Presentation on theme: "UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Relations of intelligence, social background and educational career to life course: a 30 - years longitudinal study 1973 –"— Presentation transcript:
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Relations of intelligence, social background and educational career to life course: a 30 - years longitudinal study 1973 – 2003
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Introduction and background The University of Jyväskylä is known for its longitudinal research projects on human behaviour. The following projects are mentioned because they form a continuity of longitudinal studies here at the University of Jyväskylä: One of the oldest projects is a project Working conditions, health and physical activity in metal industry ( METELI –project) which started in 1973 in the Department of Public Health and which is still active with two doctoral dissertation being published this academic year. (Jeddi Hasan, Seppo Aro, Juhani Kirjonen, Pekka Kiviaho, Risto Telama, Vesa Parvi, and other)
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Of the present projects a well-known is the EVERGREEN –project in the The Finnish Centre for Interdisciplinary Gerontology. The project started in 1988 among people at baseline 65 to 84 and the data gives information of determinants of healthy aging and adverse age- related events (Eino Heikkinen, Isto Ruoppila, and other). Another well-known longitudinal research project is the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development which started in 1968 (with 8-years-old participants) and is still going on. (The Department of Psychology, Lea Pulkkinen) The department of statistics (Esko Leskinen) has for a long time been active in teaching and developing the methods of longitudinal data analysis, especially multivariate data analysis methods.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 The Background of the Research: Developing ITPA in 1968-1974 The research began with developing the Finnish ITPA (The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities) in 1968- 1974. ITPA measures the verbal intelligence of 3-9 years old children. ITPA includes 12 subtests, which measure decoding, processing and encoding the auditory and visual information. ITPA also measures short-term auditory and visual memory.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 The Purpose of the Research The purpose of the research was to provide information about how different factors in life course shape the life paths of individuals and groups. The data included intelligence, social background and education in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Also the social and psychological key factors (education, work career, family, social relationships, life management and life history) after adulthood intertwine with each other shaping the individual life trajectories.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 One focus of the research is on social changes (economic recession, unemployment) and on relations between their individual control mechanisms (education, career change, other means of control) and also on their importance on life course. An important element of the research is the evaluation of the importance of adult education in life course. Also the differences between men and women concerning talent, education, professional and work career and family are in interest.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 The Research Data The data consist of 700 children born in Jyväskylä in 1964-1968, 100 children in each age group (50% girls). In the beginning the basic set of the data consisted of 3700 children of which 1100 children were selected. The data were collected between 1970-1973. Information about the school achievement through comprehensive school and the educational choice after comprehensive school was gathered in 1984. Information about educational and professional career, family relationships, living, income, health, social relationships and leisure time usage, attitudes towards schooling and work, happiness and welfare, identity clearance, life management and other important factors of life course was gathered by a survey in 1991. Information about school, professional and work career and income (tax registers) was gathered in 2002, and the 1991 survey was repeated with few extra questions.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 The First Measurement in 1970-1973 The norm data of ITPA-test was collected in 1970-1973 involving 100 children from all 3-9 years old cohorts (N=700). In addition, data about children's social background were gathered such as: –Education, professional status and income of parents –Number of siblings –Birth order –Daycare and pre-school.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Comprehensive School and Secondary Education in 1984 All subjects completed comprehensive school in 1984 and the information about their school success in all academic subjects at all grades was gathered (N=559). In 1984 all pupils had made their secondary school choices, and the most of them were in some form of secondary education. School choices and admission test information was gathered from 628 subjects. School achievement and graduation information is available from 259 youngsters who graduated from gymnasium.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Adulthood in 1991 In 1991, a survey was sent to young adults (23-27 years old), whose address information was available (N=543). 80 percent answered (N=437) The following information was collected: –education (education; degree when completed; educational institute; other education and training; correspondence between education and work; reasons for educational choices; satisfaction to education; did the plans come true; attitudes towards school and schoolwork) –work career (current occupation and work; did the plans come true; satisfaction; safety/insecurity) –living (housing; ownership of the home; satisfaction)
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 –income (net income; satisfaction; state subsidy), –health (illness/disability) –social relationships (family relationships; the number of children/friends; happiness; relationships to neighbors, childhood family) –leisure time (hobbies; the usage of leisure time; satisfaction) –happiness and welfare (personal development and change) –life management (can one effect on one's own life) and –the stages of life and the current life situation (the stages of life; things that bring satisfaction in current situation).
