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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Image and Math Focus Bank Bellringers Standardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Rock and Fossil Record Table of Contents Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First? Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time Section 4 Looking at Fossils Section 5 Time Marches On Chapter 6

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened Bellringer The Present Is the Key to the Past. This phrase was the cornerstone of the uniformitarianist theory developed by geologist James Hutton in the late 1700s. Write a few sentences in your science journal about how studying the present could reveal the story of Earths history. Use sketches to illustrate processes that occurred millions of years ago that you can still see today. Chapter 6

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives Compare uniformitarianism and catastrophism. Describe how the science of geology has changed over the past 200 years. Explain the role of paleontology in the study of Earths history. Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Uniformitarianism Scientist James Hutton, the author of Theory of the Earth, proposed that geologic processes such as erosion and deposition do not change over time. Uniformitarianism is the idea that the same geologic processes shaping the Earth today have been at work throughout Earths history. The next slide shows how Hutton developed the idea of uniformitarianism. Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Uniformitarianism, continued Uniformitarianism Versus Catastrophism Huttons theories sparked a scientific debate by suggesting the Earth was much older than a few thousand years, as previously thought. A few thousand years was not enough time for the gradual geologic processes that Hutton described to have shaped the planet. Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Uniformitarianism, continued A Victory for Uniformitarianism Catastrophism was geologys guiding principle until the work of geologist Charles Lyell caused people to reconsider uniformitarianism. Lyell published Principles of Geology in the early 1830s. Armed with Huttons notes and new evidence of his own, Lyell successfully challenged the principle of catastrophism. Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Modern Geology -- A Happy Medium During the late 20th century, scientists such as Stephen J. Gould challenged Lyells uniformitarianism. They believed that catastrophes occasionally play an important role in shaping Earths history. Today, scientists realize that most geologic change is gradual and uniform, but catastrophes that cause geologic change have occurred during Earths long history. Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Paleontology -- The Study of Past Life The history of the Earth would be incomplete without knowledge of the organisms that have inhabited our planet and the conditions under which they lived. The science involved with the study of past life is called paleontology. Paleontologist study fossils, which are the remains of organisms preserved by geologic processes. Chapter 6 Section 1 Earths Story and Those Who First Listened

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First? Bellringer Arrange the following sentences in a logical order to make a short story: I stood in the checkout line. I selected two apples. I walked home from the store. I gave the cashier money. I went to the store. The cashier gave me change. I was hungry. Write your story in your science journal. Chapter 6

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives Explain how relative dating is used in geology. Explain the principle of superposition. Describe how the geologic column is used in relative dating. Identify two events and two features that disrupt rock layers. Explain how physical features are used to determine relative ages. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Superposition Geologists try to determine the order in which events have happened during Earths history. They rely on rocks and fossils to help them in their investigation. The process of determining whether an event or object is older or younger than other events or objects is called relative dating. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Superposition, continued Layers of sedimentary rock, such as the ones shown below, are stacked like pancakes. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Superposition, continued As you move from the top to the bottom in layers of sedimentary rock, the lower layers are older. Superposition is a principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks, if the layers have not been disturbed. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Principle of Superposition, continued Disturbing Forces Not all rock sequences are arranged with the oldest layers on the bottom and the youngest layers on top. Some rock sequences have been disturbed by forces within the Earth. These forces can push other rocks into a sequence, tilt or fold rock layers, and break sequences into moveable parts. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Geologic Column The geologic column is an ideal sequence of rock layers that contains all the known fossils and rock formations on Earth, arranged from oldest to youngest. Geologists use the geologic column to interpret rock sequences and to identify the layers in puzzling rock sequences. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Disturbed Rock Layers Geologists often find features that cut across existing layers of rock. Geologists use the relationships between rock layers and the features that cross them to assign relative ages to the features and the layers. The features must be younger than the rock layers because the rock layers had to be present before the features could cut across them. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Disturbed Rock Layers, continued Events That Disturb Rock Layers Geologists assume that the way sediment is deposited to form rock layers in horizontal layers has not changed over time. If rock layers are not horizontal, something must have disturbed them after they formed. The next slide describes four ways that rock layers may become disturbed. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Disturbed Rock Layers, continued A fault is a break in the Earths crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another. An intrusion is molten rock from the Earths interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools. Folding occurs when rock layers bend and buckle from Earths internal forces. Tilting occurs when internal forces in the Earth slant rock layers. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Gaps in the Record -- Unconformities Missing Evidence Sometimes, layers of rock are missing, creating a gap in the geologic record. Missing rock layers create breaks in rock-layer sequences called unconformities. An unconformity is a break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Unconformities Most unconformities form by both erosion and nondeposition, but other factors may be involved. To simplify the study of unconformities, geologists place them into three major categories: disconformities, nonconformities, and angular unconformities. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Unconformities, continued Disconformities exist where part of a sequence of parallel rock layers is missing. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Unconformities, continued Nonconformities exist where sedimentary rock layers lie on top of an eroded surface of nonlayered igneous or metamorphic rock. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Unconformities, continued Angular Unconformities exist between horizontal rock layers and rock layers that are tilted or folded. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock-Layer Puzzles Rock-layer sequences often have been affected by more than one geological event or feature. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First? For example, intrusions may squeeze into rock layers that contain an unconformity, as shown at right.

