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A. Principle of Original Horizontality Most sediment settles out of bodies of water = deposited horizontally Most lava flows are horizontal or slightly.

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Presentation on theme: "A. Principle of Original Horizontality Most sediment settles out of bodies of water = deposited horizontally Most lava flows are horizontal or slightly."— Presentation transcript:

1 A. Principle of Original Horizontality Most sediment settles out of bodies of water = deposited horizontally Most lava flows are horizontal or slightly tilted on flanks of volcanoes (1 -10 ) When rocks are not horizontal they have been tilted I. Principles of Relative Dating

2 B. Principle of Superposition In a horizontal sequence of rock layers: the youngest is on top & oldest at the bottom. If rocks are tilted, look for mudcracks, graded beds, ripple marks, cross bedding, or vesicles to determine the up direction I. Principles of Relative Dating

3 B. Principle of Superposition If rocks are tilted, look for sedimentary structures such as, mudcracks, graded beds, ripple marks, cross bedding, or vesicles to determine the up direction I. Principles of Relative Dating

4 C. Principle of Cross- Cutting Relationships Any intrusive formation (dike, sill, batholith) is younger than the rock it cuts across Faults are younger than the rocks they cut and displace I. Principles of Relative Dating

5 C. Principle of Cross- Cutting Relationships Any intrusive formation (dike, sill, batholith) is younger than the rock it cuts across Faults are younger than the rocks they cut and displace I. Principles of Relative Dating

6 D. Inclusions: solid pieces of rock in another rock Inclusions are always older than the rock they are in Lava flows or intrusions may pick up pieces of the surrounding rock (unmelted) and when the lava/magma cools the other rock is an inclusion I. Principles of Relative Dating

7 CWU trash bin UW trash bin Imagine we are studying two different trash pits recently discovered on the CWU campus and the UW campus. By carefully digging, we have found that each trash pit shows a sequence of layers. Although the types of trash in each pit is quite variable, each layer has a distinctive kind of trash that distinguishes it from other layers in the pits.

8 I. Principles of Relative Dating

9 E. Principle of Faunal Successions Fossils: remains of ancient organisms Paleontologists study fossils to reconstruct the evolution of life on Earth Fossils can be preserved in rock layers Specific groups of fossils follow, or succeed, one another in the rock record in a definite order Once you know the order, you can do relative ages and correlate rocks in different parts of the world based on the fossils present I. Principles of Relative Dating

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11 II. Unconformities: missing time in the rock record Gaps in the geologic record created by weathering and erosion or no rocks were deposited A. Disconformity Occurs between parallel layers of sedimentary rock or lava flows Time missing using the fossil record Layer below shows erosion - irregular surface I. Principles of Relative Dating

12 II. Unconformities: missing time in the rock record I. Principles of Relative Dating

13 II. Unconformities: missing time in the rock record Gaps in the geologic record created by weathering and erosion or no rocks were deposited B. Angular Unconformity Boundary between originally horizontal rocks that have been deformed/tilted and eroded and later horizontal rock deposited on top I. Principles of Relative Dating

14 II. Unconformities: missing time in the rock record

15 B. Angular Unconformity I. Principles of Relative Dating

16 B. Angular Unconformity I. Principles of Relative Dating

17 II. Unconformities: missing time in the rock record Gaps in the geologic record created by weathering and erosion or no rocks were deposited C. Nonconformity Boundary between an unlayered body of plutonic igneous or metamorphic rock and an overlying layered sequence of sedimentary rock layers Underlying rock shows signs of erosion, e.g., irregular surface I. Principles of Relative Dating

18 Unconformity animation II. Unconformities: missing time in the rock record

19 I. Principles of Relative Dating Relative dating animation

20 Horizontality, superposition, unconformities, cross-cutting relations, and faunal succession I. Principles of Relative Dating

21 III. Relative Dating using Weathering Weathering is a function of time In one location, other factors like climate, organisms, and rock compositions will be held constant A. Weathering Rinds Rind of chemical weathering formed as water penetrates into rock and minerals are altered to more stable minerals Rind gets thicker with time I. Principles of Relative Dating

22 III. Relative Dating by Weathering Weathering is a function of time B. Sharpness of landscape/topography Young landscapes are sharp Old landscapes that have been well weathered have rounded features (e.g., hills and valleys) I. Principles of Relative Dating

23 III. Relative Dating by Weathering Weathering is a function of time C. Soil Development More soil development = older landscape (if other factors held constant) Depth that soluble elements have been dissolved away Deeper soil = older landscape (with similar climate) Development of soil horizons better developed soil horizon = older landscape I. Principles of Relative Dating

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26 Grand Canyon: Metamorphic rocks: oldest because if rock nearby had been nearby it would be metamorphosed too Igneous intrusion Nonconformity: between metamorphic and igneous rock and layered sedimentary rocks Unkar Group: Proterozoic and Archean Eons Angular Unconformity: between Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Eons Tonto Group: Cambrian Disconformity: Ordovician and Silurian missing Redwall Limestone: Devonian and Mississipian Disconformity:

