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Cohabitation and Marriage

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Presentation on theme: "Cohabitation and Marriage"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cohabitation and Marriage
Chapter 7 Cohabitation and Marriage

2 Cohabitation Living together in a sexual relationship without being married

3 Cohabitation From 523,000 to nearly 3 million Between 1970 and 1990
Number of couples living together outside of marriage quadrupled From 523,000 to nearly 3 million

4 Cohabitation Reasons: Law does not allow them to marry
Belief that marriage is unnecessary

5 Reasons Given for Cohabitation
Economics Share expenses More time together

6 Reasons for Cohabitation
Increased intimacy Less complicated dissolution No messy divorce

7 Reasons for Cohabitation
Testing compatibility Trial marriage

8 Cohabitation Increasing Among Older Individuals
Financial benefits Avoid loss of alimony, welfare, or pension benefits Loss of a spouse Fear of losing another spouse

9 Marriage: Historically
Medieval Europe: Bride came with a dowry Given to groom's family

10 Medieval Society Dowry: Simple items Important items Household linens

11 Bride-price Groom's family compensated bride's family
For loss of bride's work Bride's family gave up rights to Her labor Her children

12 Courting: 1700s & 1800s Meet rational needs:
“Marrying off” daughters early Support agricultural economy Belief that love came after marriage Couples knew each other through informal, structured social relations e.g., Church

13 Courtship Courtship – Publicly visible process with rules & restrictions Carefully established social norms Public meeting places Group setting Night visiting, family present No privacy until engagement Norm until mid-1800s

14 Courting on Bicycles

15 Courting:1700s & 1800s 1830s to 1880s:Victorian era “Going calling”
Family’s (father’s) permission to court young woman “Stepping out” Chaperoned Engagement With father’s permission

16 Aristocratic families
Courting:1700s & 1800s Matched according to: Economic status Education Family background Status and prestige Aristocratic families Arranged marriages

17 Courtship’s Demise after 1900
Migration from rural areas Higher standard of living Adolescence, new stage of life General mobility increased Range of choices increased

18 Late 19th to Early 20th Century: Courtship to Dating

19 Late 19th to Early 20th Century: from Courtship to Dating
Co-ed high schools Working class women living alone WWI ( ):Middle class women work in offices Women’s freedom Affluence and leisure

20 Dating 1940s to early 1960s 1950s Dating Stages:
Associate on playground Flirting Talking

21 1950s Dating Stages Double-dating Single dating “Going steady”

22 1950s Dating Stages College pinning
College & post-high school engagement 19-24 age at marriage Early marriage; strong economy

23 Dating from 1940s to early 1960s Steady dating:
Important pattern post-WWII In-between casual dating & engagement “Transition period” to marriage

24 Less connected to marriage
Dating—1960s & 1970s Less connected to marriage Trend toward independent living Average marriage age increased Rise in premarital intercourse Cohabitation became common

25 Dating at end of 20th Century
Major changes: More informal sexual contacts More co-ed high schools & colleges Shared residence halls Shared apartments and houses Similar numbers of men & women in college

26 Contemporary Types of Intimate & Sexual Relationships
“Getting together” Not marriage-oriented “Hooking Up” or “Joined at the Hip” Sex for fun Open relationships Friends with benefits Dating?

27 Forming a Union Union = Stable, intimate relationship between 2 people
Live in same household May or may not be married

28 Institutional Marriage
Emphasis on: Male authority Duty Conformity to social norms

29 Companionate Marriage
Emphasis on: Affection Friendship Sexual gratification

30 From Companionship to Individualization
Mid-1960s: Breadwinner-homemaker marriage declining As both a: Cultural ideal Reality

31 Toward Individualized Marriage
Marital Satisfaction: Personal fulfillment Emotional satisfaction Obligations to others-lower priority

32 Current Context of Marriage
Meaning of marriage today Personal growth & self-development Deeper intimacy More open communication

33 Why do people still marry?
90% eventually marry Marriage is public commitment

34 Marriage as the Capstone Experience
Practical importance-> Declined Symbolic importance-> Increased

35 Union Formation: Today
Common to marry later More time searching for mate Cohabitation acceptable Childbearing outside of marriage More acceptable

36 Dating: 21st Century Speed dating 8 dates (lasting 8 minutes)
On-line dating sites Personal ads Virtual dating Create avatars in artificial world Hooking up

37 Is Marriage Good for You?
Men & Women benefit: Women Monetary support Men Social support McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

38 Health Benefits

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