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock-Layer Puzzles, continued Determining the order events that led to a sequence that has been disturbed by more than one rock- disturbing feature is like solving a jigsaw puzzle. Geologists must use their knowledge of the events that disturb rock-layer sequences to piece together the history of the Earth. Chapter 6 Section 2 Relative Dating: Which Came First?

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time Bellringer Do the following statements describe relative or absolute age? 1. She is my younger sister. 2. He is 12 years old. Why do geologists use both absolute and relative dating to interpret the past? Why are both absolute and relative dates valid dates for geologists, and other earth scientists to use? Write a paragraph in your science journal. Chapter 6

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives Describe how radioactive decay occurs. Explain how radioactive decay relates to radiometric dating. Identify four types of radiometric dating. Determine the best type of radiometric dating to use to date an object. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radioactive Decay Absolute dating is any method of measuring the age of an event or object in years. To determine the absolute ages of fossils and rocks, scientists analyze isotopes of radioactive elements. Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radioactive Decay, continued Most isotopes are stable, meaning that they stay in their original form. Other isotopes are unstable. Scientists call unstable isotopes radioactive. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radioactive Decay, continued Radioactive isotopes tend to break down into stable isotopes of the same or other elements in a process called radioactive decay. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radioactive Decay, continued Because radioactive decay occurs at a steady rate, scientists can use the relative amounts of stable and unstable isotopes present in an object to determine the objects age. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radioactive Decay, continued Dating Rocks How Does It Work? In radioactive decay, an unstable radioactive isotope of one element breaks down into a stable isotope. The stable isotope may be of the same element or of a different element. The unstable radioactive isotope is called the parent isotope. The stable isotope produced by the radioactive decay of the parent isotope is called the daughter isotope. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radioactive Decay, continued The rate of radioactive decay is constant, so scientists can compare the amount of parent material with the amount of daughter material to date rock. The more daughter material there is, the older the rock is. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radiometric Dating Determining the absolute age of a sample, based on the ratio of parent material to daughter material is called radiometric dating. If you know the rate of decay for a radioactive element in a rock, you can figure out the absolute age of the rock. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Radiometric Dating, continued A half-life is the time needed for half of a sample of a radioactive substance to undergo radioactive decay. After every half-life, the amount of parent material decrease by one-half. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Radiometric Dating Scientists use different radiometric-dating methods based on the estimated age of an object. There are four radiometric-dating techniques. Potassium-Argon Method Potassium-40 has a half- life of 1.3 billion years, and it decays leaving a daughter material of argon. This method is used mainly to date rocks older than 100,000 years. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Radiometric Dating, continued Uranium-Lead Method Uranium-238 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 4.5 billion years. Uranium-238 decays in a series of steps to lead-206. The uranium-lead method can be used to date rocks more than 10 million years old. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Radiometric Dating, continued Rubidium-Strontium Method The unstable parent isotope rubidium-87 forms a stable daughter isotope strontium-87. The half-life of rubidium-87 is 49 billion years. This method is used for rocks older than 10 million years. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Radiometric Dating, continued Carbon-14 Method Carbon is normally found in three forms, the stable isotopes carbon-12 and carbon-13, and the radioactive isotope carbon-14. Living plants and animals contain a constant ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12. Once a plant or animal dies, no new carbon is taken in. The amount of carbon-14 begins to decrease as the plant or animal decays. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Radiometric Dating, continued The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 years. The carbon-14 method of radiometric dating is used mainly for dating things that lived within the last 50,000 years. Chapter 6 Section 3 Absolute Dating: A Measure of Time

