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Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 9 Dating, Love, & Sexuality Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by.

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1 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach Chapter 9 Dating, Love, & Sexuality Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter Overview Sexual activity Sexual activity Cultural standards with regard to sex before marriage Cultural standards with regard to sex before marriage Sexual scripts for males and females Sexual scripts for males and females Sexuality among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents Sexuality among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents Problems in adolescence (e.g. contraception, pregnancy, abortion, parenthood) Problems in adolescence (e.g. contraception, pregnancy, abortion, parenthood) Sex education programs Sex education programs

3 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Prior to the womens movement, dating was much more formalized and gender roles were much more sharply drawn in the West. Teens now are more likely to go out in mixed-gender groups without any specific pairing up. Boys and girls may go out simply as friends. The Art of Dating ….

4 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Developmental Patterns in Dating The American Experience Most adolescent girls begin dating around age 12 or 13 Most adolescent girls begin dating around age 12 or 13 Most adolescent boys begin dating around 13 or 14 Most adolescent boys begin dating around 13 or 14 By age 15 about 20% of adolescents say they have gone with someone By age 15 about 20% of adolescents say they have gone with someone Dating before among American adolescents tends to follow a developmental sequence of four steps: Dating before among American adolescents tends to follow a developmental sequence of four steps: 1.Adolescents in same-gender groups go to places where they hope to find other-gender groups 2.Adolescents take part in social gatherings arranged by adults, such as parties 3.Mixed-gender groups arrange to go to some particular event together, such as a movie 4.Adolescent couples begin to date as pairs in activities such as movies, dinners, concerts and so on

5 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Why adolescents date Recreation Recreation Fun and enjoymentFun and enjoyment Learning Learning Becoming more skilled at dating interactionsBecoming more skilled at dating interactions Status Status Impressing others according to how often one dates and whom one datesImpressing others according to how often one dates and whom one dates Companionship Companionship Sharing pleasurable activities with another personSharing pleasurable activities with another person Intimacy Intimacy Establishing a close emotional relationship with another personEstablishing a close emotional relationship with another person Courtship Courtship Seeking someone to have as a steady partnerSeeking someone to have as a steady partner

6 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Constructing Ideas: Dating in Emerging Adulthood Dating tends to change as adolescents enter emerging adulthood. Dating tends to change as adolescents enter emerging adulthood. What quality to emerging adults look for in the people they date? (remember to differentiate between males and females) What quality to emerging adults look for in the people they date? (remember to differentiate between males and females) From your experience, recall differences between your dates as and adolescent and emerging adult

7 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Dating Scripts Proactive Script Proactive Script Males tend to follow this type of script Males tend to follow this type of script Includes: Includes: initiating the dateinitiating the date deciding where they will godeciding where they will go controlling the public domain (driving the car)controlling the public domain (driving the car) initiating sexual contactinitiating sexual contact Reactive Script Reactive Script Females tend to follow this type of script Females tend to follow this type of script Focuses on: Focuses on: Private domain (grooming & dress) Responding to the males gestures in the public domain Responding to his sexual initiatives

8 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sternbergs Theory of Love Different types of love involve combining three fundamental qualities of love in different ways Different types of love involve combining three fundamental qualities of love in different ways These three qualities are: These three qualities are: 1.Passion Involves physical attraction and sexual desire Involves physical attraction and sexual desire 2.Intimacy Feelings of closeness and emotional attachment Feelings of closeness and emotional attachment 3.Commitment The pledge to love someone over the long run, through the ups and downs that are often part of love The pledge to love someone over the long run, through the ups and downs that are often part of love

9 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sternbergs 7 Forms of Love Forms of Love PassionIntimacyCommitment LikingNoYesNo InfatuationYesNoNo Empty Love NoNoYes Romantic Love YesYesNo Companionate Love NoYesYes FatuousYesNoYes Consummate Love YesYesYes

