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8-1 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Chapter Eight l Cohabitation and Marriage McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "8-1 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Chapter Eight l Cohabitation and Marriage McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 8-1 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Chapter Eight l Cohabitation and Marriage McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 3-1

2 8-2 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Forming a Union l Union = stable, intimate relationship between two people who live in the same household but may or may not be married

3 8-3 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Not as strong as it once was in U.S. l Developing nations still strong influence l Influence declined mid to late 1700s l Commercial capitalism provided jobs outside family farm l Without property, parents had less influence l Marriage age of sons declined, daughters married out of birth order Parental Influence

4 8-4 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Anglo-American Courtship l Courtship publicly visible process with rules and restrictions l Carefully established social norms governed process l Public meeting places, group setting l Night visiting, family present l No privacy until engagement l By 1800s, role of love increased

5 8-5 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Anglo-American Courtship l Courtship met its demise after 1900 l Migration from rural areas to cities l Industrial capitalism l Higher standards of living l Longer adolescence l General mobility increased l Range of choices increased

6 8-6 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l New system of courtship based on dating l Young people began leaving home and going out on dates l Placed courtship on an economic basis – men always paid l Shifted balance of power from women to men Rise and Fall of Dating

7 8-7 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Shifted balance of power from parents to teenagers and young adults l Responsibility of stopping sexual activity shifted to women l Social sanctions imposed by peers l Dating became closely connected to marriage Rise and Fall of Dating

8 8-8 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Rise and Fall of Dating l Heyday of dating, l High School and College dating l By /3 of boys and 3/4 of girls had begun dating by 9th grade l All had dated by 12th grade l Adults alarmed by youth going steady

9 8-9 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Rise and Fall of Dating l 1970s and 1980s pattern began to change l Dating system less connected to marriage l Average age of marriage increased l Cohabitation became common l Sharp rise in premarital intercourse l Socialized in larger, mixed sex groups l Became less formal

10 8-10 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved The Trend Toward Independent Living l Dating and Courtship model assumed: l Children would live at home until marriage l Children would help support family with earnings until they left home

11 8-11 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved The Trend Toward Independent Living l Increase in independent living aided by: l Children living as singles before marriage l Growth of individualism l Increase in divorce rate l Age at first marriage has risen

12 8-12 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l 90% of whites and 67% African Americans are projected to eventually marry Who Marries Whom?

13 8-13 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Supply: men and women in market l Preferences: preferred characteristics of spouse l Resources: characteristics a person has which are attractive to others l Sex ratio = number of males vs. number of females l Propinquity= those who are close/within your field of vision The Marriage Market

14 8-14 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l 1950s bargain = homemaker and breadwinner l 1960s specialization model = economic approach l Beckers model l Women more efficient at housework and raising children; Men better at earning money l Model predicts women search for good providers, men search for good homemakers l Assumed skills were inherent, identical preferences of wife and husband l Model no longer fits well The Changing Marriage Bargain

15 8-15 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

16 8-16 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Survey of willingness to marry different types l Five characteristics l Women more willing to marry older partner l Men more willing to marry younger partner l Women more willing to marry not good-looking partner l Neither women or men willing to marry partner who couldnt hold job l Men more willing to marry partner who earned less The Changing Marriage Bargain

17 8-17 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Bargain now includes the preference that both spouses will contribute to the family income l Reflection of: l Greater acceptance of womens work outside the home l Mens stagnating wages l Rising marriage age The Changing Marriage Bargain

18 8-18 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l 1950s l Married younger l Cohabitation unacceptable l Childbirth outside marriage highly stigmatized l Pregnancy forced marriage l Many young men and women did not have sex until marriage Union Formation: Summing Up

19 8-19 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Union Formation: Summing Up l None of the conditions of the 1950s remain today l Common to marry later, spend more time searching for mate l Cohabitation acceptable l Childbearing outside of marriage, much less stigmatized l Both men and women are required to be good earners l Men should take more responsibility at home

