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University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 1 of 28 All materials on this template are Copyright © 2004 University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center Learning.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 1 of 28 All materials on this template are Copyright © 2004 University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center Learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 1 of 28 All materials on this template are Copyright © 2004 University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center Learning Center unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved. Certain graphic images, text elements and logos are derived from The University of Kentucky and NetLearning and are used by permission. USP Pharmaceutical Compounding – Sterile Products Authors: Philip Trapskin, PharmD Rebecca Reagan, RPh Kimberley Hite, MS, PharmD John Armitstead, MS, RPh, FASHP Service Area:Pharmacy Services Phone:(859) Date Developed Or Revised:April, 2005 Curriculum:Pharmacy Target Audience:Pharmacists and Pharmacy Technicians

2 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 2 of 46 Background Personnel Cleansing and Gowning Responsibilities of Compounding Personnel Risk Level Classifications Verification of Accuracy and Sterilization Personnel Training and Assessment Environmental Quality and Control Equipment Storage and Beyond-Use Dating Menu

3 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 3 of 46 Background United States Pharmacopeia (USP) –Non-governmental non-profit organization –Primary activities are creation of standards, patient safety, healthcare information, and verification of products Quality and consistency of medicines –Prescription –Non-prescription –Dietary supplements –Veterinary drugs –Healthcare products Safe and proper use of medications –USP standards are developed by a unique process of public involvement

4 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 4 of 46 Background (cont.) Food and Drugs Act – 1906 –US Pharmacopeia (USP/NF) became the official standard for drugs in the United States Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act – 1938 –USP/NF official compendia of drug standards –Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responsible for enforcement of the act –FDA may enforce required standards in USP/NF USP Legal and Regulatory Basis

5 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 5 of 46 Background (cont.) Each general chapter of the USP/NF is assigned a number which appears in brackets Chapter to are required –Pharmacies are subject to inspection for compliance with required standards by: Boards of Pharmacy FDA Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) Includes Chapter Chapter to are informational USP Legal and Regulatory Basis (cont.)

6 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 6 of 46 Background (cont.) Goal of USP Chapter is to prevent potential patient harm or death that could result from: –Microbial contamination –Excessive bacterial endotoxins –Large content errors in the strength of correct ingredients –Incorrect ingredients Goal of Chapter

7 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 7 of 46 Background (cont.) Preparations prepared according to the manufacturers labeled instructions and other manipulations that expose contents to potential contamination Preparations containing nonsterile ingredients or employ nonsterile components or devices that must be sterilized before administration Biologics, diagnostics, drugs, nutrients, and radiopharmaceuticals that possess either of the above two characteristics Definition of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) – USP27

8 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 8 of 46 Background (cont.) Chapter USP applies to pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and allied health team members. Scope of USP Multidisciplinary

9 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 9 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

10 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 10 of 46 Personnel Cleansing and Gowning Hand Washing –Wash hands, nails and arms up to the elbow with soap and water –Wash for at least 15 seconds (Sing alphabet song) –Use a disposable scrub brush to clean nails and between fingers –Dry hands with non-shedding towel –Turn off faucet with towel or use foot pedals

11 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 11 of 46 Personnel Cleansing and Gowning (cont.) After washing hands, put on non-shedding uniform components in this order: –Knee-length coats or coveralls –Hair cover –Shoe covers –Protective gloves –Face mask when in hood

12 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 12 of 46 Personnel Cleansing and Gowning (cont.) Hair Covers –Must cover all hair –Beards and long sideburns require use of beard cover Gloves –Powder free –Clean new gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol before use –Avoid touching non-sterile surfaces –Intermittently sanitize gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol

13 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 13 of 46 Personnel Cleansing and Gowning (cont.) Every time you leave the buffer area you must remove and discard your: –Hair cover –Gloves –Face mask Must remove lab coat when leaving buffer area –May hang coat inside out –Must discard coat at the end of each shift

14 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 14 of 46 Personnel Cleansing and Gowning (cont.) Face mask must be worn while in hood –Minimizes airborne contaminants while talking, sneezing and coughing –Must cover mouth and nose completely

15 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 15 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

16 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 16 of 46 Responsibilities of Compounding Personnel Manipulate sterile products aseptically Ensure products are accurately –Identified –Measured –Diluted –Mixed Maintain appropriate cleanliness conditions Ensure products are correctly –Purified –Sterilized –Packaged –Sealed –Labeled –Stored –Dispensed –Distributed

17 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 17 of 46 Responsibilities of Compounding Personnel (cont.) Open or partially used packages for subsequent use are: –Properly stored –Clearly labeled with date and time opened or date and time of expiration Labels on products must list names, amounts added and concentrations of all ingredients Before dispensing and administration, products are visually inspected for clarity Beyond-use dates are assigned based on direct testing or extrapolation from reliable literature and other documentation

18 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 18 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

