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When should antibiotics (and which ones) be administered to the patient with altered mental status? J. Stephen Huff, MD Department of Emergency Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "When should antibiotics (and which ones) be administered to the patient with altered mental status? J. Stephen Huff, MD Department of Emergency Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 When should antibiotics (and which ones) be administered to the patient with altered mental status? J. Stephen Huff, MD Department of Emergency Medicine University of Virginia

2 Key Clinical Questions When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis?When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis? What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy?What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy? What empiric therapy should be given?What empiric therapy should be given? What adjunctive therapy should be administered?What adjunctive therapy should be administered?

3 Case Presentation 53-year-old clinical psychologist had flu symptoms and headache for most of day53-year-old clinical psychologist had flu symptoms and headache for most of day Participated in evening meetingParticipated in evening meeting Went to bed early not feeling wellWent to bed early not feeling well Awakened confused; could not recognize partnerAwakened confused; could not recognize partner EMS called; transported to EDEMS called; transported to ED

4 Past Medical History & Social History No details availableNo details available School psychologistSchool psychologist No chronic medicationsNo chronic medications History of sinus surgery years agoHistory of sinus surgery years ago History supplied by partnerHistory supplied by partner

5 Physical Exam VS: 38.3, 149/palp, 108, 18, sat 97%VS: 38.3, 149/palp, 108, 18, sat 97% Somnolent / confusedSomnolent / confused Few words uttered Far fellow (?)Few words uttered Far fellow (?) Uncooperative with examinationUncooperative with examination Pulmonary, cardiac, abdomen: NormalPulmonary, cardiac, abdomen: Normal No cutaneous abnormalitiesNo cutaneous abnormalities Localized painful stimuli, spontaneous eye opening and movementsLocalized painful stimuli, spontaneous eye opening and movements Context of the moment….Context of the moment….

6 Your Differential Diagnosis? Fever, altered mental status?

7 Differential Diagnosis NeurologicNeurologic MeningitisMeningitis EncephalitisEncephalitis Other infectious etiologiesOther infectious etiologies SepsisSepsis PneumoniaPneumonia Urinary tract infectionUrinary tract infection MetabolicMetabolic EndocrineEndocrine ToxicologicToxicologic

8 Practical Differential Diagnosis Acute Bacterial MeningitisAcute Bacterial Meningitis

9 ED Course What should be done and in what order?

10 ED Course-what occurred Verify A,B,Cs IV access, labs, blood cultures Empiric antibiotic therapy-ceftriaxone Immediate noncontrast cranial CT

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13 ED Course Lumbar puncture in presence of partner

14 Lumbar puncture Slightly cloudy fluid to inspectionSlightly cloudy fluid to inspection Later…Later… 16,000 WBC (99% segs)16,000 WBC (99% segs) Glucose <10 Protein 522Glucose <10 Protein 522 Lactic acid 10.9Lactic acid 10.9 Gram stain - no bacteriaGram stain - no bacteria

15 Lab Results WBC = 18.5WBC = 18.5 Hct =42Hct =42 Platelets = 203Platelets = 203 Chemistry = wnlChemistry = wnl

16 What is the next step in this patients management?

17 Case course Patient given ceftriaxone (before CT), vancomycin, and acyclovirPatient given ceftriaxone (before CT), vancomycin, and acyclovir ICU admission -ICU admission - Blood cultures +4 S. pneumoniaeBlood cultures +4 S. pneumoniae Continued ceftriaxone and vancomycinContinued ceftriaxone and vancomycin Culture- sensitive to ceftriaxoneCulture- sensitive to ceftriaxone Discharged day 7 continue outpatient therapyDischarged day 7 continue outpatient therapy

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19 Case course ENT referralENT referral Pansinusitis on CTPansinusitis on CT Endoscope-encephalocele from sinus surgery (FESS) in pastEndoscope-encephalocele from sinus surgery (FESS) in past Elective surgical repairElective surgical repair Return to work - functionalReturn to work - functional

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21 Farfalla Butterfly--- Italian