20 8-20 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Union Formation: Summing Up l Why do people still marry? l Public commitment over long period of time l Social norms l Legal rights and privileges l Emotional investment without abandonment l Parents will be together to raise children

21 8-21 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Cohabitation l Cohabitation = the sharing of a household by unmarried persons who have a sexual relationship l Early 90s, majority of 1 st marriages preceded by cohabitation l Still more common among less affluent and less educated l Cohabitation is more common before remarriage than before 1 st marriage

22 8-22 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Many cohabitating couples have children l 40% of births outside marriage to cohabitating couples l Less moral stigma today l Improvements in birth control l The pill and abortion l Emphasis on self-fulfillment l Form a union without giving up independence Cohabitation

23 8-23 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Substitute for marriage l For those who do not want commitment l Men less likely to value commitment l Postponement of marriage Cohabitation as a Substitute for Marriage

24 8-24 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved

25 8-25 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Cohabitation Among Gays and Lesbians l Gay and Lesbian Couples l Self-development seems more important than commitment l Similar to heterosexual couples in the need to maintain a growing, independent self l Actively seeking legal changes to secure rights and benefits of married couples l Studies suggest that majority of lesbians and substantial numbers of gay men have steady relationships

26 8-26 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Cohabitation: Summing Up l Diverse phenomenon l Most relationships do not last long l About 1/2 end in marriage l For whites it is a step to marriage or breaking up l For African Americans and Hispanics more a substitute for marriage

27 8-27 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Marriage l Institutional marriage common until late 19th century l Emphasis on male authority, duty and conformity to social norms l Social changes led to development of companionship marriages

28 8-28 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Typical of late 19th and early 20th century l Private family l Active sex life, excitement and domesticity in one place l Sanger advocated birth control– separate sex and procreation l Emphasis on affection, friendship, and sexual gratification l Single earner, sharp division of labor Companionship Marriage

29 8-29 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Companionship Marriage l Institutional marriage never as strong for African Americans l Men did not have as strong of an earnings record necessary to claim authority or duty l More likely to end in divorce l Transition to companionship marriage less defined

30 8-30 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Typical of post-1960 U.S. Families l Personal growth, self fulfillment, emotional satisfaction l Measured by internal criteria, not external criteria as previous two types of marriages l Emphasis on self-development,flexible roles, and communication about problems Independent Marriage

31 8-31 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Rise in value placed on individualism l Companionship marriage better able to concentrate on conjugal unit l Independent marriage promotes self- development l Increased standard of living allowed time for personal fulfillment Explaining the Change in Views of Marriage

32 8-32 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Less need for economic partnership l Women moved into the labor market Explaining the Change in Views of Marriage

33 8-33 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Marriage and Religion l Organized religions have supported marriage l Catholic marriages l primary purpose to have children l no divorce l limited birth control l By 1980 the difference between Catholics and Protestants is little l divorce more acceptable l personal autonomy replaced obedience to religious authority

34 8-34 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Fundamentalist Protestants l less likely to divorce l highest birthrates l lowest rates of married women working outside the home l Churches and Synagogues remain strong supports of marriage l expanded counseling to include marriage strengthening attempts, such as teaching communication skills Marriage and Religion

35 8-35 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved l Married people feel better and live longer l Indicators that it is better for ones physical and mental health, deters risky behavior l Mentally and physically healthier people are more likely to marry and stay married l People with positive qualities are more likely to marry and stay married l People with negative qualities who marry are more likely to opt out of it Is Marriage Good for You?

36 8-36 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Is Marriage Good for You? l Men and Women both benefit l Because women typically earn less, they may gain monetary support l Men may gain social support

37 8-37 McGraw-Hill © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved Marriage as an Ongoing Project l Developing a sense of self through love and sexual expression l Must be able to communicate openly and honestly l Emphasis on self-fulfillment may encourage spouse to leave if he/she is not satisfied l Independent marriages allow for renegotiations as time changes things


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