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Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored by Rich Simerson 01-Mar-2004 Updated 01-Apr-2010 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jar

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Members personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentations Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 Objective and Plan Execute five visual search patterns with G1000 avionics Route, Parallel Track, Creeping Line, Expanding Square and Sector Three G1000 methods for each pattern Use (F)AA (I)ndustry (T)raining (S)tandards Describe Explain Practice Perform Manage/Decide 3

4 Gippsland GA-8 Cessna 172 Cessna 206 Cessna 182 Current Aircraft Mix

5 5 GX55 Versus G1000 GPS Search Patterns (included in software) Route Search Sector Search Expanding Square Creeping Line (Parallel Line) Creeping Line Parallel line - No CAP Grid #s Parallel line - with CAP Grid #s G1000 non-SAR software G1000 SAR software GX55

6 6 G1000 Overview The G1000 (even with SAR software) lacks a grid database Flying by reference to real time Lat/Long is not recommended (loss of SA) 3 methods for Parallel Line, Creeping Line and Expanding Square. Method 1 - GARMIN SAR software Method 2& 2a - User waypoints & OBS/bar data Method 3 - Referencing Lat/Long gridline display and/or MFD data bar parameters

7 7 Assumptions MP & MO have good working knowledge of the C182T G1000 software MP is proficient in use of autopilot MO has some knowledge of Garmin SAR software

8 8 Basic Philosophy MO leads the work and the MP flies the plane Choice of method depends on: Availability of GARMIN SAR software G1000 Proficiency (flt plans, OBS, user waypoints) Crew Experience Autopilot proficiency Winds Familiarity with search area Urgency/tempo Terrain

9 9 G1000 Initial Setup Many user options can be changed Assume previous crew made changes Restore to factory settings, delete all flight plans and user waypoints Avoid the what's it doing? & why does it look like that? syndrome

10 10 G1000 Initial Setup (Continued)

11 11 G1000 Initial Setup (Continued)

12 12 G1000 Initial Setup (Continued)

13 13 G1000 Initial Setup (Continued)

14 14 G1000 Initial Setup (Continued)

15 15 G1000 Initial Setup (Continued)

16 16 All Methods – G1000 Core Skills The MP and MO should master the following core skills in order to fly the search patterns: Entering user waypoints by lat/long, by using reference waypoints (radial and distance) and by using joystick with map panning feature Entering and activating a flight plan using multiple waypoints Autopilot flying in NAV & HDG mode and seamless transitions in and out of autopilot (KAP140) and CWS operations (GFC700) Activating various legs of flight plan Using the OBS & course selector

17 17 All Methods – Tips Hand plot the pattern - record waypoint names, lat/longs and offsets (radial and distance), desired tracks to be flown Haste makes waste – verify the lat/long and offsets before saving Waypoints cant be edited once they they are in a flight plan Write down the lat/long of any important ground targets before leaving the aircraft since they may be deleted by the next crew Build flight plans by selecting them from the RECENT waypoint window Practice, practice, practice… use ground power and/or GARMIN PC trainer

18 18 Flying with the KAP140 and GFC700 Autopilots KAP140 A/P is operationally limited to KIAS, the GFC700 is limited to KIAS Monitor airspeed as power changes are made The autopilot will command pitch to maintain the set altitude regardless of airspeed impact, it will fly the aircraft into a stall if power is not managed accordingly Autopilot turns are made at standard rate, turns may need to be made manually: KAP140 - disengage then reengage the A/P when re- established on the next segment of the search pattern GFC700 - the CWS button can be used to make the turns

19 19 Flying with the KAP140 Autopilot Altitude will not automatically ARM and capture after disengagement Captures the VS at the moment the A/P engaged The altitude must be ARMed for the A/P to capture the altitude in VS mode Press ALT to capture current altitude after A/P engagement use VS mode to maneuver the aircraft back to the search pattern altitude or use UP DN keys to adjust ALT in 20ft increments

20 Turns 90 Kts, standard rate = 1nm per 180 degrees 90 kts 30 degrees = ½ nm per 180 degrees Add wind and 1 nm track spacing requires hand flying 20

21 21 Turns with the KAP140 The general sequence for autopilot operations for faster than standard rate turns is as follows. It is assumed that the A/P is in NAV mode tracking a GPS course line in OBS mode: KAP140 autopilot 1) Synchronize the HDG bug 2) Select HDG mode on A/P 3) Activate next leg of flight plan (OBS mode is automatically cancelled) 4) Press OBS soft key 5) Change course using CRS knob to direction of next leg 6) Disconnect the A/P 7) Turn to intercept the next leg (magenta line) 8) Engage A/P 9) Press ALT to capture current altitude 10) ARM NAV mode 11) Adjust altitude (UP or DN keys 20ft increments as reqd)