10 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Applying Sternberg to Adolescence In most adolescent love relationships, commitment is either missing or highly tentative In most adolescent love relationships, commitment is either missing or highly tentative The absence of long term commitment in adolescence means that there are two principal types of adolescent love: infatuation and romantic love The absence of long term commitment in adolescence means that there are two principal types of adolescent love: infatuation and romantic love Keep in Mind ….. In industrialized countries people are not likely to get married until they are in at least their mid- to late twenties Under these circumstances it is understandable that adolescents love relationship would not involve commitment as much as passion or intimacy

11 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Adolescent Passion in Non-Western Culture Of 186 traditional cultures representing 6 distinct geographical regions around the worlds – it was found that there was evidence that young people fell passionately in love in all but one of the cultures Of 186 traditional cultures representing 6 distinct geographical regions around the worlds – it was found that there was evidence that young people fell passionately in love in all but one of the cultures However …. This does not mean that young people in all cultures are allowed to act on their feelings of love However …. This does not mean that young people in all cultures are allowed to act on their feelings of love On the contrary … romantic love as a basis for marriage is a fairly new cultural idea On the contrary … romantic love as a basis for marriage is a fairly new cultural idea

12 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Falling in Love Consensual validation Consensual validation People like to find in others an agreement, or consensus, with their own characteristicsPeople like to find in others an agreement, or consensus, with their own characteristics Finding this consensus supports, or validates, their own way of looking at the worldFinding this consensus supports, or validates, their own way of looking at the world People of all ages tend to have romantic relationships with people who are similar to them in characteristics such as: People of all ages tend to have romantic relationships with people who are similar to them in characteristics such as: IntelligenceIntelligence Social classSocial class Ethnic backgroundEthnic background Religious beliefsReligious beliefs Physical attractivenessPhysical attractiveness

13 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Attachment Styles Attachment styles between lovers have been found to resemble the parent-child attachment styles Attachment styles between lovers have been found to resemble the parent-child attachment styles SecureSecure Characterized by emotional support and concern for the partners well-being Characterized by emotional support and concern for the partners well-being Anxious-ambivalentAnxious-ambivalent Characterized by overdependence on the romantic partner along with insensitivity to the partners needs Characterized by overdependence on the romantic partner along with insensitivity to the partners needs Anxious-avoidantAnxious-avoidant Involve keeping emotional distance from the romantic partner and inhibiting self-disclosure Involve keeping emotional distance from the romantic partner and inhibiting self-disclosure

14 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Browns Model of Adolescent Love Bradford Brown (1999) has proposed a developmental model of adolescent love that recognizes the important role played by peers and friends Bradford Brown (1999) has proposed a developmental model of adolescent love that recognizes the important role played by peers and friends Browns model contains four phases: Browns model contains four phases: 1.Initiation phase First tentative explorations of love which are usually superficial, brief and often fraught with anxiety, fear, and excitement First tentative explorations of love which are usually superficial, brief and often fraught with anxiety, fear, and excitement 2.Status phase Begin to gain confidence in their interaction skills with potential romantic partners Begin to gain confidence in their interaction skills with potential romantic partners Adolescents remain acutely aware of the evaluations of their friends and peers Adolescents remain acutely aware of the evaluations of their friends and peers 3.Affection phase Adolescents come to know each other better and express deeper feelings for each other Adolescents come to know each other better and express deeper feelings for each other Being to engage in more extensive sexual activity Being to engage in more extensive sexual activity 4.Bonding phase The romantic relationship becomes more enduring and serious – partners begin to discuss the possibility of a lifelong commitment The romantic relationship becomes more enduring and serious – partners begin to discuss the possibility of a lifelong commitment This phase usually occurs in emerging adulthood rather than adolescence This phase usually occurs in emerging adulthood rather than adolescence

15 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. When Love Goes Bad How can adolescent egocentrism and the personal fable contribute to feelings of breaking up? How can adolescent egocentrism and the personal fable contribute to feelings of breaking up?