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer Describe the fossil record of your own life that might be found 65 million years from now. What items, or artifacts, might be likely to survive? What kinds of things would decay and disappear? Do you think your fossil record would produce an accurate picture of your life? What might be missing? Write your description in your science journal. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Objectives Describe five ways that different types of fossils form. List three types of fossils that are not part of organisms. Explain how fossils can be used to determine the history of changes in environments and organisms. Explain how index fossils can be used to date rock layers. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fossilized Organisms The trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock is called a fossil. Fossils are most often preserved in sedimentary rock, but other materials can also preserve evidence of past life. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fossilized Organisms, continued Fossils in Rocks When an organism dies, it either begins to decay or is consumed by other organisms. Sometimes dead organisms are quickly buried by sediment, which slows down decay. Shells and bones are more resistant to decay than soft tissues, so when sediments become rock, the harder structures are more commonly preserved. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fossilized Organisms, continued Fossils in Amber Organisms occasionally become trapped in soft, sticky tree sap, which hardens and becomes amber. Insect fossils have often been preserved in this way, but frogs and lizards have also been found in amber. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fossilized Organisms, continued Petrifaction is a process in which minerals replace and organisms tissues. One form of petrifaction is called permineralization, a process in which the pore space in an organisms hard tissue is filled up with mineral. Replacement is a process in which an organisms tissues are completely replaced by minerals. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fossilized Organisms, continued Fossils in Asphalt There are places where asphalt wells up at the Earths surface. These thick, sticky pools can trap and preserve organisms. Frozen Fossils Since cold temperatures slow down decay, many types of fossils have been found preserved in ice. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Other Types of Fossils Trace Fossils are naturally preserved evidence of animal activity. Preserved animal tracks are an example of a trace fossil. Other types of trace fossils include preserved burrows or shelters that were made by animals, and coprolite, which is preserved animal dung. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Other Types of Fossils, continued Molds and Casts are two more examples of fossils. A mold is a mark or cavity made in a sedimentary surface by a shell or other body. A cast is a type of fossil that forms when sediments fill the cavity left by a decomposed organism. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Using Fossils to Interpret the Past The Information in the Fossil Record The fossil record offers only a rough sketch of the history of life on Earth. The fossil record is incomplete because most organisms never became fossils. Scientists know more information about organisms that had hard body parts and that lived in environments that favored fossilization. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Using Fossils to Interpret the Past, continued History of Environmental Changes The fossil record reveals changes in an areas climate over time. By using the fossils of plants and land animals, scientists can reconstruct past climates. History of Changing Organisms By studying the relationships between fossils, scientists can interpret how life has changed over time. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Using Fossils to Date Rocks Scientists have learned that particular types of fossils appear only in certain layers of rock. By dating the rock layers above and below these fossils, scientists can determine the time span in which the organisms that formed the fossils lived. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Using Fossils to Date Rocks, continued If a type of organism existed for only a short period of time, its fossils would show up in a limited range of rock layers. These fossils are called index fossils. Index fossils are fossils that are found in the rock layers of only one geologic age, and can be used to establish the age of the rock layers. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Using Fossils to Date Rocks, continued Ammonites An example of an index fossil is the fossil of a genus of ammonites called Tropites. Tropites, a marine mollusk similar to a modern squid, lived between 230 million and 208 million years ago. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Using Fossils to Date Rocks, continued Trilobites Fossils of a genus of trilobites called Phacops are another example of an index fossil. Trilobites are extinct and lived approximately 400 million years ago. When scientists find Phacops in a rock, they assume that the rock is approximately 400 million years old. Chapter 6 Section 4 Looking at Fossils

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu End of Chapter 6 Show

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 Three hundred million years ago, the region that is now Illinois had a different climate than it does today. Swamps and shallow bays covered much of the area. No fewer than 500 species of plants and animals lived in this environment. Today, the remains of these organisms are found beautifully preserved within nodules. Continued on the next slide Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1, continued Nodules are round or oblong structures usually composed of cemented sediments that sometimes contain the fossilized hard parts of plants and animals. The Illinois nodules are exceptional because the soft parts of organisms are found together with hard parts. For this reason, these nodules are found in fossil collections around the world. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what is the meaning of the word exceptional? A beautiful B extraordinary C average D large Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