22 22 Turns with the GFC 700 GFC700 Autopilot 1. Synchronize the HDG bug 2. Select HDG mode on A/P 3. Activate next leg of flight plan (OBS mode is automatically cancelled) 4. Press OBS soft key 5. Change course using CRS knob to direction of next leg 6. Hold CWS button and make the turn to intercept the next course line 7. Synchronize the HDG bug on the intercept heading 8. Release CWS button 9. Select NAV mode on A/P 10. Hold CWS button and maneuver the aircraft to the desired search altitude, then release CWS button

23 23 Flying the Grid Line Display Set up the gridline display as summarized in the MFD Setup One minute gridlines will be displayed at the 5NM map range. Note that the grid lines will not display if the MFD soft key DCLTR is set to 2 or higher Requires a higher level of situational awareness Other options to improve display clarity: Using large font for the lat/long Turn off TOPO display – improves contrast

24 24 Flying the Grid Line Display

25 25 G1000 Search Patterns Search Type Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Parallel Line SAR software SAR software WPT & FPL WPT & FPL Gridlines Creeping Line SAR software SAR software WPT & FPL WPT & FPL Expanding Square SAR software SAR software WPT & FPL WPT & FPL Gridlines Sector Search SAR software SAR software WPT & OBS WPT & OBS Route Search FPL

26 26 Route Search Using flight plan with parallel track option Enter and activate a flight plan for the route using a combination of Airports, VORs, NDBs and user waypoints as appropriate. Within FPL select the Parallel track option from the Menu and input the direction (LEFT or RIGHT) and Distance (offset) from the flight plan course line and activate. Note that the minimum offset allowed is 1.0 NM. Fly the track in A/P NAV mode Note: parallel track will not work with if there is a turn >120 deg in the flight plan or if the parallel tracks overlap

27 27 Route Search (Continued) Using Flight Plan And MFD Data Bar Enter and activate a flight plan for the route using a combination of Airports, VORs, NDBs and user waypoints as appropriate. Note the true course for each leg of the flight plan Fly the required parallel track offset by using the MFD data bar for cross track information (XTK) relative to the flight plan route Fly the parallel track in A/P HDG mode, use the current track bug on the PFD HSI to assist maintaining the parallel track

28 28 Route Search

29 29 Route Search

30 30 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 1 GARMIN SAR Software Input user waypoint for grid entry point by Lat/Long Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan page Select Parallel Line Search and add appropriate parameters, note that only 0.1 NM increments can be used for leg spacing A flight plan will be automatically generated and activated from aircrafts present position

31 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 1 When within 5 NM of the entry waypoint the MP then either hand flies or uses HDG or OBS NAV mode to establish the aircraft position and heading to intercept the entry waypoint on the correct ground track (TRK), search speed (GS) & altitude. The grid track lines should be flown in A/P HDG or NAV mode

32 32 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 1 If the winds are light or turns can be made into the wind the Parallel line parameters could be adjusted to start and end 1 NM outside the grid and the entire pattern can be flown in A/P NAV mode without the need to use CWS for turns Turns with the wind - sequence to each subsequent track line using the FPL window in the PFD. To activate the next leg of the grid, press the FMS knob to highlight the cursor then turn the large FMS knob to highlight the appropriate waypoint, press MENU and press / to activate the leg. Then set the OBS to the track line true course

33 33 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 1

34 34 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 1

35 35 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Turns Outside the Grid

36 36 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2 User Waypoints, Flight Plan And OBS Input user waypoints for grid entry point by Lat/Long and the grid end points along the entry edge of the grid by reference waypoint, true radials and distance (NM) from the grid entry waypoint. (The G1000 only accepts distance offsets in multiples of 0.1 NM) Enter a flight plan from the departure airport to the user waypoints in order & activate the flight plan. When ~5 NM from the entry waypoint, activate the OBS mode, rotate the course line to 360 or 180 degrees true (N-S tracks or 270 or 090 degrees true E-W tracks). Fly in A/P HDG or NAV mode

37 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2 Sequence to each subsequent track line using the FPL window in the PFD. Select the next waypoint & activate the leg. Then set the OBS to the track line true course Turns will usually need to be hand flown in order not to overshoot the next track line. Disconnect the A/P outside the grid (KAP140) or hold the CWS button (GFC700). Repeat until the grid is complete.