16 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Breaking Up – Understanding Emerging Adults Based on a study of 200 college couples for 2 years (Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1979) Based on a study of 200 college couples for 2 years (Hill, Rubin, & Peplau, 1979) 45% of the couples had broken up45% of the couples had broken up Those who had broken upThose who had broken up reported lower levels of intimacy and love reported lower levels of intimacy and love were less likely to be similar on characteristics such as age, SAT scores and physical attractiveness were less likely to be similar on characteristics such as age, SAT scores and physical attractiveness were less balanced (one partner indicated substantially more commitment to the relationship than the other) were less balanced (one partner indicated substantially more commitment to the relationship than the other) Women were more likely to end the relationshipWomen were more likely to end the relationship Rejected men tended to be lonelier, unhappier and more depressed than rejected womenRejected men tended to be lonelier, unhappier and more depressed than rejected women Rejected men found it harder than rejected women to accept the end of the relationship and to stay friendsRejected men found it harder than rejected women to accept the end of the relationship and to stay friends

17 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Choosing a Marriage Partner The Study: 10,000 young people in 37 countries from all over the world (Africa, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, & North and South America) The Study: 10,000 young people in 37 countries from all over the world (Africa, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, & North and South America) The Findings: The Findings: Highest Ranking Mutual attraction High Rankings: Dependable character Emotional stability & Maturity Pleasing disposition Lowest Ranking: Religious & political backgrounds Low Rankings: Good financial prospects Having a lot of money The sharpest cross-cultural division was on the issue of chastity

18 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Arranged Marriages Although romantic love is found in all cultures, it is not considered the proper basis of marriage in all cultures Although romantic love is found in all cultures, it is not considered the proper basis of marriage in all cultures Marriage has more often been seen as an alliance between two families rather than as the uniting of two individuals Marriage has more often been seen as an alliance between two families rather than as the uniting of two individuals The most important considerations in an arranged marriage is the other familys status, religion and wealth The most important considerations in an arranged marriage is the other familys status, religion and wealth Globalization is having an effect on how young people are beginning to value individual chose and the pursuit of happiness Today in most Eastern cultures the semi arranged marriage is the most common practice

19 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Cohabitation In the U.S. as well as Northern Europe cohabitation before marriage is now experienced by at least two thirds of emerging adults In the U.S. as well as Northern Europe cohabitation before marriage is now experienced by at least two thirds of emerging adults The percentage is highest in Sweden where nearly all young people cohabitate before marriage The percentage is highest in Sweden where nearly all young people cohabitate before marriage In the U.S. cohabitation tends to be brief and unstable In the U.S. cohabitation tends to be brief and unstable In contrast, cohabitating couples in European countries tend to stay together as long as married couples In contrast, cohabitating couples in European countries tend to stay together as long as married couples

20 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Adolescent Sexual Activity Sexual Activity MalesFemales Masturbation Majority of boys begin about age 13 Majority of boys begin about age 13 90% by age 19 90% by age 19 33% of females reported masturbating by age 13 33% of females reported masturbating by age 13 60% to 75% by age 20 60% to 75% by age 20 Necking and Petting 60% of 13 year olds had kissed at least once 60% of 13 year olds had kissed at least once 20% reported touching a girls breast 20% reported touching a girls breast By age 18, 77% reported penile touching By age 18, 77% reported penile touching 73% of 13 year olds had kissed at least once 73% of 13 year olds had kissed at least once 35% reported having their breast touched 35% reported having their breast touched By age 18, 60% reported vaginal touching By age 18, 60% reported vaginal touching Sexual Intercourse and Oral Sex Before 1965, 25% of boys reported having intercourse Before 1965, 25% of boys reported having intercourse After 1965, 54% of boys reported having intercourse After 1965, 54% of boys reported having intercourse Before 1965, 10% of girls reported having intercourse Before 1965, 10% of girls reported having intercourse After 1965, 52% of girls reported having intercourse After 1965, 52% of girls reported having intercourse

