5Carbon has unique properties that are essential for life on earth. Familiar to us as:the black substance in charred wood,as diamonds,and the graphite in ‘lead’ pencils,also
6carbon comes in several forms, or isotopes. One rare form has atoms that are 14 times as heavy as hydrogen atoms:
7Types of carbon (isotopes) Carbon-14 is also referred to as:C-14Carbon-1414CRadiocarbonTypes of carbon (isotopes)C146916Atomic massAtomic number
8Atomic MassThe atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units.The atomic mass may be considered to be the total mass of protons, neutrons and electrons in a single atom (when the atom is motionless).
9Atomic NumberThe atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.It is traditionally represented by the symbol Z.The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element.
10In an atom of neutral charge, the number of electrons also equals the atomic number. The atomic number is closely related to the mass number, which is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.The mass number defines the isotope of the element and often comes after the name of the element, e.g. carbon-14 (used in carbon dating).
11What is Radioactive Decay? The nucleus of an atom changes into a new elementThe proton number (atomic number) must changeA neutron changes into a protonC146N7
13Carbon-14 is made when cosmic rays knock neutrons out of atomic nuclei in the upper atmosphere. These displaced neutrons, now moving fast, hit ordinary nitrogen (14N) at lower altitudes, converting it into 14C.Unlike common carbon (12C), 14C is unstable and slowly decays, changing it back to nitrogen and releasing energy.This instability makes it radioactive.
14Ordinary carbon (12C) is found in the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, which is taken up by plants, which in turn are eaten by animals.So a bone, or a leaf or a tree, or even a piece of wooden furniture, contains carbon.When the 14C has been formed, like ordinary carbon (12C), it combines with oxygen to give carbon dioxide (14CO2), and so it also gets cycled through the cells of plants and animals.
15Cosmic Rays (radiation) How C-14 is ProducedCosmic Rays (radiation)C-14 combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO2)Forms C-14Collision with atmosphere (N14)
16We can take a sample of air, count how many 12C atoms there are for every 14C atom, and calculate the 14C/12C ratio.Because 14C is so well mixed up with 12C, we expect to find that this ratio is the same if we sample a leaf from a tree, or a part of your body.
18How the Carbon Dating Clock Works Once a plant or animal dies the clock startsThe plant or animal no longer takes in C-14The C-14 present in the plant or animal begins to decayNo more C-14 intakeC-14 continues to decay
19In living things, although 14C atoms are constantly changing back to 14N, they are still exchanging carbon with their surroundings, so the mixture remains about the same as in the atmosphere.However, as soon as a plant or animal dies, the 14C atoms which decay are no longer replaced, so the amount of 14C in that once-living thing decreases as time goes on.In other words, the 14C/12C ratio gets smaller.
20So, we have a ‘clock’ which starts ticking the moment something dies. Obviously, this works only for things which were once living.It cannot be used to date volcanic rocks, for example.
22The rate of decay of 14C is such that half of an amount will convert back to 14N in 5,730 years (plus or minus 40 years).This is the ‘half-life.’So, in two half-lives, or 11,460 years, only one-quarter will be left.
23Carbon-14 Life Cycle N C N 14 7 14 6 14 7 5,730 year half-life Cosmic radiationN147C146N1475,730 year half-life
25Thus, if the amount of 14C relative to 12C in a sample is one-quarter of that in living organisms at present, then it has a theoretical age of 11,460 years.Anything over about 50,000 years old, should theoretically have no detectable 14C left.That is why radiocarbon dating cannot give millions of years.In fact, if a sample contains 14C, it is good evidence that it is not millions of years old.
26However, things are not quite so simple. First, plants discriminate against carbon dioxide containing 14C.That is, they take up less than would be expected and so they test older than they really are.Furthermore, different types of plants discriminate differently.This also has to be corrected for.
27Second, the ratio of 14C/12C in the atmosphere has not been constant—for example, it was higher before the industrial era when the massive burning of fossil fuels released a lot of carbon dioxide that was depleted in 14C.This would make things which died at that time appear older in terms of carbon dating.Then there was a rise in 14CO2 with the advent of atmospheric testing of atomic bombs in the 1950s.This would make things carbon-dated from that time appear younger than their true age.
28Measurement of 14C in historically dated objects (e. g Measurement of 14C in historically dated objects (e.g., seeds in the graves of historically dated tombs) enables the level of 14C in the atmosphere at that time to be estimated, and so partial calibration of the ‘clock’ is possible.Accordingly, carbon dating carefully applied to items from historical times can be useful.
