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1 BM_M0110/GSLM52700 Warehouse Planning and Operations Systems Yat-wah Wan Room: C317; Email: ywan; Ext: 3166 Office Hour: Wed 3 5 pm, or by appointment.

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Presentation on theme: "1 BM_M0110/GSLM52700 Warehouse Planning and Operations Systems Yat-wah Wan Room: C317; Email: ywan; Ext: 3166 Office Hour: Wed 3 5 pm, or by appointment."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 BM_M0110/GSLM52700 Warehouse Planning and Operations Systems Yat-wah Wan Room: C317; ywan; Ext: 3166 Office Hour: Wed 3 5 pm, or by appointment

2 2 Objectives of the Course the role and effect of warehouses in a supply chain

3 3 Container Terminals

4 4 Outline background container ports container terminals goods and equipment an example: HIT decision problems

5 5 Background

6 6 Terminology TEU twenty-foot equivalent unit, the standard unit to measure container throughput a 40 ft container = 2 TEU

7 7 Venues for Container Transfer container terminal container yard feeder ports and river ports feeder ports mid-stream operations mid-streamoperations public cargo working areas

8 8 Questions How important is containerization? What are the advantages of containerization? pre-containerization (00:00 2:47) pre bulk cargo What are the functions of container terminals? What facilities and equipment are required in container terminals?

9 9 Container Ports world traffic top 10 containers ports in 2011 how to rank these ports: Busan, Dubai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Rotterdam, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Singapore

10 10 Ranking ofRanking of Container Ports ContainerPorts Ranking ofContainerPorts of the top 10 busiest container ports in China (units in TEU) Shanghai (1 st, 29.1 m), Hong Kong (3 rd, 23.7 m), Shenzhen (4 th, 22.5 m), Ningbo (6 th, 13.1 m), Guangzhou (7 th, 12.6 m), Qingdao (8 th, 12 m) Singapore (2 nd, 28.4 m), Busan (5 th, 14.2 m), Dubai (9 th, 11.6 m), Rotterdam (10 th, 11.4 m)Dubai Tianjin (11 th, 10.1), Kaohsiung (12 th, 9.2 m) 2011 throughput of container ports in Taiwan in decreasing importance: Kaohsiung (9.64 mill TEU), Keelung (1.75 mill TEU), Taichung (1.38 mill TEU)

11 11 Container Terminals

12 12 A Container Terminal as a Warehouse a special type of warehouse very standardized goods for short term storage some form of consolidation flexible layout for the same type of containers heavy equipment highly information driven

13 13 A Container Terminal as a Warehouse to define a container terminal goods equipment information systems layout processes problems

14 14 Types of Goods containers various types, of different size, weight, nature, port of destination, and port of origin, etc. bulk goods breaking down and building up at a Cargo Freight Station breaking down and building up at a Cargo Freight Station

15 15 Vessels non-self sustained cellular (NSSC) self sustained cellar (SSC) self sustained non-cellular (SSNC) car carrier/RoRo ships ultimate container carrier (UCC) lighter/barge

16 16 Container Movements in and out of a Terminal Blocks in a Container Yard import export deterministic in time and processing order stochastic in time and processing order vessel loading vessel discharging container picking up container grounding

17 17 Typical Container Terminal Layout QCs and container vessel blocks of containers IT and QC Block, IT and YC Blocks, Ycs, and QCs

18 18 Equipment crane quay job crane rubber tyred gantry crane front loader rail-mounted gantry crane bridge crane other equipment automatic guided vehicle straddle carrier tractors reach stackers scaffold platform chassis

19 19 HIT

20 20 Hongkong International Terminals Hongkong International Terminals relative location a clearer picture a clearerpicture terminals: 4, 6, 7, 9, and 50% of 8 East areas a total 92 hectares for terminals 4, 6, and 7 30 hectares for terminal 8 19 hectares for terminal 9 > 5 km quay length, 14 ship berths, & 9 barge berths 57 quay cranes, 8 rail-mounted jib cranes, 24 rail-mounted gantry cranes, 184 rubber-tyred gantry cranes, Hutchison Logistic Centre: 377,741 m 2

