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US History End of Course Review. Reconstruction Chapter Overview: The nation faced difficult problems after the Civil War. The first issue was how to.

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Presentation on theme: "US History End of Course Review. Reconstruction Chapter Overview: The nation faced difficult problems after the Civil War. The first issue was how to."— Presentation transcript:

1 US History End of Course Review

2 Reconstruction Chapter Overview: The nation faced difficult problems after the Civil War. The first issue was how to bring the South back into the Union. Lincoln had wanted to make reunion relatively easy. After he died, Congress designed a plan that focused on punishing the South and ensuring that African Americans had the right to vote. These policies increased hostility between the regions. Pressures on the South to reform eased with the Compromise of Differing views of Lincoln, Johnson and Radical Republicans 14 th and 15 th Amendments Impeachment of Johnson Factors leading to the end of Reconstruction

3 The West Chapter Overview: After the Civil War, a dynamic period in American history openedthe settlement of the West. The lives of Western miners, farmers, and ranchers were often filled with great hardships, but the wave of American settlers continued. Railroads hastened this migration. During this period, many Native Americans lost their homelands and their way of life. Manifest Destiny Homestead Act of 1862 Exodusters Trans-Continental Railroad Dawes-Severalty Act Reservation Plains Wars (i.e. Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee)

4 Industrialization, Urbanization and Immigration Chapter Overview: The rise of the United States as an industrial power began after the Civil War. Many factors promoted industry, including cheap labor, new inventions and technology, and plentiful row materials. Railroads rapidly expanded. Government policies encouraged growth, and large corporations became an important part of the economy. As industry expanded, workers tried to form unions to fight for better wages and working conditions. European and Asian immigrants arrived in the United States in great numbers during the late 1800s. Providing cheap labor, they made industrial growth possible. They also helped populate the growing cities. The immigrants presence affected both urban politics and labor unions. Reactions to immigrants and to an urban society were reflected in new political organizations and in literature and philosophy. Social Darwinism gospel of wealth laissez-faire immigration tenements nativism captains of Industry/Robber Barons political machines Ellis and Angel Islands

5 Populism and Progressive Era Chapter Overview: During this period, political parties often focused on party competition rather than on important issues. Rural Americans were suffering economically, and they began to organize to obtain relief. Many states passed laws segregating African Americans and limiting their voting rights. Industrialization changed American society. Cities were crowded with new immigrants, working conditions were bad, and the old political system was breaking down. These conditions gave rise to the Progressive movement. Progressives campaigned for both political and social reforms for more than two decades and enjoyed significant successes at the local, state, and national levels. muckrakers civil rights issues (e.g., Jim Crow Laws, Plessy decision, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois) temperance movement social gospel Progressivism of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson civil service reform Progressive reforms – federal, state, and local 16th, 17 th, 18 th and 19 th Amendments Election of 1912 populism monetary policy (gold vs. silver)

6 Imperialism Chapter Overview: During this era, economic and military competition from world powers convinced the United States it must be a world power. The United States became an empire when it acquired the Philippines and territory in the Caribbean. American influence in Central and South America grew as the United States took a more active role in Latin American affairs. territorial acquisitions (e.g., Samoa, Hawaii) yellow journalism Spanish American War open door policy foreign policies of McKinley, T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson Imperialism/Anti-Imperialism

7 World War I Chapter Overview: The United State reluctantly entered World War I after German submarines violated American neutrality. After the war ended, President Wilson supported the Treaty of Versailles, believing its terms would prevent another war. The U.S. Senate, however, rejected the treaty. It did not want the country to be tied to European obligations. Instead, Americans turned their attention to the difficult adjustment to peacetime. underlying causes: militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism (MAIN) catalyst: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand trench warfare mechanized warfare reasons for US entry into war (e.g. Zimmerman Note) Russian Revolution Selective Service Act Civil liberties (e.g., Sedition & Espionage Acts) U.S. mobilization for war (e.g., war bonds, rationing) role of women and African Americans idealism of Wilson (e.g. League of Nations, Fourteen Points) creation and U.S. rejection of Treaty of Versailles

8 1920s and Modernism Chapter Overview: The 1920s was an era of change and clashing values. Many Americans believed society was losing its traditional values and they took action to preserve these values. Other Americans embraced new values associated with a freer lifestyle and the pursuit of individual goals. Writers and artists pursued distinctively American themes and the Harlem Renaissance gave African Americans new pride. Prosperity was the theme of the 1920s and national policy favored business. Although farmers were going through an economic depression, most people remained optimistic about the economy. The middle class bought on credit the many new convenience products available. One of the most popular purchases of the day was the automobile, which had a major impact on how Americans lived. Republican presidents – Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover consumerism prohibition Scopes trial great migration Harlem Renaissance Red Scare Sacco and Vanzetti Trial popular culture

9 Great Depression Chapter Overview: Prosperity in the United States seemed limitless before the Great Depression struck. Overproduction and agricultural problems contributed to the economic catastrophe. President Hoover looked to voluntary business action and limited government relief as solutions, but these efforts failed. Meanwhile, millions of Americans lost their jobs and life savings. Artists and writers depicted this suffering, and many people turned to lighthearted films to escape their difficult lives. underlying causes of the Depression catalyst: the stock market crash Hoovers policies and beliefs unemployment dust bowl bonus army

