Presentation on theme: "Dating methods and the age of the Earth"— Presentation transcript:
1Dating methods and the age of the Earth Geology 103
2Two types of datingRelative dating asks “Is a given event older or younger than another event?”Numerical (absolute) dating asks “How many years ago did an event take place?”
3What is an “event”?A discrete occurrence that can be inferred from the rock or fossil recordExamples: the deposition of a sedimentary layer, or the death of an organism
4Relative datingSteno’s principles (1669) are all very common sense but do order strata from oldest to youngestStratum = layerStrata = layersStratigraphy = study of the order of events in sedimentary rocks
5Principle of original horizontality Any distortion of sedimentary strata is due to deformation after the strata were deposited
6Principle of lateral continuity Strata are deposited in a basin and thus will be continuous from end to endAny breaks are due to erosion or deformation after deposition
7Principle of superposition Younger strata overlie older strataTrue of all gravity-driven deposits
8Principle of cross-cutting relationships The body that cuts through is younger than the body that got cut throughTrue for dikes, faults, joints and any non-concordant stratum
9Principle of inclusions Sometimes called “xenoliths”The inclusion is older than the rock in which it is included
10CorrelationSimilar strata separated by gaps, were once part of a continuous layerLed to the idea of “formations”: a mappable unit of rocks sharing a common origin event
11Faunal successionWilliam Smith and George Cuvier (around 1800): There is an order to the fossils found in strataSmith and Cuvier did not think of evolution but the principle led Charles Darwin to think of how the order might arise
14Points about the timescale Divided up by major changes in the fossils found in the strata (Phanerozoic): mass extinctions mark the boundariesMajor divisions: eon, era, period, epochRocks don’t care about life: that is, one period ≠ one formationThus, lithostratigraphy is not biostratigraphy
15Unconformities An unconformity is a time gap in the rock record Classified into different types, but all represent significant missing time
17Numerical dating Two types: radiometric and non-radiometric Radiometric dating always involves the decay of a radioactive isotopeNon-radiometric dating always involves a change in the number or condition of a material
18Basic atomic structure Atoms are the basic unit of matter with chemical propertiesMade of sub-atomic particles: electrons, protons and neutronsAll elements (atoms of one type) have isotopes that differ in massSome isotopes are unstable and will decay (radio-isotopes)
19Radiometric datingTypically need to know: how much of the radioactive isotope (radio-isotope) was present when the “geo-clock” started (i.e., the event occurred), how much of the radio-isotope is present currently and/or the half-life of the radio-isotope
20Radioactive decay series Not all decays are as complicated as this!Start with the principal radio-isotope and end with the stable isotope
21The “geo-clock” The shape of the curve is called “exponential decay”, because half of the radioisotope (“parent isotope”) is con-verted to the daughter isotope each successive half-life.
23Non-radiometric dating Examples: tree ring dating (dendrochronology), lichenometry, fission track dating, electron spin resonance (ESR) datingIn the photo above, the path of an alpha particle ejectedfrom a radioisotope nucleus is called a “fission track”. Byenhancing these tiny tracks, counting them allows theresearcher to figure out how old numerically the sample is.
24Two key questions about numerical dating 1. Is the dating method appropriate for the estimated age and composition of the dated material?2. What is the event being dated? In other words, when does the geo-clock start?
25Test caseYou discover early homonid (i.e., pre-Homo sapiens) skeletons in a sandstone depositHow do you obtain the numerical age? What method(s) would you use?
26What are appropriate materials? Radiometric dating relies on closed systems – typically this means a material that does not gain or lose components, like radioisotopes.Examples are: igneous rocks, some metamorphic rocks (note they are all crystalline)Notable bad material: Sedimentary rocks
27Use boundary (bounding) numerical ages If one can find a datable material stratigraphically near a fossil, then the age of the datable material can be used to constrain the age of the fossil.In the example to the right the ash layer was dated (U-Pb) at 563 ± 3 My, so fossils are at least that old.
29Count the days of recorded history James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, uses biblical history to determine the first day of Genesis.It is a complex calculation.Calculates Sunday, October 23, 4004 BCE as the start date.
30Estimate the Earth’s cooling William Thomsen, Lord Kelvin (University of Glasgow, Scotland), 1897.Reasoned that the Earth was initially molten and had cooled off over time, enough to make a crust.Measured the rates of cooling of iron spheres.Age: 20 to 40 million years.
31Measure the ocean’s salinity John Joly (Trinity University, Ireland), 1899.Reasoned that the oceans had started off without any sodium content, and thus, by measuring the amount of sodium brought to the ocean annually by all the rivers in the world and measuring the ocean’s salinity, one could calculate the age of the ocean, which is close to the age of the Earth.Age: 80 to 100 million years
32Biologists (and geologists) had a problem with these ages As Charles Darwin, originator of the theory of evolution by means of natural selection pointed out, even 100 million years was not long enough to give the mechanism of evolution time to generate the diversity of Earth’s life.
33Radioactivity provides the key As mentioned earlier, the phenomenon of radioactivity generates heat – something that Kelvin could not have predicted.Henri Becquerel (Museum of Natural History, Paris) found radioisotopes emitting invisible rays (1896).Ernest Rutherford (McGill University, Montreal) suggested uranium isotopes might be useful in dating earth materials (1905).
34Refining the technique Inspired by a talk by Rutherford, Bertram Boltwood (Yale, 1907) reasons that by measuring the amount of lead, the stable end product of uranium decay, one could determine the age of a rock sample.Ages ranged from 250 to 1300 million years.
35...to the age of the EarthArthur Holmes (Imperial College, London, 1913) realizes that the decay of thorium also contributes to the final lead amount and refines Boltwood’s technique.By 1927, he publishes the age of the Earth as about 1.6 to 3.0 billion years.In 1931, he co-authors a report the establishes radiometric dating as the only reliable method to determine the Earth’s age.
36The current ageEarth materials were not solid for a while after the Earth formed – big problem, as radioisotopes are not “fixed” in a crystal until after crystallization.Oldest rock: Acasta gneiss from the Slave craton, North America: ± GyrOldest mineral: Zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia: ± GyrOther solar system bodies cooled much more quickly after formation: Canyon Diablo meteorite (shown in photo): 4.53 to 4.58 GyrAlso useful: Lunar rocks, meteorites from MarsAge of solar system can be independentlydetermined by helioseismology, whichuses the distribution of helium in the Sun’score to figure out how long the Sun hasbeen active.