21 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Ethnic Differences The proportion of high school students in grades who had intercourse is: The proportion of high school students in grades who had intercourse is: Lowest for White adolescents (49%)Lowest for White adolescents (49%) Somewhat higher for Latino adolescents (58%)Somewhat higher for Latino adolescents (58%) Highest for African American adolescents (73%)Highest for African American adolescents (73%) Research has indicated that Asian Americans are considerably less likely to engage in sexual activity in adolescence compared with any other major American ethnic group Research has indicated that Asian Americans are considerably less likely to engage in sexual activity in adolescence compared with any other major American ethnic group

22 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Cultural Beliefs and Adolescent Sexuality Restrictive cultures: Restrictive cultures: Place strong prohibitions on adolescent sexual activity before marriagePlace strong prohibitions on adolescent sexual activity before marriage Strict separation of boys and girls in early childhood through adolescenceStrict separation of boys and girls in early childhood through adolescence Some countries will even include the threat of physical punishment and public shaming for premarital sexSome countries will even include the threat of physical punishment and public shaming for premarital sex Usually more restrictive for girls than boysUsually more restrictive for girls than boys Semi-restrictive cultures: Semi-restrictive cultures: Have prohibitions but they are not strongly enforced and are easily evadedHave prohibitions but they are not strongly enforced and are easily evaded If pregnancy results from premarital sex, the adolescents are often forced to marryIf pregnancy results from premarital sex, the adolescents are often forced to marry Permissive cultures: Permissive cultures: Encourage and expect adolescent sexualityEncourage and expect adolescent sexuality Sexual behavior is encouraged even in childhood and the sexuality of adolescence is simply a continuation of the sex play in childhoodSexual behavior is encouraged even in childhood and the sexuality of adolescence is simply a continuation of the sex play in childhood

23 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexual Scripts Different cognitive frameworks for understanding how a sexual experience is supposed to proceed and how sexual experiences are to be interpreted Different cognitive frameworks for understanding how a sexual experience is supposed to proceed and how sexual experiences are to be interpreted Examples: Examples: Boys are expected to make the movesBoys are expected to make the moves Girls set the limits on how far the sexual episode is allowed to progressGirls set the limits on how far the sexual episode is allowed to progress

24 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexually Active Adolescents Characteristics of non-virgins Characteristics of non-virgins Similar self-esteem as virginsSimilar self-esteem as virgins Similar overall life satisfaction as virginsSimilar overall life satisfaction as virgins More likely to be early maturingMore likely to be early maturing Tend to have lower levels of academic performance and academic aspirationsTend to have lower levels of academic performance and academic aspirations Adolescents who have sex early (15 years old or younger) Adolescents who have sex early (15 years old or younger) Early users of drugs and alcoholEarly users of drugs and alcohol More likely to be from single parent householdsMore likely to be from single parent households More likely to have grown up in povertyMore likely to have grown up in poverty

25 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment Includes a wide range of behaviours from mild harassment such as name calling, joke and leering looks to severe harassment involving unwanted touching or sexual contact Includes a wide range of behaviours from mild harassment such as name calling, joke and leering looks to severe harassment involving unwanted touching or sexual contact It is estimated that over half of American women will experience sexual harassment at some time during their professional live It is estimated that over half of American women will experience sexual harassment at some time during their professional live Date Rape is one form of sexual harassment that takes place when a persons, usually a woman, is forced by a romantic partner, date, or acquaintance to have sexual relations against her will Date Rape is one form of sexual harassment that takes place when a persons, usually a woman, is forced by a romantic partner, date, or acquaintance to have sexual relations against her will 15% of adolescent girls and 25% of emerging adult women have experienced date rape15% of adolescent girls and 25% of emerging adult women have experienced date rape Alcohol plays a big part in date rape on college campusesAlcohol plays a big part in date rape on college campuses

26 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment Percentage of male and female students having ever experienced various forms of sexual harassment

27 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexual Harassment

28 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents The degree of confusion and anxiety is often multiplied The degree of confusion and anxiety is often multiplied They are exposed almost entirely to heterosexual models of dating, love and sex They are exposed almost entirely to heterosexual models of dating, love and sex The presumption of heterosexuality is part of their socialization from parents, friends, school and media The presumption of heterosexuality is part of their socialization from parents, friends, school and media It is important to note: Distinguishing between having homosexual experiences and having a sexual orientation is important. A high percentage of adolescents and emerging adults (predominantly males) report some kind of sex play but only about 2% of adolescents become adults with a primarily homosexual orientation.