29However, even with such historical calibration, archaeologists do not regard 14C dates as absolute because of frequent anomalies.They rely more on dating methods that link into historical records.Outside the range of recorded history, calibration of the 14C clock is not possible.
30Carbon-14 DatingUsed only on organic materialCannot be used to date rocksMaximum age limit about 60,000 years
31Quantity of C-14 in a Fossil The C-14 dating method relies on measuring the amount of C-14 in the fossilIf there is a lot of C-14 remaining in the fossil, we assume it has not been dead very longIf there is very little C-14 remaining in the fossil we assume most of it has decayed and the animal lived a long time ago (i.e. 30,000 or more years)
32We need to know two things What Do We Need to Know?We need to know two thingsHow fast C-14 decays (measured in half-lives - this is known: 5,730 years)The starting amount of C-14 in the fossilWe know number 1How can we know how much C-14 was in an organism 5,000 years ago?
33Calculating the Starting Amount of C-14 The dating method relies on measuring the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 in the sampleThe ratio today in the atmosphere is 1-trillion to 1
34Determining the Age from the C-12/C-14 Ratio Amount of stable C-12Amount of unstable C-14RatioYears Dead# Half-lives100 Trillion1001-T to 1100 Trillion502-T to 15,7301100 Trillion254-T to 111,4602100 Trillion12.58-T to 117,1903100 Trillion616-T to 122,9204100 Trillion332-T to 128,6505Are there any assumptions in this process?
3530,000 years to reach equilibrium The Underlying AssumptionHas the ratio of C-12 to C-14 in the atmosphere always been the same?If YES, then the C-14 dating is valid for up to 60,000 yearsIf NO, then we have no valid way of knowing the starting amount of C-14 and dates will be invalid30,000 years to reach equilibrium
36Dr. William LibbyRichard, Milton, Shattering the Myths of Darwinism, 1997, p (W. F. Libby, Radiocarbon Dating, 1955)“He found a considerable discrepancy in his measurements indicating that, apparently, radiocarbon was being created in the atmosphere somewhere around 25 percent faster than it was becoming extinct. Since this result was inexplicable by any conventional scientific means, Libby put the discrepancy down to experimental error.”
37Experiments on Equilibrium “During the 1960s, Libby’s experiments were repeated by chemists… The new experiments, though, revealed that the discrepancy observed by Libby was not merely an experimental error – it did exist.”Richard, Milton, Shattering the Myths of Darwinism, 1997, p. 32.
38Experiments on Equilibrium Richard Lingenfelter, “Production of C-14 by cosmic ray neutrons”, Review of Geophysics, 1963, p.51.“There is strong indication, despite the large errors, that the present natural production rate exceeds the natural decay rate by as much as 25 percent.”
39New Techniques Show Young Dates Walter Brown (Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering and Professor of Physics), In the Beginning, 2001, p. 245.“The new atomic accelerator technique has consistently detected at least small amounts of carbon-14 in every specimen – even materials that evolutionists claim are millions of years old, such as coal…In one study of eleven sets of ancient human bones, all were dated at about 5,000 radiocarbon years or less.”
40Problem with the Calculating of the Starting Amount of C-14
41The amount of cosmic rays penetrating the earth’s atmosphere affects the amount of 14C produced and therefore dating the system.The amount of cosmic rays reaching the earth varies with the sun’s activity, and with the earth's passage through magnetic clouds as the solar system travels around the Milky Way galaxy.
42A stronger magnetic field deflects more cosmic rays away from the earth. Overall, the energy of the earth’s magnetic field has been decreasing, so more 14C is being produced now, than in the past.This will make old things look older than they really are.
43Also, the Genesis flood would have greatly upset the carbon balance. The flood buried a huge amount of carbon, which became coal, oil, etc., lowering the total 12C in the biosphere (including the atmosphere—plants regrowing after the flood absorb CO2, which is not replaced by the decay of the buried vegetation).Total 14C is also proportionately lowered at this time, but whereas no terrestrial process generates any more 12C, 14C is continually being produced, and at a rate which does not depend on carbon levels (it comes from nitrogen).
44Therefore, the 14C/12C ratio in plants/animals/the atmosphere before the flood had to be lower than what it is now.Unless this effect (which is additional to the magnetic field issue just discussed) were corrected for, carbon dating of fossils formed in the flood would give ages much older than the true ages.