22 Risk Factors Bacterial meningitis may occur in any adultBacterial meningitis may occur in any adult Identified risk factors-Identified risk factors- Diabetes mellitusDiabetes mellitus Otitis mediaOtitis media PneumoniaPneumonia SinusitisSinusitis Alcohol abuseAlcohol abuse

23 Pattern of Presentation-Triad Fever, neck stiffness, altered mental statusFever, neck stiffness, altered mental status Fever-high sensitivity, low specificityFever-high sensitivity, low specificity Sens 85%; spec 45%Sens 85%; spec 45% Neck stiffness 70% pooled sensitivityNeck stiffness 70% pooled sensitivity Altered mental status-67% pooled sensitivityAltered mental status-67% pooled sensitivity Triad is imperfect to detect meningitis by this pooled retrospective analysisTriad is imperfect to detect meningitis by this pooled retrospective analysis Attia J, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Wong JG: Does this adult patient have meningitis? JAMA 1999; 282:175.Attia J, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Wong JG: Does this adult patient have meningitis? JAMA 1999; 282:175.

24 Neck Stiffness Kernigs sign - knee extension / responseKernigs sign - knee extension / response Brudzinskis sign-neck flexion / responseBrudzinskis sign-neck flexion / response Nuchal rigidity stiff neck on examNuchal rigidity stiff neck on exam Prospective study, …these diagnostic tools are too insensitive to identify the majority of patients with meningitis in contemporary practice….Prospective study, …these diagnostic tools are too insensitive to identify the majority of patients with meningitis in contemporary practice…. Thomas KE, Hasbun R, Jekel J, Quagliarello VJ: The diagnostic accuracy of Kernigs sign, Brudzinskis sign, and nuchal rigidity in patients in adults with suspected meningitis. Clin In Dis 2002;35:46.Thomas KE, Hasbun R, Jekel J, Quagliarello VJ: The diagnostic accuracy of Kernigs sign, Brudzinskis sign, and nuchal rigidity in patients in adults with suspected meningitis. Clin In Dis 2002;35:46.

25 A new sign? Jolt accentuation of headache…Jolt accentuation of headache… Patient turns head horizontallyPatient turns head horizontally 2-3 rotations / second2-3 rotations / second Does headache get worse?Does headache get worse? One study…One study… Attia J, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Wong JG: Does this adult patient have meningitis? JAMA 1999; 282:175.Attia J, Hatala R, Cook DJ, Wong JG: Does this adult patient have meningitis? JAMA 1999; 282:175. Uchihara T, Tsukagoshi H. Jolt accentuation of headache: the most sensitive sign of CSF pleocytosis. Headache 1991;31:167.Uchihara T, Tsukagoshi H. Jolt accentuation of headache: the most sensitive sign of CSF pleocytosis. Headache 1991;31:167.

26 Anatomy and Pathophysiology Vicious cycle of pathophysiologyVicious cycle of pathophysiology BacteremiaBacteremia Meningeal inflammationMeningeal inflammation Blood-brain barrier breachBlood-brain barrier breach Inflammatory responses within brain with neuronal injuryInflammatory responses within brain with neuronal injury VasculitisVasculitis Cerebral edemaCerebral edema

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29 Organisms < 3 months< 3 months 3 months - 18 years3 months - 18 years 18 years - 50 years18 years - 50 years > 50 years> 50 years E.coli, Listeria, StreptococciE.coli, Listeria, Streptococci N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniaeN. meningitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniaeN. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae S. pneumoniae, Listeria, gram- negative bacilliS. pneumoniae, Listeria, gram- negative bacilli

30 Complications-S. pneumoniae Increased cerebral pressure from edemaIncreased cerebral pressure from edema SeizuresSeizures Stroke syndromesStroke syndromes Intracranial hemorrhageIntracranial hemorrhage

31 Lab studies CBC, chemistriesCBC, chemistries Coagulation studies?Coagulation studies? Blood culturesBlood cultures Other cultures as appropriateOther cultures as appropriate

32 Procedures Lumbar punctureLumbar puncture Neutrophilic predominance in bacterial meningitisNeutrophilic predominance in bacterial meningitis Low glucose, high proteinLow glucose, high protein

33 Alternative diagnoses?Alternative diagnoses? Mass lesion?Mass lesion? Do not delay therapy in high-suspicion cases for imaging….Do not delay therapy in high-suspicion cases for imaging…. CT before LP?