82 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what is the meaning of the word exceptional? A beautiful B extraordinary C average D large Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

83 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, which of the following statements about nodules is correct? F Nodules are rarely round or oblong. G Nodules are usually composed of cemented sediment. H Nodules are not found in present-day Illinois. I Nodules always contain fossils. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

84 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, which of the following statements about nodules is correct? F Nodules are rarely round or oblong. G Nodules are usually composed of cemented sediment. H Nodules are not found in present-day Illinois. I Nodules always contain fossils. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

85 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following is a fact in the passage? A The Illinois nodules are not well known outside of Illinois. B Illinois has had the same climate throughout Earths history. C Both the hard and soft parts of organisms are preserved in the Illinois nodules. D Fewer than 500 species of plants and animals have been found in Illinois nodules. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

86 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following is a fact in the passage? A The Illinois nodules are not well known outside of Illinois. B Illinois has had the same climate throughout Earths history. C Both the hard and soft parts of organisms are preserved in the Illinois nodules. D Fewer than 500 species of plants and animals have been found in Illinois nodules. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

87 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 In 1995, paleontologist Paul Sereno and his team were working in an unexplored region of Morocco when they made an astounding find an enormous dinosaur skull! The skull measured approximately 1.6 m in length, which is about the height of a refrigerator. Given the size of the skull, Sereno concluded that the skeleton of the animal it came from must have been about 14 m long about as big as a school bus. Continued on the next slide Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

88 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2, continued The dinosaur was even larger than Tyrannosaurus rex! The newly discovered 90 million-year-old predator most likely chased other dinosaurs by running on large, powerful hind legs, and its bladelike teeth meant certain death for its prey. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

89 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word astounding mean? A important B new C incredible D one of a kind Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

90 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word astounding mean? A important B new C incredible D one of a kind Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

91 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Which of the following is evidence that the dinosaur described in the passage was a predator? F It had bladelike teeth. G It had a large skeleton. H It was found with the bones of a smaller animal nearby. I It is 90 million years old. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

92 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Which of the following is evidence that the dinosaur described in the passage was a predator? F It had bladelike teeth. G It had a large skeleton. H It was found with the bones of a smaller animal nearby. I It is 90 million years old. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

93 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What types of information do you think that fossil teeth provide about an organism? A the color of its skin B the types of food it ate C the speed that it ran D the mating habits it had Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

94 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What types of information do you think that fossil teeth provide about an organism? A the color of its skin B the types of food it ate C the speed that it ran D the mating habits it had Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

95 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question and choose the best answer. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

96 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5,730 years. How much carbon-14 would remain in a sample that is 11,460 years old? A 12.5% B 25% C 50% D 100% Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

97 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5,730 years. How much carbon-14 would remain in a sample that is 11,460 years old? A 12.5% B 25% C 50% D 100% Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

98 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. If a sample contains an isotope with a half-life of 10,000 years, how old would the sample be if 1/8 of the original isotope remained in the sample? F 20,000 years G 30,000 years H 40,000 years I 50,000 years Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

99 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. If a sample contains an isotope with a half-life of 10,000 years, how old would the sample be if 1/8 of the original isotope remained in the sample? F 20,000 years G 30,000 years H 40,000 years I 50,000 years Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

100 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. If a sample contains an isotope with a half-life of 5,000 years, how old would the sample be if 1/4 of the original isotope remained in the sample? A 10,000 years B 20,000 years C 30,000 years D 40,000 years Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

101 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 5. If a sample contains an isotope with a half-life of 5,000 years, how old would the sample be if 1/4 of the original isotope remained in the sample? A 10,000 years B 20,000 years C 30,000 years D 40,000 years Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

102 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu ESS EXAM TEST 7

103 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

104 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 Three hundred million years ago, the region that is now Illinois had a different climate than it does today. Swamps and shallow bays covered much of the area. No fewer than 500 species of plants and animals lived in this environment. Today, the remains of these organisms are found beautifully preserved within nodules. Continued on the next slide Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

105 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1, continued Nodules are round or oblong structures usually composed of cemented sediments that sometimes contain the fossilized hard parts of plants and animals. The Illinois nodules are exceptional because the soft parts of organisms are found together with hard parts. For this reason, these nodules are found in fossil collections around the world. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

106 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what is the meaning of the word exceptional? A beautiful B large C average D extraordinary Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