38 38 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2

39 39 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2

40 40 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2a Single User Waypoint & XTK And OBS Input user waypoint at grid entry point by Lat/Long Enter a flight plan from the departure airport to the user waypoint or load a direct to When ~5 NM from the entry waypoint, activate the OBS mode, rotate the course line to the direction of the first track Fly the track in A/P HDG mode. This first track will establish the base line for subsequent parallell tracks At the end of the first track, DIS=7.5 NM, input a user waypoint on the fly using the panning arrow to mark the end of the grid

41 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2a Turn to establish a new track in the opposite direction at a distance XTK= track spacing (e.g. 1 nm for the second track and 2 nm for the third track etc.) Fly each track in A/P HDG mode adjusting HDG to achieve the desired true track while maintaining desired XTK from the base line Turns will usually need to be hand flown in order not to overshoot the next track line. Repeat until the grid is complete.

42 42 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2a

43 43 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 2a Note user waypoint added on the fly marking end of grid

44 44 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 3 MFD Gridline Display Input user waypoint for grid entry point by Lat/Long Turn on the gridline display (5NM map range) East/West tracks - activate the OBS mode, rotate the course line to 090, monitor DIS from course line North/South tracks - activate the OBS mode, rotate the course line to 360, monitor DIS from course line Fly tracks in A/P HDG mode

45 45 Parallel Line (Grid) Search Method 3

46 46 Creeping Line Search Method 1 GARMIN SAR Software Construct a flight plan to beginning point of search to end point of search Determine true desired track (DTK) between beginning point and end point of search from flight plan window on MFD as you enter the flight plan Input a second user waypoint by reference to the starting waypoint +90 degrees relative to the course line at a distance equal to the offset Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan page

47 47 Creeping Line Search Method 1 GARMIN SAR Software Select Parallel Line Search and add appropriate parameters, The waypoint input should be the second user waypoint, the initial desired track should be set to the course line – 90 degrees and the initial turn set to RIGHT A flight plan will be automatically generated and activated from aircrafts present position When ~5 NM from the entry waypoint the MP then either hand flies or uses HDG or NAV mode to establish the aircraft position and heading to intercept the first user waypoint. The grid track lines should be flown in A/P HDG or NAV mode

48 48 Creeping Line Search Method 1

49 49 Creeping Line Search Method 1

50 50 Creeping Line Search Method 1 User WPT

51 51 Creeping Line Search Method 2 User Waypoints Flight Plan And OBS Construct a flight plan to beginning point of search to end point of search Determine true desired track (DTK) between beginning point and end point of search from flight plan window Construct a User Waypoints in sequence each at distance S relative to the previous point along the Major Axis until enough points are constructed to cover the entire search course Construct a Flight Plan from the Mission Base to the beginning of the creeping line search and to each successive waypoint

52 52 Creeping Line Search Method 2 User Waypoints Flight Plan And OBS As the aircraft approaches the beginning point of the creeping line select OBS mode & set the CRS to the Left Offset track. Desired track (TRK) for left offset of creeping line is DTK – 90°. Desired track (TRK) of right offset of creeping line is DTK + 90° Continue flying outbound along the OBS line until the aircraft has reached the desired offset from the creeping line course as determined by DIS= desired offset Select and activate the next waypoint, set the OBS to the Right Offset track Turn the aircraft to intercept the new inbound track.

53 53 Creeping Line Search Method 2

54 54 Creeping Line Search Method 2

55 55 Creeping Line Search Method 2a Two User Waypoints, OBS, XTK, DIS, DTK Data Determine true course between beginning point and end point of search from flight plan window Insert a waypoint ~100 miles beyond the end point of the search and create a flight plan from start to end Desired track for left offset of creeping line is DTK – 90°, Right offset of creeping line is DTK + 90°. Approach the beginning point from the right side of the search course so that aircraft is established on creeping line track prior to crossing search course.

56 Creeping Line Search Method 2a When the Cross Track Error (XTK) readout indicates that the aircraft is at the Offset + 1 NM from the course line, perform a turn to intercept the reciprocal track Adjust the turn as necessary so that the aircraft is closer to the course end point by distance equal to track spacing and on a ground track perpendicular to the course line Continue this process until the search pattern is completed.