29 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents It is during adolescence that most gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) people become fully aware of their sexual orientation It is during adolescence that most gay, lesbian and bisexual (GLB) people become fully aware of their sexual orientation Coming out Coming out beginning at an average age of 14 for gay males and a year or two later for lesbiansbeginning at an average age of 14 for gay males and a year or two later for lesbians Involves a persons recognizing his or her own sexual identity and then disclosing the truth to friends, family and othersInvolves a persons recognizing his or her own sexual identity and then disclosing the truth to friends, family and others Homophobia Homophobia Fear and hatred of homosexualsFear and hatred of homosexuals Because of this phenomenon, coming to the realization of a GLB identity can be traumatic for many adolescentsBecause of this phenomenon, coming to the realization of a GLB identity can be traumatic for many adolescents

30 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Contraceptive Use and Nonuse Two types of countries have low rates of teenage pregnancy: Two types of countries have low rates of teenage pregnancy: Those that are permissive about adolescent sexThose that are permissive about adolescent sex Those that adamantly forbid adolescent sexThose that adamantly forbid adolescent sex Permissive Countries Denmark Sweden Netherlands They have explicit safe sex campaigns. Adolescents have easy access to contraception Restrictive Countries Japan South Korea Morocco Adolescents are strongly discouraged from even dating It is rare for boys and girls to spend time alone together

31 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Birth, Abortion, and Pregnancy Notice how high the pregnancy rate is in the U.S. Compare this to Canada where sexual activity rates are the same but the pregnancy rate is about half

32 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Facts about the Facts of Life About 40% of pregnancies to American adolescents end in abortion About 40% of pregnancies to American adolescents end in abortion 14% of adolescents miscarry 14% of adolescents miscarry Of the children who are born, only about 5% are put up for adoption Of the children who are born, only about 5% are put up for adoption …. That means …. That means about 50% of adolescents raise their own children (sometimes with the help of the father but most often with the help of the adolescent mothers own mother)

33 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Teen Birth Rates Black teens are twice as likely as White teens to get pregnant In recent years, birth rates have become highest of all among Latina adolescents

34 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. What about Mom? Twice as likely to drop out of school Twice as likely to drop out of school Less likely to go to college or become employed Less likely to go to college or become employed Less likely to get married Less likely to get married More likely to get divorced if they get married More likely to get divorced if they get married Do they catch up? (a sample of 300 mothers) Do they catch up? (a sample of 300 mothers) Five years after given birth teenage mothers still lagged behind their peers in educational, occupational and economic progressFive years after given birth teenage mothers still lagged behind their peers in educational, occupational and economic progress After 18 yearsAfter 18 years 25% were still on welfare 25% were still on welfare 25% had succeeded in making it into the middle class 25% had succeeded in making it into the middle class A majority had eventually completed high school A majority had eventually completed high school 33% had completed at least some college education 33% had completed at least some college education

35 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. What about Dad? Being a teenage dad is related to a variety of negative outcomes Being a teenage dad is related to a variety of negative outcomes More likely to become divorcedMore likely to become divorced Lower level of educationLower level of education Lower paying jobLower paying job More prone to drug and alcohol useMore prone to drug and alcohol use More likely to violate the lawMore likely to violate the law More feelings of anxiety and depressionMore feelings of anxiety and depression Interesting Footnote: Like adolescent mothers, the problems of adolescent fathers often began prior to parenthood

36 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. What about Baby? Children born to adolescent mothers face a higher likelihood of a variety of difficulties in life Children born to adolescent mothers face a higher likelihood of a variety of difficulties in life Babies are more likely to be born prematureBabies are more likely to be born premature Lower birth rateLower birth rate Premature and low birth rate are related to a variety of physical and intellectual problemsPremature and low birth rate are related to a variety of physical and intellectual problems Greater likelihood of behavioral problemsGreater likelihood of behavioral problems School misbehaviour, delinquency and early sexual activitySchool misbehaviour, delinquency and early sexual activity It is important to note: These problems are not just due to having an adolescent mother but also due to the fact that most adolescent mothers are not only young and unmarried but poor as well