27 Summary 1. Principle of Horizontality 2. Principle of Superposition Angular unconformity Nonconformity Disconformity 3. Principle of Cross-Cutting Relations Dikes, sills, plutons Faults Principle of inclusions 4. Faunal Succession

28 IV. Problem set, due Monday Page 2: C: two feeder dikes, where they cross is blank, must decide relative age D: pieces of B in C Page 4 and 5 go through the layers Key on page 4 for both I. Principles of Relative Dating Come look at the originals if unsure! Come get help from me if you need it! I will walk through it with you! Can work with a partner Please do not copy, it wont help you in the long run!! NEATdo in pencil!!!

29 Long before radiometric dating was possible, important principles of relative ages of rock units were established. I. Principle of original horizontality: Because sedimentary particles settle under the influence of gravity, sedimentary layers of rock are deposited horizontally. Sedimentary rock layers that are not horizontal have been folded or tilted by a tectonic event. Deposition of the sedimentary rocks predates the tectonic event. I. Principles of Relative Dating

30 2. Principle of superposition: In any sequence of undisturbed layers of sedimentary rocks, the oldest layer is on the bottom and successively higher layers are successively younger. Layers later can be tilted and deformed, even turned upside down by later tectonic events. The original top and bottom of a sedimentary unit often can be determined from sedimentary structures, such as mud cracks, cross beds, and ripple marks. I. Principles of Relative Dating

31 3. Principle of inclusions: Fragments of rock that are enclosed within another rock are older than the enclosing rock. Example: unconformities, fragments of the older, underlying rocks are eroded and incorporated into the overlying, younger sedimentary rock. I. Principles of Relative Dating

32 4. Crosscutting relationships: If an igneous intrusion or a fault cuts a rock unit, then the rock unit is older than the intrusion or fault. Evidence for intrusion can include baking of the intruded rocks. If you date the igneous rock, you have a limit on the youngest absolute possible age of the rocks (minimum age, i.e., they cannot be younger than the intrusion). I. Principles of Relative Dating

33 5. Superposition of volcanic rocks: If sedimentary rocks are overlain by a lava flow, they must be older than the flow. If you date the igneous rock, you know the youngest possible absolute age for the sedimentary rocks. I. Principles of Relative Dating

34 Question of the week! Draw and label an angular unconformity

35 I. Principles of Relative Dating

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37 Lets practice List events from oldest to youngest (including faulting and erosion

38 Lets practice List events from oldest to youngest (including faulting and erosion) Deposition of Abo Formation Yeso Formation, Moenkopi Formation, and Agua Zarco Formation

39 Lets practice List events from oldest to youngest (including faulting and erosion) Deposition of Abo Formation, Yeso Formation, Moenkopi Formation, Agua Zarco Formation Fault (covered) offsets the four sedimentary units

40 Lets practice List events from oldest to youngest (including faulting and erosion) Deposition of Abo Formation, Yeso Formation, Moenkopi Formation, Agua Zarco Formation Fault (covered) offsets the four sedimentary units Erosion (especially of Moenkopi)

41 Lets practice List events from oldest to youngest (including faulting and erosion) Deposition of Abo Formation, Yeso Formation, Moenkopi Formation, Agua Zarco Formation Fault (covered) offsets the four sedimentary units Erosion (especially of Moenkopi) Emplacement of Bandelier Rhyolite (as hot ash flow)

42 Lets practice List events from oldest to youngest (including faulting and erosion) Deposition of Abo Formation, Yeso Formation, Moenkopi Formation, Agua Zarco Formation Fault (covered) offsets the four sedimentary units Erosion (especially of Moenkopi) Emplacement of Bandelier Rhyolite (as hot ash flow) Erosion

43 Practice makes perfect? Now for a little more complicated example

44 Length of Geologic Time Age of the Earth A. How Old is the Earth i. Weathering of rocks and Sediment Production ii. Settling of clay particles (1) Clay particle.5 microns in diameter 89 days/m = 243 years/1 Km 1701 years/7 km iii. Rates (1) Mississippi Delta Advance 25 m/year = 100 km/4000 years = 5 advances/20,000 yrs. (2) Uplift of mountains 0.5 to 1.5 m /100 years 1.5 m years 15 m years 150 m -- 10, m , m (9800 ft) ,000 Everest ft. 600,000 years (assuming no erosion is occurring)

45 Length of Geologic Time Age of the Earth A. How Old is the Earth iii. Rates (3) Clay Deposition--Deep Ocean (a) 1 cm/1000 years = 100 m/10 million years (4) Cooling of the Earth from an initial melt (1) million years (Lord Kelvin ) (5) Opening of the Atlantic Ocean (a) Rate = cm/year Million Years.

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