107 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, which of the following statements about nodules is correct? A Nodules are rarely round or oblong. B. Nodules are not found in present day Illinois. C Nodules are usually composed of cemented sediment. D Nodules always contain fossils. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

108 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following is a fact in the passage? A. Both the hard and soft parts of organisms are preserved in the Illinois nodules. B Illinois has had the same climate throughout Earths history. C. The Illinois nodules are not well known outside of Illinois. D Fewer than 500 species of plants and animals have been found in Illinois nodules. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

109 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 In 1995, paleontologist Paul Sereno and his team were working in an unexplored region of Morocco when they made an astounding find an enormous dinosaur skull! The skull measured approximately 1.6 m in length, which is about the height of a refrigerator. Given the size of the skull, Sereno concluded that the skeleton of the animal it came from must have been about 14 m long about as big as a school bus. Continued on the next slide Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

110 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2, continued The dinosaur was even larger than Tyrannosaurus rex! The newly discovered 90 million-year-old predator most likely chased other dinosaurs by running on large, powerful hind legs, and its bladelike teeth meant certain death for its prey. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

111 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. In the passage, what does the word astounding mean? A important B new C. one of a kind D. incredible Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

112 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 5. Which of the following is evidence that the dinosaur described in the passage was a predator? A. It had a large skeleton. B. It had bladelike teeth. C It was found with the bones of a smaller animal nearby. D It is 90 million years old. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

113 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 6. What types of information do you think that fossil teeth provide about an organism? A the color of its skin B. The speed that it ran C. the types of food it ate D the mating habits it had Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

114 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question and choose the best answer. Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

115 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 7. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5,730 years. How old would a bone be that has gone through 3 half-lifes? A. 5,730 B 11,460 C 22,920 D 17,190 Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

116 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 8. If a sample contains an isotope with a half-life of 5,000 years, how old would the sample be if 1/8 of the original isotope remained in the sample? A 20,000 years B 30,000 years C 15,000 years D 10,000 years Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

117 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 9. If a sample contains an isotope with a half-life of 10,000 years, how old would the sample be if 1/4 of the original isotope remained in the sample? A 10,000 years B 20,000 years C 30,000 years D 40,000 years Chapter 6 Standardized Test Preparation

118 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST 7 1O. WHICH PRINCIPLE STATES THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST? A. SUPERPOSITION B. UNIFORMPOSITION C. UNIFORMITARIANISM D. SUPERUNIFORM 11. THE SCIENCE OF THE STUDY OF PAST LIFE. A. TOXOLOGY B. FOSSILOLOGY C. DEADOLOGY D. PALEONTOLOGY 12. THE PROCESS OF DETERMINING WHETHER AN EVENT OR OBJECT IS OLDER OR YOUNGER THAN OTHER EVENTS OR OBJECTS. A. ABSOLUTE DATING B. RADIOMETRIC DATING C. RADIOACTIVE DECAY D. RELATIVE DATING

119 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST THE PRINCIPLE THAT STATES THAT YOUNGER ROCKS LIE ABOVE OLDER ROCKS IF THE LAYERS HAVE NOT BEEN DISTURBED. A. UNIFORMPOSITION B. UNIFORMITARIANISM C. SUPERUNIFORM D. SUPERPOSITION 14. A BREAK IN THE EARTHS CRUST ALONG WHICH BLOCKS OF THE CRUST SLIDE RELATIVE TO ONE ANOTHER. A. SPLIT B. JOINT C. FAULT D. CONFORMITY 15. MOLTEN ROCKS FROM THE EARTHS INTERIOR THAT SQUEEZES INTO EXISTING ROCKS AND COOLS. A. INTRUSION B. FAULT C. EXTRUSION D. SPLIT

120 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST THIS OCCURS WHEN ROCK LAYERS BEND AND BUCKLE FROM EARTHS INTERNAL FORCES. A. FAULTING B. FOLDING C. PLATEAU D. TILTING 17. THIS OCCURS WHEN INTERNAL FORCES IN THE EARTH SLANT ROCK LAYERS. A. FAULTING B. PLATEAU C. TILTING D. FOLDING 18. A BREAK IN THE ROCK RECORD. A. CONFORMITY B. UNCONFORMITY C. TRILOBITE D. TILT