46The key assumption has been shown to be false (equilibrium) Carbon-14 dating is a reliable dating method for less than 3,000 years and not the claimed 60,000 found in many textbooksCarbon-14 dating is based on an assumption
47What are they and how do they operate? What is the basic perception? RadioisotopeDating MethodsWhat are they and how do they operate?What is the basic perception?How accurate are they?Are there any hidden assumptions?
48EducationBiology: Visualizing Life, Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1998, p.177.“Using radioactive dating, scientists have determined that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old, ancient enough for all species to have been formed through evolution.”
49EducationNational Association of Biology Teachers (NABT), 1995 Position Statements.“Radiometric and other dating techniques, when used properly, are highly accurate means of establishing dates in the history of the planet and in the history of life.”
50There are various other radiometric dating methods used today to give ages of millions or billions of years for rocks.These techniques, unlike carbon dating, mostly use the relative concentrations of parent and daughter products in radioactive decay chains.
51Understanding Assumptions For example, potassium-40 decays to argon-40; uranium-238 decays to lead-206 via other elements like radium; uranium-235 decays to lead-207UraniumDecayLeadPotassiumArgonDecay
52The isotope concentrations can be measured very accurately, but isotope concentrations are not dates.To derive ages from such measurements, unprovable assumptions have to be made such as:
53The starting conditions are known (for example, that there was no daughter isotope present at the start, or that we know how much was there).Decay rates have always been constant.Systems were closed or isolated so that no parent or daughter isotopes were lost or added.
54These techniques are applied to igneous rocks, and are normally seen as giving the time since solidification.
56Can you calculate how long you were outside? Hour Glass ExampleCan you calculate how long you were outside?
57Examples of Dating Sunset Crater, Northern Arizona Potassium-argon: 200,000+Reality: AD 1065Lava flows at Mt. Ngaurhoe, New ZealandPotassium-argon: 275,000Reality: 1949, 1954, 1975Hualalai basalt, HawaiiPotassium-argon: 1.4 – 22 millionReality: AD 1801Mt. Etna basalt, SicilyPotassium-argon: 140,000 – 350,000Reality: 1972Apollo 11 brought back some moon rocks. The rocks were dated using 4 different methods. The range between the oldest and youngest date was almost 4-billion years.Apollo 16 brought back some moon rocks that were dated at 18-billion years. To fix the problem they subjected the rocks to acid to melt out the lead and then re-dated and got 4.5 billion years. (Science magazine Jan 30, 1973)Sunset Crater in n. Arizona is known to be a recent volcano. Indian artefacts and relics are found within the rocks formed by the eruption. The volcano last erupted some 900 years ago. Two lava flows have been dated giving ages of 210,000 and 230,000.Hualalai volcano in Hawaii Known to have erupted in were dated with a variety of methods. 12 dates were taken which ranged from 140 million years to 2.96 billion years. The average date was 1.41 billion. There have been many explanations to explain these results away (as the lava rose, the older material from inside the earth rose with it, but they are unable to explain why such a variance in ages). If this is the explanation, then why could this not also be the case for other dates?This does not disprove radioisotope dating, but it does demonstrate the tremendous inconsistency in the interpretation of the method.The conventional K-Ar dating method was applied to the 1986 dacite flow from the new lava dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington. Porphyritic dacite which solidified on the surface of the lava dome in 1986 gives a whole rock K-Ar ‘age’ of million years.Steven A. Austin, “Excess Argon within Mineral Concentrates from the New Dacite lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Volcano, 1996
58Examples of Dating Diamonds from Zaire: 6 billion years old! Mount St. Helens rocks 300,000 years old!
59Assumptions and Dating Assumption of starting amounts of elementsAssumption of steady decay rateAssumption of a closed systemIf you base your theory on a wrong assumption, all your work can be correct, but the result will be wrong.
60Scientific Evidences for a Young Earth Rapid disintegration of cometsSediment on the ocean floorDecay of the Earth’s magnetic fieldCarbon-14 ratio in the atmosphereHelium in the Earth’s atmosphereRadiohalos for polonium in granitesPopulation statisticsRecession of the moon
61Views on Creation Literal 6-day creation Gap theory Day-Age Theory Progressive creationWhich one is correct?How can we know?