19 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 19 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products Appropriate risk level (low, medium, high) assigned according to corresponding probability of contamination with: –Microbial (organisms, spores, endotoxins) –Chemical or Physical (foreign chemicals or physical matter) Characteristics serve as guide and are not prescriptive Risk level ultimately determined by professional judgment

20 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 20 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Low-Risk Conditions –Products compounded with aseptic manipulations entirely within ISO class 5 quality air using only sterile ingredients, products, components or devices –Involves only transfer, measuring, and mixing manipulations with closed or sealed packaging systems performed promptly and attentively –Manipulations limited to aseptically opening ampules, penetrating sterile stoppers on vials with sterile needles and syringes, and transferring sterile liquids in sterile syringes to other sterile products Low-Risk Level Characteristics

21 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 21 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Examples of Low-Risk Compounding –Single transfers of sterile dosage forms from ampules, bottles, bags, and vials using sterile syringes with sterile needles, and other sterile containers. The contents of ampules requires sterile filtration to remove glass particles –Manually measuring and mixing no more than three manufactured products to compound drug admixtures –Tobramycin piggyback –Morphine drip Low-Risk Level Characteristics (cont.)

22 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 22 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Quality Assurance –Routine disinfection of the direct compounding environment to minimize microbial surface contamination –Visual conformation that personnel are properly garbed with hair covers, gloves, masks, etc. –Review of all products to ensure correct identity and amounts of ingredients were compounded –Visual inspection of products to ensure the absence of particulates in solutions, the absence leakage from vials or bags, accuracy of labeling Low-Risk Level Characteristics (cont.)

23 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 23 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Medium-Risk Conditions include all low-risk conditions in addition to one or more of the following: –Multiple individual or small doses of sterile products are combined or pooled to prepare a product that will be administered to multiple patients or the same patient on multiple occasions –Compounding includes complex aseptic manipulations other than single volume transfer –Compounding requires unusually long duration to complete dilution or homogenous mixing –The product does not contain bacteriostatic substances and is administered over several days (e.g. external or implanted pump) Medium-Risk Level Characteristics

24 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 24 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Examples Medium-Risk Compounding –Compounding of total parenteral nutrition using manual or automated devices –Filling of reservoirs of injection and infusion devices with multiple sterile products administered over several days at ambient temperatures (implanted pumps) –Transfer of volumes from multiple ampules or vials into a single, final sterile container or product (terbutaline drip) –Hydromorphone IVPCA batches using commercial sterile ingredients Medium-Risk Level Characteristics (cont.)

25 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 25 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Quality Assurance –Routine disinfection of the direct compounding environment to minimize microbial surface contamination –Visual conformation that personnel are properly garbed with hair covers, gloves, masks, etc. –Review of all products to ensure correct identity and amounts of ingredients were compounded –Visual inspection of products to ensure the absence of particulates in solutions, the absence leakage from vials or bags, accuracy of labeling Medium-Risk Level Characteristics (cont.)

26 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 26 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) High-Risk Conditions include all low-risk and medium- risk conditions in addition to one or more of the following –Non-sterile ingredients are incorporated or a non-sterile device is employed before terminal sterilization –Sterile ingredients, components, devices, and mixtures are exposed to air quality inferior to ISO class 5 –Non-sterile preparations are stored greater than 6 hours before being sterilized High-Risk Level Characteristics

27 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 27 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Examples of High-Risk Compounding –Dissolving non-sterile bulk drug and nutrient powders to make solutions, which will be terminally sterilized –Exposure of sterile ingredients to air less than ISO class 5 (e.g. nursing preparation on the ward) –Measuring or mixing of sterile ingredients in non-sterile devices before sterilization is performed High-Risk Level Characteristics (cont.)

28 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 28 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Quality Assurance –Routine disinfection of the direct compounding environment to minimize microbial surface contamination –Visual conformation that personnel are properly garbed with hair covers, gloves, masks, etc. –Review of all products to ensure correct identity and amounts of ingredients were compounded –Visual inspection of products to ensure the absence of particulates in solutions, the absence leakage from vials or bags, accuracy of labeling High-Risk Level Characteristics (cont.)

29 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 29 of 46 Risk Level Classifications of Compounded Sterile Products (cont.) Low and Medium Risk Levels –Personnel authorized to compound low or medium risk products are required to perform media-fill testing annually –Test must simulate most challenging and stressful conditions during compounding of low or medium risk products respectively High-Risk Level –Personnel authorized to compound high-risk products are required to perform media-fill testing semi-annually –Test must simulate most challenging and stressful conditions during compounding of high-risk products Media-Fill Testing

30 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 30 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

31 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 31 of 46 Verification of Accuracy and Sterilization for CSP Physical Inspection –Finished products to be individually inspected for Particulates Foreign matter Container-closure integrity Other apparent visual defects –Products not immediately distributed must be inspected before leaving the storage area

32 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 32 of 46 Verification of Accuracy and Sterilization for CSP (cont.) Compounding Accuracy Checks –Written procedures for double-checking compounding accuracy must be followed –Double check should include label accuracy and accuracy of the addition of all products or ingredients –Used containers and syringes should be quarantined with the final product until double check is performed –Double check should be performed by person other than the compounder

33 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 33 of 46 Verification of Accuracy and Sterilization for CSP (cont.) Sterilization and Bacterial Endotoxin Testing –Required for high-risk level products that involve nonsterile products or devices –Product must be tested according to USP Chapter Bacterial Endotoxins Test –Sterilization Methods Dry Heat –250°C for two hours Steam (autoclave) –121°C at 15 pounds per square inch (p.s.i.) for 20 to 60 minutes Filtration –0.2 micron filter certified to retain 10 7 Brevundimonas diminuta per cm 2 Must verify sterilization procedures –Required to prove it –Accomplish with media fill testing

34 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 34 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

35 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 35 of 46 Personnel Training and Assessment Personnel who prepare compounded sterile products or parenteral preparations must be provided with appropriate training in the theoretical principals and practical skills of aseptic manipulations. Assessment of knowledge and skills –Annually for personnel preparing low and medium-risk level products –Semi-annually for personnel preparing high-risk level products

36 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 36 of 46 Personnel Training and Assessment (cont.) Assessment –Written tests –Media-fill challenge testing –Failure of assessment requires re-instruction and re-evaluation before being allowed to compound sterile products Media-fill challenge testing –Sterile bacterial culture medium transferred via a variety of aseptic manipulations –Test should represent the most challenging products made for a particular risk level –Products are monitored for microbial growth, indicated by visual turbidity, for 14 days

37 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 37 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

38 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 38 of 46 Environmental Quality and Control Critical Site –Any opening providing a direct pathway between a sterile product and the environment or any surface coming into direct contact with the product and the environment –Must protect these sites from environmental contamination Air Quality –ISO Class 5 (Class 100) required in critical area (area where sterile products are directly exposed, e.g. hood) –ISO Class 8 (Class 100,000) required for buffer area or clean room –Minimize air currents from open doors, personnel traffic and ventilation ducts –Air conditioning and humidity control required

39 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 39 of 46 Environmental Quality and Control (cont.) Cleaning and sanitizing workspaces –Standard operating procedures are required –Pharmacy policy PH06-05 fulfills this requirement and discusses specific UKCMC proceduresPH06-05 –Please click on policy link above for PH06-05 and read the policy. Required to answer a test question. Personnel garb and hand washing (policy PH06-04)PH06-04 –Please click on policy link above for PH06-04 and read the policy. Required to answer a test question. Environmental monitoring –Air quality inspections (every 6 months) –Certification of hoods and barrier isolators (every 6 months) –Evaluation of airborne microorganisms Monthly for low and medium risk-level compounding areas Weekly for high risk-level compounding areas

40 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 40 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

41 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 41 of 46 Equipment Personnel are to be trained to operate any piece of equipment or apparatus they may use to prepare compounded sterile products Equipment calibration documentation Annual and routine maintenance documentation Monitoring for proper function documentation Procedures for use Calibration and maintenance reports to be kept on file

42 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 42 of 46 Selected Sections of Chapter Personnel cleansing and gowning Responsibilities of compounding personnel Risk level classification of Compounded Sterile Products (CSP) and quality assurance Verification of accuracy and sterilization of CSP Personnel training and assessment Environmental quality and control Equipment Storage and beyond-use dating

43 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 43 of 46 Storage and Beyond-Use Dating In the absence of sterility testing, storage periods (before administration) shall not exceed the following based on sterility: Low-riskMedium-riskHigh-risk Room Temp >8ºC <48 hours<30hours<24 hours Refrigerated 2º to 8ºC <14 days<7 days<3 days Freezer <20ºC <45days

44 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 44 of 46 Storage and Beyond-Use Dating (cont.) Use stABility dating only if shorter than stERility beyond- use dating recommendations –Low-risk level product ABC in refrigerator would receive a beyond-use date of <7 days based on stERility –If the stABility of product ABC is 24 hours, then product should be labeled with beyond-use date of <24 hours Beyond-use dating can be extended if direct sterility testing is performed

45 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 45 of 46 Storage and Beyond-Use Dating (cont.) Single dose or single use vials shall be discarded within: –24 hours if stored at room temperature –72 hours if stored in the refridgerator Multi-dose vials shall be discarded within 28 days Beyond-use dating can be extended if direct sterility testing is performed

46 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 46 of 46 USP is an important patient safety initiative Adoption of the standards will require personal motivation and teamwork For more information on USP visit USP<797 is under continual revisions. Please obtain a current copy of the chapter for the most current information. Summary

47 University of Kentucky / NetLearning CBL 47 of 47 We hope this Computer Based Learning course has been both informative and helpful. Feel free to review the screens of this course until you are confident about your knowledge of the material presented. Click the Take Test button on the left side of the screen when you are ready to complete the requirements for this course. Exit Choose the My Records button to view your transcript. Select Exit to close the Student Interface.


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