34 Emergency Department Care Prompt recognitionPrompt recognition Prompt interventionPrompt intervention DiagnosticDiagnostic Therapeutic-do not delay pending diagnostic interventions in high-suspicion casesTherapeutic-do not delay pending diagnostic interventions in high-suspicion cases Antibiotics-multipleAntibiotics-multiple Anti-inflammatory-steroidsAnti-inflammatory-steroids

35 Antibiotics < 3 months< 3 months 3 months - 18 years3 months - 18 years 18 years - 50 years18 years - 50 years > 50 years> 50 years Ampicillin, third-generation cephalosporinAmpicillin, third-generation cephalosporin Third-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) + vancomycinThird-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) + vancomycin Ampicillin, third-generation cephalosporin, vancomycinAmpicillin, third-generation cephalosporin, vancomycin

36 Anti-inflammatory medications Dexamethasone - 10 mg IV at or before (15-20 minutes) antibiotics…Dexamethasone - 10 mg IV at or before (15-20 minutes) antibiotics… 10 mg q 6h for 4 days10 mg q 6h for 4 days Adults…Adults… Pediatrics?Pediatrics? De Gans J, van de Beek D, et al: Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis. NEJM 2002;347:1549.

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39 Consultations Will depend upon institutionWill depend upon institution Ill patients - ICU admissionIll patients - ICU admission Infectious disease, neurology, or others might be helpfulInfectious disease, neurology, or others might be helpful

40 Summary Acute bacterial meningitis may be a life or function-limiting eventAcute bacterial meningitis may be a life or function-limiting event Acute intervention may limit morbidity and mortalityAcute intervention may limit morbidity and mortality Antibiotics-broad, multipleAntibiotics-broad, multiple Anti-inflammatory agent-dexamethasone recommended at this timeAnti-inflammatory agent-dexamethasone recommended at this time

41 Key Learning Points When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis?When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis? What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy?What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy? What empiric therapy should be given?What empiric therapy should be given? What adjunctive therapy should be administered?What adjunctive therapy should be administered?

42 Key Learning Points When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis?When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis? Altered behavior, altered consciousness, fever, or seizures may suggest presence of a CNS infectionAltered behavior, altered consciousness, fever, or seizures may suggest presence of a CNS infection

43 Key Learning Points When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis?When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis? What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy?What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy? What empiric therapy should be given?What empiric therapy should be given? What adjunctive therapy should be administered?What adjunctive therapy should be administered?

44 Key Learning Points What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy?What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy? Do not delay therapy-antibiotics-for imaging or procedures in patients with high probability of bacterial meningitisDo not delay therapy-antibiotics-for imaging or procedures in patients with high probability of bacterial meningitis

45 Key Learning Points When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis?When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis? What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy?What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy? What empiric therapy should be given?What empiric therapy should be given? What adjunctive therapy should be administered?What adjunctive therapy should be administered?

46 Key Learning Points What empiric therapy should be given?What empiric therapy should be given? Empiric therapy should include antibiotics for likely organisms based on age….in adults, third generation cephalosporin and vancomycin should constitute initial therapyEmpiric therapy should include antibiotics for likely organisms based on age….in adults, third generation cephalosporin and vancomycin should constitute initial therapy

47 Key Learning Points When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis?When should a CNS infection be considered in the differential diagnosis? What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy?What is optimal timing of imaging, procedures, and therapy? What empiric therapy should be given?What empiric therapy should be given? What adjunctive therapy should be administered?What adjunctive therapy should be administered?

48 Key Learning Points What adjunctive therapy should be administered?What adjunctive therapy should be administered? Return of steroids….Return of steroids….

49 ContactsFERNEwww.ferne.org


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