21 21 Hongkong International Terminals Hongkong International Terminals Example: HIT/COSCO HIT TerminalsHIT/COSCO HIT Terminals operations key facts, terminal layout, work flow, key factsterminal layoutwork flow virtual tour: guided tour and spots light work flow and information systems virtual tourwork flowinformation systems throughput: mill TEU in 126 ha (2010) throughput 1170 TEU/hour 179,900 TEU/QC/year

22 22 Web Material for Container Terminals Singapore Port - World's Busiest Port Hongkong International Terminals …. …. ….

23 23 Decision Problems in Container Terminals

24 24 Performance Indices throughput number per unit time of container, of each type of container, of move for terminal, cranes, gate house utilization cranes, space (block, stack, slot), berth occupancies time in system tractors, vessels, containers

25 25 IT deployment (deploying ITs in real time) QC allocation (allocating QCs to (bays of) vessels) storage space allocation (determining the numbers of I/B & O/B containers of each vessel in a block) location assignment (determining the exact locations of containers in blocks) RTGC deployment (deploying RTGCs in real time) schedule and stowage plan of vessels berth allocation (allocating vessels to berths) Operations Decisions in a Container Terminal

26 26 Literature Review papers Related to Container Terminals Murty, K.G., J.Y. Liu, Y.-w. Wan, R. Linn (2005) A decision support system for operations in a container terminal, Decision Support Systems, 39(3), Stahlbock, R., and S. Voss (2008) Operations research at container terminals: a literature update, OR Spectrum, 30(1), Steenken, D., S. Voss, and R. Stahlbock (2004) Container terminal operation and operations research – a classification and literature review, 26(1), Vis IFA (2006) Survey of research in the design and control of automated guided vehicle systems, European Journal of Operational Research, 170(3),

27 27 Advantages of Containerization simplify packaging, loading, unloading, and custom checking of goods reduce transportation times and costs increase utilisation of vessels and ports

28 28 Advantages of Containerization disadvantages of bulk goods in pre-container era loading, unloading, and stacking operations for each carrier change manually with low efficiency high labor cost, 80% of total cost for bulk goods by 1960s long vessel porting time good packaging consuming time and costs damages mixing up of goods custom checking at each intermediate ports more paperwork and high insurance charge

29 29 Time Taken for Containerization not all goods can be containerized the magnitude of changes a totally new managing and controlling mechanism new port design new loading and unloading operations, replacement of fork-finger quays replaced by long water front quays small dollies and trolleys by huge shore and yard cranes labourers by skilful equipment operators Job reduction huge investment in material handling equipment and human resources new custom practice for eliminating individual consignments

30 30 Functions of Container Terminal intermodal interface temporary storage for containers paperwork for containers building up & breaking down of containers

31 31 Types of Container Types of Container ordinary dry container: most common

32 32 Types of Container reefer container temperature control e.g., for frozen meat and diary products ventilated container holes for ventilation for fruits and vegetables insulated container keeping heat from the cargoes

33 33 Types of Container open top container loaded and unloaded from top for large-size, heave items flat rack container bottom part and two small sides for heavy or odd-size items platform container a plain plate without sides for extra large and/or weight

34 34 Types of Container bulk container for bulk goods hatch covers on top for loading & unloading free flowing bulk material container for carrying powder, fluid, or gas using pumps for loading and unloading

35 35 Types of Container special purpose container, e.g., dress hanger container for clothes without folding pen container for animals with net on its sides

36 36 Containers types of containers general purpose containers specific purpose containers open-top containers platform based containers closed vented or ventilated containers specific cargo containers tank containers dry-bulk containers refrigerated containers containers for named cargoes


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