation 14 13Deserts and Wind Action15 14Waves, Beaches, and Coasts16

3 Time and Geology Concepts Deep Time Relative Time Absolute Time Principles of Relative Time Types of Unconformity Methods of Correlation Standard Geologic Time Scale Divisions Meanings of Era Names When do we live? Isotopes Radioactive Decay Types Important Decay Systems Isotopic Dating Principles Uses

4 Time and Geology Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Lab Manual Figures Geologic History of Minor Canyon Figure 8.12 Age relationships indicated by contact metamorphism... Figure 8.20 Use of fossil assemblages Figure 8.22 Three modes of radioactive decay Table 8.3 Radioactive Isotopes Commonly Used for Dating Figure 8.27 Deep Time thought experiment Figure 8.1 Three common types of unconformity Figures Examples of use of relative dating principles Figure 8.16 Radioactive Decay, Decay parameters of useful Isotopes Lecture Slides

5 Time and Geology Terms to Know angular unconformity conformity contact cross-cutting relationship daughter isotope disconformity formation half-life inclusion isotope lateral continuity nonconformity original horizontality parent isotope radiometric dating superposition uniformitarianism

6 Mass Wasting Concepts Classification of Mass Wasting Controlling Factors on Mass Wasting Types of Mass Wasting

7 Mass Wasting Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Table 9.1 Types of Mass Wasting Figure 9.1Flow, Slide, and Fall Table 9.2 Summary of Controls of Mass Wasting Figure 9.4 Indicators of Creep Figure 9.7 Earthflow Figure 9.10 Solifluction Figure 9.14 Two examples of rockfall Figure 9.18 A hillside becomes vulnerable to mass wasting due to... Figure 9.19 Use of drains to prevent mass wasting Figure 9.20 Safe and Unsafe roadcuts Lab Manual Lecture Slides

8 Mass Wasting Terms to Know angle of repose creep debris debris avalanche debris fall debris flow debris slide earthflow fall flow landslide mass wasting mudflow rock avalanche rock fall rockslide rotational slide shear force shear strength slide solifluction talus translational slide

9 Streams and Floods Concepts The Hydrologic Cycle Drainage Runoff Drainage Basins Stream Order Drainage Patterns Stream Valley Development Controls on Stream Function Erosion and Erosional Features Transportation Depositional Landforms Stream Function

10 Streams and Floods Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Figure 10.1 The Hydrologic Cycle Figure 10.2 Longitudinal and cross sections of a typical stream Figure 10.4 Drainage basin of the Mississippi Figure 10.5 Drainage patterns and underlying rock Figure 10.6 Regions of maximum velocity in a stream Figure 10.7 Hjulstrom's Diagram Figure 10.8 Channel shape and roughness influence stream velocity Figure 10.9 Channel width variations caused by rock type and... Figure Stream bed load and suspended load Figure Natural levee deposition during a flood Figure Shape of delta and sediment supply Figure Alluvial Fan Figure Base level is the lowest level of downcutting Figure Ungraded and Graded streams Figure Lateral Erosion Figure Development of Stream Terraces Figure Incised Meanders Figure Development of a Superposed Stream

11 Streams and Floods Helpful Figures and Tables Lab Manual Figure 11.1 General features of stream drainage basins, streams, and... Figure 11.2 Stream drainage patterns Figure map of the Rio Grande in 1992 Lecture

12 Streams and Floods Helpful Figures and Tables

13

14 Streams and Floods Terms to Know alluvial fan bar base level bed load braided stream capacity channel flow competence delta dendritic pattern discharge dissolved load distributary divide downcutting drainage basin drainage pattern drainage system flood plain fluvial landform graded stream hydrologic cycle incised meander lateral erosion meander meander cutoff natural levee oxbow lake point bar radial pattern rectangular pattern saltation sheet flow stream stream channel stream gradient stream order stream terrace trellis pattern tributary

15 Ground Water Concepts The Water Table Movement of Ground Water Hydraulic Head, Gradient, and Darcy's Law Ground Water Velocity Darcy's Law Springs and Streams Aquifers and Wells Effects of Ground Water Ground Water Contamination

16 Ground Water Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Page 259 World Distribution of Water Table 11.1 Porosity and Permeability of Sediments and Rocks Figure 11.2 Perched water table Box Figure 1 Hydraulic Head Box Figure 2 Ground Water Flow Figure 11.3 Movement of Ground Water below a sloping water table Figure 11.4 Good wells and bad wells Figure 11.6 Confined and Unconfined aquifers; Ground water flow Figure 11.7 Seasonal variations in unconfined aquifers Figure 11.8 Pumping well and cone of depression Figure Formation of springs Figure Gaining and losing streams Figure Map view of contaminant plume Figure Rock type and distance control contamination of... Figure Ground water problems caused/aggravated by wells Figure Karst topography Lab Manual Lecture Slides

17 Ground Water Helpful Figures and Tables

18 Ground Water Terms to Know aquifer artesian well cave cone of depression confined aquifer discharge zone drawdown gaining stream ground water hydraulic gradient hydraulic head losing stream perched water table permeability porosity recharge recharge area (zone) saturated zone sinkhole spring unconfined aquifer vadose zone water table well

19 Glaciers and Glaciation Concepts Distribution of Glaciers Types of Glaciers Formation and Growth of Glaciers Evolution of Snow to Ice Glacial Movement Erosional Glacial Landforms Depositional Glacial Landforms Glacial Water Bodies Past Glaciation

20 Glaciers and Glaciation Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Figure 12.3 Cross section of ice sheet Figure 12.4 Conversion of snow to glacier ice Figure 12.6 A valley glacier as it would appear at end of melt season Figure 12.8 Movement of a glacier Figure 12.9 Crevasses Figure Plucking and Abrasion Figure Landscape evolution Figure Moraines associated with valley glaciers Figure Depositional features in front of a receding ice sheet Figure Maximum glaciation during Pleistocene Ice Age Lab Manual Figure 13.1 Active mountain glaciation in a hypothetical region Figure 13.2 Erosional features remain after total ablation Figure 13.3 Erosional features produced by mountain or continental... Figure 13.4 Depositional features produced by mountain or... Figure 13.5 Water bodies of glaciated regions Figure 13.6 Continental glaciation produces these characteristic... Figure 13.7 Continental glaciation leaves behind these characteristic... Lecture Slides

21 Glaciers and Glaciation Terms to Know ablation abrasion advancing glacier alpine glaciation arete basal sliding cirque continental glaciation crevasse drumlin end (terminal) moraine equilibrium line erratic esker finger lake firn glacier ground moraine hanging valley head horn iceberg ice cap ice sheet kame kettle lateral moraine loess marginal lake medial moraine moraine outwash paternoster lake plucking receding glacier rock flour tarn terminus theory of glacial ages till valley glacier zone of ablation zone of accumulation

22 Deserts and Wind Action Concepts Deserts Characteristics Distribution Wind Action Atmospheric Circulation Rain Shadow Cool Ocean Currents Distance From Ocean Characteristics Distribution Desert Landforms Erosion Transportation Deposition

23 Glaciers and Glaciation Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Figure 13.3 World distribution of nonpolar deserts Figure 13.4 Rain shadow Figure 13.7 Characteristic landforms of the Colorado Plateau Figure 13.8 Monoclines, hogbacks and cuestas Figure Two possible geometries of faults that control the... Figure Development of landforms associated with Basin and... Figure Blowouts Figure Sand dune formation and movement Lab Manual Figure 14.1 Eolian erosion, transport, and deposition Figure 14.3 Common types of sand dunes Figure 14.7 Typical landforms of arid mountainous deserts in regions... Lecture Slides

24 Deserts and Wind Action Terms to Know bajada barchan blowout butte deflation desert flash flood gravel pavement Hadley Cell loess longitudinal dune mesa parabolic dune pediment plateau playa playa lake rain shadow sand dune slip face transverse dune ventifact

25 Waves, Beaches, and Coasts Concepts Waves Nearshore Circulation Types Evolution Motion Properties Breakers Wave Refraction Longshore Currents Rip Currents The Beach Coastal Sediment Budget Nearshore Sediment Dynamics Landforms Human Interference Coastal Types and Landforms

26 Waves, Beaches, and Coasts Helpful Figures and Tables Textbook Figure 14.3 Orbital motion of water waves Figure 14.4 Deep water wave begins to "feel" the bottom Figure 14.5 Wave refraction Figure 14.6 Rip currents Figure 14.8 Seasonal cycle of a beach Figure 14.9 Longshore drift of sand Figure Formation of a tombolo Figure Man-made coastal structures Figure Wave refraction on an irregular coast Figure Coastal straightening Lab Manual Figure 15.1 Emergent coastline features Figure 15.2 Submergent coastline features Figure 15.3 Coastal structures Lecture Slides

27 Waves, Beaches, and Coasts Terms to Know barrier island baymouth bar beach beach face berm breaker coast coastal straightening crest estuary fetch fjord groin headland jetty longshore current longshore drift marine terrace overwash fan plunging waves primary coast rip current rip current feeder rip current head rip current neck ripple sea arch sea cliff secondary coast spilling waves spit stack surf surging waves swash swell tombolo trough (of wave) wave wave-cut platform wave amplitude wave base wave frequency wave height wave length wave period wave refraction wave train


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