10 New Deal Chapter Overview: Unlike Herbert Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was willing to employ deficit spending and greater federal regulation to revive the depressed economy. In response to his requests, Congress passed a host of new programs. Millions of people received relief to alleviate their suffering, but the New Deal did not really end the Depression. It did, however, permanently expand the federal governments role in providing basic security for citizens. programs of the New Deal (e.g., relief, recovery, and reform) expanded role of the federal government (e.g., the changing role of the presidency, expansion of bureaucracy, initiation of the welfare state)

11 World War II Chapter Overview: After World War I, Europe was unstable. Fascists led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy, and Adolf Hitler and the Nazis took control of Germany. Meanwhile, Japan extended its territory in Asia. As the Nazis gained power, they began a campaign of violence against Jews. When Germany attacked Poland, World War II began. The United States clung to neutrality until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The United States entered World War II unwillingly and largely unprepared. The American people, however, quickly banded together to transform the American economy into the most productive and efficient war-making machine in the world. American forces turned the tide in Europe and the Pacific, and they played a crucial role in the defeat of Germany, Italy, and Japan. underlying causes: failures of Treaty of Versailles, worldwide depression, rise of fascism, appeasement) catalyst; Axis/Allied powers early Axis victories U.S. isolationism Pearl Harbor attack and U.S. entry major battles and campaigns (e.g. Midway, D-Day, Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, Okinawa) development and use of the atomic bomb Holocaust roles of FDR and Truman wartime conference impact on women and minorities propaganda wartime economy

12 World War II Chapter Overview, Continued: GI Bill Post war economic boom growth of suburbs (urban sprawl) baby boom Truman and Eisenhowers domestic policies Red Scare and McCarthyism rise of consumer culture

13 Cold War Chapter Overview: After World War II, an intense rivalry developed between the United States and the Soviet Union – two superpowers with very different political and economic systems. This rivalry, known as the Cold War, led to a massive buildup of military weapons on both sides. The determination of American leaders to contain communism also led to the Korean War, in which over 36,500 Americans died. After World War II, the country enjoyed a period of economic prosperity. Many more Americans could now aspire to a middle-class lifestyle, with a house in the suburbs and more leisure time. Television became a favorite form of entertainment. This general prosperity, however, did not extend to many Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, or people in Appalachia. foreign policies of Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy NATO/Warsaw Pact Iron Curtain Berlin Blockade/Airlift Korean War Berlin Wall

14 Civil Rights Chapter Overview: In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans made major strides. They began by challenging segregation in the South. With the Montgomery bus boycott, Martin Luther King, Jr., achieved national and worldwide recognition. His peaceful resistance inspired many, especially students. After Kings assassination, the civil rights movement shifted focus. Many people in the movement began to see economic opportunity as the key to equality. major civil rights organizations and leaders popular protest tactics De jure and de facto segregation civil rights legislation Brown vs. Board of Education legacy of the Civil Rights Movement

15 JFK and LBJ Chapter Overview: President John F. Kennedy urged Americans to work for progress and to stand firm against the Soviets. Cold War tensions and the threat of nuclear war peaked during the Cuban missile crisis. Kennedys assassination changed the nations mood, but President Lyndon Johnson embraced ambitious goals, including working toward the passage of major civil rights legislation and eradicating poverty. Warren Court the New Frontier the Great Society Bay of Pigs Cuban missile crisis

16 Vietnam Chapter Overview: The Vietnam War created very bitter divisions within the United States. Supporters argued that patriotism demanded that communism be hated. Opponents argued that intervening in Vietnam was immoral. Many young people protested or resisted the draft. Victory was not achieved, although more than 58,000 American soldiers died. After the war, the nation had many wounds to heal. Protest characterized the 1960s. Young people often led the civil rights and antiwar movements. Some of them wanted to change the entire society and urged more communal, less materialistic values. Young people were not the only protesters, however. Using the civil rights movement as a model, women, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans also organized to gain greater recognition and equality. anti-war movement counterculture policies of Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon

17 Nixon Chapter Overview: The protests of the 1960s were passionate and sometimes violent. The nation elected President Nixon on a promise to uphold the values of what Nixon called Middle America. In foreign policy, Nixon charted a new path with a historic visit to China. At home he introduced New Federalism. In 1974 the Watergate scandal forced Nixon to resign. Presidents Ford and Carter faced an economic downturn and a major energy crisis. Détente New Federalism Watergate

18 Reagan – Modern Presidents Chapter Overview: The 1980s saw the rise of a new conservatism. President Reagan, standing for traditional values and smaller government, symbolized this movement. While tax cuts and new technologies fueled an economic boom, Reagan embarked on a massive military buildup and expanded efforts to contain communism. During President George Bushs term, the United States fought the Persian Gulf War, and the Cold War came to a dramatic end with the fall of the Soviet Union. During the 1990s, a technological revolution transformed society. President Clinton pushed for budget cuts, health care and welfare reforms, and global trade. He also worked for peace in the Middle East and the Balkans. In 2000 George W. Bush won the presidency. He supported tax cuts, a new energy program, increased trade, and a missile defense system. After terrorists killed thousands of people in the United States, President Bush launched a war on terrorism. Barack Obama won the 2008 presidential election. presidency of George Bush Senior, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush elections Gulf Wars terrorism


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