57 57 Creeping Line Search Method 2a

58 58 Creeping Line Search Method 2a

59 59 Expanding Square Search Method 1 GARMIN SAR Software Input user waypoint for center of expanding square pattern by Lat/Long Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan page Select expanding Square Search and add appropriate parameters, note that only 0.1 NM increments can be used for leg spacing and up to 60 legs can be specified A flight pan will be automatically generated and activated from aircraft present position

60 Expanding Square Search Method 1 Navigate to the entry waypoint. Fly in HDG mode or OBS NAV mode to a position and heading to intercept the entry waypoint The expanding square track lines should be flown manually using the MFD flight plan display until the legs are 2 NM in length then the A/P HDG or NAV mode can be used

61 61 Expanding Square Search Method 1

62 62 Expanding Square Search Method 1

63 63 Expanding Square Search Method 2 User Waypoints And Flight Plan Input user waypoint for center of expanding square pattern by Lat/Long and the successive corner points by reference waypoints, true radials and distance (NM) from the previous waypoint Enter and activate a flight plan from the departure airport or present position to the user waypoints in order.

64 Expanding Square Search Method 2 Navigate to the entry waypoint, hand fly or use OBS/NAV mode to intercept the entry waypoint The expanding square track lines should be flown manually using the MFD map display until the legs are 2 NM in length then the A/P HDG or NAV mode can be used. This method results in a flight plan and MFD/PFD displays that looks very similar to method 1 except that al the waypoints are generated by the user

65 65 Expanding Square Search Method 3 Using MFD Gridline Display The expanding square pattern is possible but difficult to implement with the gridlines alone. Two issues: A minute of Longitude does not equal a minute of latitude in nautical miles It becomes difficult to retain where you are on the pattern – potential for excessive heads down time – safety issue

66 Expanding Square Search Method 3 The recommended approach is: Create a user waypoint at the start so a visual reference for the start remains on the map Map it on paper so you have a sense for turn points Get AOBD agreement to fly minute legs vs NM. Recommend that map is set to North Up otherwise MP may loose S.A.

67 67 Sector Search Method 1 GARMIN SAR Software Input user waypoint for center of Sector Search pattern by Lat/Long Select Search and Rescue from the Active Flight Plan page Select Sector Search and add appropriate parameters, add 0.5 NM to the search radius to allow for A/P turns. Make the initial DTK to be closest to current direction of flight to the sector

68 Sector Search Method 1 Note: the G1000 SAR software will only build a three track pattern (60 degree spread) regardless of the search radius. This will only have the desired search coverage out to approx 2 NM. For search radius >2 NM a second or third search pattern should be flown rotated by an appropriate angle relative to the first

69 69 Sector Search Method 1 GARMIN SAR Software A flight plan will be automatically generated and activated from aircraft present position Navigate to the entry waypoint using A/P in NAV or HDG mode. Position aircraft to intercept and fly inbound to the search center on the DTK closest to the direction of fight. Select this desired track using the OBS function. The aircraft should be on speed and altitude and aligned with the first track approx. 1 NM outside the search radius. Fly in A/P NAV mode

70 70 Sector Search Method 1

71 71 Sector Search Method 1

72 72 Sector Search Method 2 User Waypoint And OBS Input user waypoint for center of sector search by Lat/Long. Enter a flight plan from the departure airport or present position to the center of the sector search, position aircraft to intercept and fly inbound to the search center on the radial closest to the direction of fight. Select this radial using the OBS function. Fly in A/P HDG or NAV mode.

73 Sector Search Method 2 After arrival at the search center continue to fly the same track out to the search radius on the other side of the center using DIS to verify position from the center and the OBS line for course guidance When DIS > search radius, synch the HDG bug, engage the A/P in HDG mode select next radial using OBS, D/C A/P and turn right to intercept the next inbound radial track. The next radial bearing –90 degrees is a good heading to fly to intercept the next radial inbound. Synch the HDG bug Re-engage the A/P in HDG then NAV mode.

74 Sector Search Method 2 After arrival at the search center continue to fly the same track out to the search radius on the other side of the center using DIS to verify position from the center and the OBS line for course guidance When DIS > search radius, synch the HDG bug, engage the A/P in HDG mode select next radial using OBS, D/C A/P and turn right to intercept the next inbound radial track. The next radial bearing –90 degrees is a good heading to fly to intercept the next radial inbound. Synch the HDG bug Re-engage the A/P in HDG then NAV mode.

75 75 Sector Search Method 2

76 76 Sector Search Method 2

77 77 Links For the GARMIN Manuals including the SAR Manual, go to ual.jsp?market=1&subcategory=59&prod uct=All

78 Questions? ALWAYS THINK SAFETY!


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