37 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexually Transmitted Diseases By age 24, one in three sexually active Americans have contracted an STD By age 24, one in three sexually active Americans have contracted an STD Two thirds of all STDs occur in people who are under 25 years old Two thirds of all STDs occur in people who are under 25 years old Two important characteristics of STDs Two important characteristics of STDs AsymptomaticAsymptomatic People show no symptoms of the disease People show no symptoms of the disease They are especially likely to infect others because neither they nor others realize that they are infected They are especially likely to infect others because neither they nor others realize that they are infected Latency PeriodLatency Period There may be years between the time people are infected and the time they being to show symptoms There may be years between the time people are infected and the time they being to show symptoms During this time they may be infecting others without either themselves or their partners being aware of it During this time they may be infecting others without either themselves or their partners being aware of it

38 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Chlamydia Most common STDMost common STD Highest rates among 15 to 19 year oldsHighest rates among 15 to 19 year olds Leading cause of female infertilityLeading cause of female infertility Gonorrhoea Gonorrhoea Caused by bacteria that thrive in the moist mucous membranes of the bodyCaused by bacteria that thrive in the moist mucous membranes of the body Very easily passed along during sexVery easily passed along during sex Females are at least twice as likely as males to become infectedFemales are at least twice as likely as males to become infected Herpes Simplex Herpes Simplex Caused by a virusCaused by a virus Has two variations: herpes simplex I and herpes simplex IIHas two variations: herpes simplex I and herpes simplex II Highly infectious (75% of persons exposed to an infected partner will become infected)Highly infectious (75% of persons exposed to an infected partner will become infected) There is no cure for herpesThere is no cure for herpes

39 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Strips the body of its ability to fend off infectionsStrips the body of its ability to fend off infections The body is highly vulnerable to a wide variety of illnesses and diseasesThe body is highly vulnerable to a wide variety of illnesses and diseases 90% of cases of HIV in the U.s. result from intercourse between homosexual or bisexual partners90% of cases of HIV in the U.s. result from intercourse between homosexual or bisexual partners Outside the U.S. HIV/AIDS is spread mainly between heterosexual partnersOutside the U.S. HIV/AIDS is spread mainly between heterosexual partners Has a long latency period (tend to by asymptomatic up to 5 years)Has a long latency period (tend to by asymptomatic up to 5 years) AIDS is the leading cause of death worldwide among persons 25 to 44 years oldAIDS is the leading cause of death worldwide among persons 25 to 44 years old 10 of every 11 new HIV infections worldwide come from Africa10 of every 11 new HIV infections worldwide come from Africa The mortality rate for people who have AIDS remains extremely highThe mortality rate for people who have AIDS remains extremely high

40 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sex Education Americans agree that rates of premarital pregnancy and STDs in adolescence are serious problems that must be reduced Americans agree that rates of premarital pregnancy and STDs in adolescence are serious problems that must be reduced However there is vehement disagreement about what is the best solution However there is vehement disagreement about what is the best solution One side: comprehensive sexuality educationOne side: comprehensive sexuality education Other side: abstinence promotionOther side: abstinence promotion

41 Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Sex Education 10 characteristics that make programs work 1.Focus narrowly on reducing one or more sexual behaviors 2.Base the program on theoretical approaches for other risky behaviours 3.Give a clear message about sexual activity and contraceptive use 4.Provide basic, accurate information about risks and methods 5.Include activities that teach how to deal with social pressures 6.Model and provide practice in negotiation and refusal skills 7.Use a variety of teaching methods 8.Incorporate behavioral goals specific to age, culture and sexual experience 9.Run the program over a sufficient period of time 10.Train teacher, youth workers and peer leaders who believe in the program


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