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Consolidation of adulthood in 2001-2004 (age 34 – 39) In 2002, data for the original sample from the Statistics Finland was gathered of: –Field and length of education, degrees etc. –Trade and profession. In the summer of 2002 a survey was sent to all availabe subjects (N=413) and the following information was collected: –education and the choice of career (education; degree; profession corresponding education; the reasons for educational choices; satisfaction to education; did the plans come true),, –work (current occupation and work; did the plans come true; satisfaction; the nature of the employment),
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 –living (housing; ownership of the home; satisfaction) –social relationships (family relationships; the number of children/friends; happiness; relationships to neighbors, childhood family), –leisure time and use of time (hobbies; the usage of leisure time; satisfaction), –happiness and welfare (personal development and change), –the stages of life and choices, life management (can one effect on one's own life; the most positive and negative thing happened in one's lifetime; what would one change) –the current life situation (anything else about current life situation).
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Ongoing research Life Course and Modernization Doctoral thesis, Pekka Penttinen The purpose is to find the basic elements of structuring the life course in terms of social modernization and individual life politics. Research problems: –How has the life course of the research cohort(s) developed? –What kind of life politics choices have individuals made in their life? –What kinds of meanings do individuals give to their choices? –What kind of types of life courses can be found? –What factors effect on the structuring of different types of life course?
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Life Management and Happiness Doctoral thesis, Risto Hietala Research problems: How do the changes in one's feelings of coping with life problems from early adulthood to the consolidation of adulthood effect the feelings of subjective happiness? Which factors explain stability or change of happiness? Background theories: Brandstädter (1984), Pulkkinen (1994).The goals that a person makes for him/herself determine development. Success in goal achievement increase happiness and vice.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Educational and Work Careers Structuring the Life Course Doctoral thesis, Minna Penttilä The purpose is to examine both the effects of abilities and the choices made by individuals on educational and work careers Research problems: –What kinds of educational and work careers can be found? –How do talent and school success in childhood interrelate with educational and work career later in life? –How do the choices made by individuals and the effect of the socio- cultural environment appear in individuals´ educational and work careers? –How do the opportunities, restrictions and changes of societal situation effect on individual educational and work careers? –What kinds of subjective meanings do individuals give to their educational and work careers?
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Educational and social (work, occupation, income, family) marginalization over the life course Doctoral thesis, Kirsi Louvesniemi Marginalization process in life course Research problems: –How do the marginalization factors accumulate in life course? –How childhood factors (talent, school achievement, social background) are related to marginalization later in life? –What effects marginalization has on individual life courses and life structure (work, education, social relationships, income, other factors of life structure ?
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Recent publications and/or presentations Intelligence and migration (place of living). In migration studies the relations of individual psychological characteristics to migration have not been analysed earlier. Paper in the Finnish Congress of Education in 2002. Unfinished manuscript in English. Level and length of education in relation to income, educational and occupational status as an adult. Paper in the Finnish Congress of Sociology in 2004. Unfinished manuscript.
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 The formation of educational and vocational careers in life course. Paper in the Finnish Congress of Education in 2003. Unfinished manuscript(s). Happiness, satisfaction and coping with life problems. Paper in the Finnish Congress of Education in 2003 and poster in the ISSBD Congress in Ghent in 2004. Life course and life politics. The formation of individual life trajectories in adulthood. Paper in the Finnish Congress of Education in 2002 and 2003 and poster in ISSBD Congress in Ghent in 2004. Educational and occupational exclusion over the life course. Poster in the ESF Congress in Granada in 2004. What did they become? ( unfinished manuscript)
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Childhood intelligence and adult (34-38 –years) place of living with men
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Women´s childhood intelligence and adult (34- 38 years) place of living
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Childhood intelligence and income in consolidation of adulthood IntelligenceIncomeMenWomen High 1/321 100 25 600 18 500 Middle 1/320 300 24 100 16 400 Low 1/317 900 20 600 15 300
UNIVERSITY OF JYVÄSKYLÄ 2005 Social background and income in consolidation of adulthood StatusIncomeMenWomen High27 500 34 000 22 000 Middle19 400 22 200 16 700 Low18 100 22 000 14 400