121 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST THESE EXIST WHERE PART OF A SEQUENCE OF PARALLEL ROCK LAYERS IS MISSING. A. CONFORMITY B. FAULTING C. JOINT D. DISCONFORMITY 20. THESE EXIST WHERE SEDIMENTARY ROCK LAYERS LIE ON TOP OF AN ERODED SURFACE OF NON LAYERED IGNEOUS OR METAMORPHIC ROCK. A. FAULTING B. JOINT C. NONCONFORMITY D. COMFORMITY

122 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST THESE EXISTS BETWEEN HORIZONTAL ROCK LAYERS AND ROCK LAYERS THAT ARE TILTED AND FOLDED. A. ANGULAR UNCONFORMITY B. SQUARE CONFORMITY C. DIAMOND UNCONFORMITY D. FAULT LINE 22. ANY METHOD OF MEASURING THE AGE OF AN EVENT OR OBJECT BY ANALYZING ISOTOPES OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES. A. RELATIVE DATING B. ABSOLUTE DATING C. ABSOLUTE RELATING D. RELATIVE AGE

123 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT THAT HAVE THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS BUT DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF NEUTRONS ARE CALLED _______. A. ISOTOPES B. ELEMENTS C. RADONS D. ISOBAR 24. AN UNSTABLE ISOTOPE IS SAID TO BE _________. NEGATIVE B. RADIOACTIVE C. POSITIVE D. DEAD 25. RADIOACTIVE DECAY OCCURS AT A _____ RATE. A. STEADY B. FAST C. UNSTEADY D. SLOW

124 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST IN RADIOACTIVE DECAY, THE UNSTABLE RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE IS CALLED THE ______ ISOTOPE. A. DAUGHTER B. RELATIVE C. FATHER D. PARENT 27. IN RADIOACTIVE DECAY, THE STABLE ISOTOPE IS CALLED THE _________ ISOTOPE. A. RELATIVE B. DAUGHTER C. FATHER D. PARENT 28. THE MORE ______ MATERIAL THERE IS, THE OLDER THE ROCK. A. FATHER B. RELATIVE C. DAUGHTER D. PARENT

125 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST DETERMINING THE ABSOLUTE AGE OF A SAMPLE, BASED ON THE RATIO OF PARENT MATERIAL TO DAUGHTER MATERIAL IS CALLED ______________. A. RADIOMETRIC RATING B. RADIOMETRIC DATING C. RELATIVEMETRIC DATING D. ATOMMETRIC DATING 30. THE TIME NEEDED FOR 1/2 OF A SAMPLE OF A RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE TO UNDERGO RADIOACTIVE DECAY. A. NO LIFE B. FULL LIFE C. HALF LIFE D. HALF DEATH

126 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST TRACES OR REMAINS OF ORGANISMS THAT LIVED LONG AGO. A. FOSTILS B. HALF LIFE C. MOLLUSKS D. FOSSILS 32. ORGANISMS OCCASIONALLY BECAME TRAPPED IN SOFT STICKY TREE SAP THAT HARDENS AND BECOMES ______. A. AMBER B. GUM C. ROCK D. TAR 33. A PROCESS IN WHICH MINERALS REPLACE AN ORGANISMS TISSUE. A. PUTRIFICATION B. PETRIFICATION C. PURIFICATION D. ROCKATION

127 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST SINCE COLD TEMPERATURES SLOW DOWN DECAY, MANY TYPES OF FOSSILS HAVE BEEN FOUND PRESERVED IN ________. A. ASPHALT B. LAVA C. MAGMA D. ICE 35. NATURALLY PRESERVED EVIDENCE OF ANIMAL ACTIVITY. A. INDEX FOSSIL B. TRACE FOSSILS C. SPACE FOSSILS D. ACTIVE FOSSILS

128 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST 7 FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION 36. A TRACE FOSSIL B. INSECTS IN AMBER C. MOLD D. CAST

129 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST 7 FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION 37. A. INDEX FOSSIL B. PETRIFIED REMAINS C. FROZEN REMAINS D. TRACE FOSSILS

130 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST 7 FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION 38 A. INDEX FOSSIL B. ORIGINAL REMAINS C. TRACE FOSSIL D. FROZEN REMAINS

131 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST 7 FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION 39. A. INDEX FOSSIL B. MOLD/CAST C. PETRIFIED REMAINS D. FROZEN REMAINS

132 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu TEST 7 FOSSIL IDENTIFICATION 40. A. TRACE FOSSIL B. PETRIFIED REMAINS C. INDEX FOSSIL D. AMBER


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