62Long Ages and the Bible “Very Good” does not mean what it says Genesis 1 cannot be understood without outside scientific knowledgeDeath before sinThe Genesis Flood was not worldwideThe Bible (not just Genesis) becomes open to interpretation
63Genesis Chapter 1Charles Taylor (Ph.D. Linguistics/emphasis on Old Testament Hebrew), “Linguistics, Genesis and Evolution”, 1981.“Contrary to what people think it’s not impossible to know. Genesis chapter 1 was written in the Hebrew language which is consistent in using one structure for narrative and quite a different one for poetry.”
64Are the days of creation literal days? The Creation DaysAre the days of creation literal days?Meaning of ‘Yom’Yom with a numberEvening and morningGenesis 1:14Exodus 20:11Words used to indicate timeNarrative versus poetry (VSO or SVO)In the beginning created God the heavens… = VSOGenealogies (Gen 5, 1Chron 1, Luke 3)
65The Creation DaysProfessor James Barr, Professor of Hebrew at the University of Oxford.“Probably so far as I know, there is no professor of Hebrew or Old Testament at any world-class university who dares not believe that the writer(s) of Gen intended to convey to their readers the ideas that creation took place in a series of six days which are the same as the days of 24 hours we now experience…”
66The Creation DaysDr. Robert Cole (Ph.D. Semitic Languages), “A PhD looks at the Genesis Days”“There is nothing in the Bible to obviate the idea that the days in Genesis were 24 hour type days.”
67Language and the Meaning of Day Charles Taylor (Ph.D. Linguistics/emphasis on Old Testament Hebrew), “Linguistics, Genesis and Evolution”, 1981“A very important point that most people overlook when it comes to word use, is that it is impossible to use a word as a symbol or figuratively unless it already has a literal meaning.The word ‘day’ cannot, in Hebrew or English, be used in the abstract of symbolic sense unless it already has a clearly understood literal meaning.”
68The Creation Days“It is a fact that before the modern era, nobody in the history of the church for over three thousand years ever questioned the chronology of the Bible, and only a tiny handful ever questioned that the six days of Genesis 1 were ordinary 24-hour-type days.”James B. Jordan (D. Litt), Creation in Six Days, p. 17.
69Biblical Implications of an Old Earth Genesis chapter 1 requires scientific information to interpretThere was death before sinThe Genesis Flood was NOT a worldwide floodWhat does God’s “very good” mean in Genesis 1:31?
71It is not a Salvation issue, but… Authority of God’s Word … Jesus is the CreatorDo we need the Old Testament?Creation is the foundation for the GospelWhy did Jesus die on the cross?What is happening in schools today?Attacks on the BibleLack of respect by Christians for the BibleEvolution is being taught as a factEvolution means materialism (No Creator)Evolution started in the Garden of Eden
72Creation is the Foundation Chuck Colson, How Now Shall We Live, 1999, p. 100.“Creation is the first element of the Christian worldview, the foundation on which everything else is built. It is the basis of human dignity, for our origin tells us who we are, why we are here, and how we should treat one another.”
73Who Believes in a Six-Day Creation Kurt Wise Ph.D. PaleontologySteven A. Austin Ph.D. GeologyJohn Morris Ph.D. GeologyElaine Kennedy Ph.D. GeologyDonald B. DeYoung Ph.D. PhysicsWalter Brown Ph.D. Mechanical EngineeringRussell Humphreys Ph.D. PhysicsKeith Wanser Ph.D. Condensed Matter PhysicsDanny R. Faulkner Ph.D. AstronomyDuane T. Gish Ph.D. BiochemistryRoss S. Anderson Ph.D. BiochemistryLane P. Lester Ph.D. GeneticsLinda K. Walkup Ph.D. Molecular GeneticsRay Bohlin Ph.D. Molecular BiologyGary E. Parker Ph.D. BiologyJonathan Sarfati Ph.D. Physical ChemistryCharles Taylor Ph.D. Linguistics (O.T.)Robert Cole Ph.D. Semitic LanguagesSteven Boyd Ph.D Hebraic and Cognitive StudiesDrs. John MacArthur, James Kennedy, David Jeremiah, Tim LaHaye
74Belief in a Young EarthDr. Keith Wanser (Ph.D. Condensed Matter Physics), Creation ex nihilo, 1999, p. 39. (Dr. Wanser works with theoretical condensed matter physics and basic theories of matter)“I am convinced there is far more evidence for a recent, six-day creation and a global Flood than there is for an old earth and evolution.”
75Psalm 118:8It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in manJohn 17:17Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth