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Part 1 By Peter Drew College of Australian Aboriginal Languages The Australian Aboriginal Language Family Part 1 By Peter Drew College of Australian Aboriginal.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1 By Peter Drew College of Australian Aboriginal Languages The Australian Aboriginal Language Family Part 1 By Peter Drew College of Australian Aboriginal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1 By Peter Drew College of Australian Aboriginal Languages The Australian Aboriginal Language Family Part 1 By Peter Drew College of Australian Aboriginal Languages "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 1

2 What is a language family and how many language families are there? 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 2

3 A language family is a group of languages that have descended from a common parent language "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 3

4 There Are 29 Language Families In The World. There Are 29 Language Families In The World. Examples of language families are: Indo-European, Papuan, Malayo-Polynesian, Niger-Congo, Semitic, Australian Aboriginal "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 4

5 We will briefly look at the Indo- European language family to help us see the extent of a language family "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 5

6 The Indo-European Family has these branches The Indo-European Family has these branches Albanian, Iranian, Baltic, Slavic, Indic, Celtic, Greek, Armenian, Germanic, Italic 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 6

7 The Germanic and the Italic branches have these groups and languages The Germanic and the Italic branches have these groups and languages German, Dutch, English, Frisian, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic. Italian, French, Provencal, Spanish, Rhaeto-Roman, Catalian, Portugese 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 7

8 The Italian group for example contains 30 dialects and languages. The English language contains an unknown number of dialects. For a partial list see: "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 8

9 We use the term Family to describe all Australian Aboriginal languages rather than language groups or branches "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 9

10 Australian Aboriginal Language Family Pama Nyungan/ Non- Pama Nyungan Division Branches Language Groups Languages 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 10

11 The Following Slide Shows The The Following Slide Shows The Papuan, Australian Aboriginal, and Part of The Malayo-Polynesian Language Families "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 11

12 Malayo-Polynesian (Olive) Papuan (White) Australian Aboriginal (Orange) 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 12

13 How many Language Families are there and what is a language family? There are 29 language families in the world. A language family is a group of languages that have descended from a common parent language "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 13

14 How many languages are there in the world? When Europeans arrived in Australia how many languages were there? How many languages are likely to be in every day use in 50 years? 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 14

15 There Are Nearly 7,000 Languages In The World There Are Nearly 7,000 Languages In The World 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 15

16 How do we distinguish between a language and a dialect? How do we distinguish between a language and a dialect? Once there is at least a 30% difference between two speech varieties, these are considered separate languages and not dialects "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 16

17 The two Aboriginal languages Pitjantjatjara and Ngaanyatjara are 70% the same. That is there is a 30% difference between them, therefore they are different languages "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 17

18 Two common ways of naming languages (and branches and groups) are: use the languages word for man/person, or to describe a distinguishing feature by saying, language having X "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 18

19 Using the languages word for Man/person; Wati, Yolngu, Pama, Tiwi : The South West Wati Branch. The Yolngu, Pama(n) and Nyungar groups. The Tiwi language, Tiwi (plural of Tini) = Men/People 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 19

20 Language having X Language having X Pitjantja-tjara literally having pitja. This distinguishes it from its neighbour Yankuntjatjara. Wira-djuri is the language having wira wira = no, while Gamil-araay is the language having gamil for no "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 20

21 When Europeans arrived in Australia there were approximately 250 languages with dialects in the Australian Aboriginal Language Family Go to the link: "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 21

22 At the time of the 2006 Census 147 Aboriginal languages were still spoken. However only 60 are in everyday use as a first language "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 22

23 It is impossible to be certain but less than 20 languages are likely to be in everyday use as a first language in another 50 years "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 23

24 How many language are there in the world? Approximately 7,000. When Europeans arrived in Australia approximately how many languages were there? 250. How many languages are likely to be in every day use in 50 years? Less than "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 24

25 Most Australians are unaware that Aboriginal Languages are still spoken as first languages, explain why? 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 25

26 2006 CENSUS: one in eight Aboriginal people (55, 695) people said that an Indigenous language was their primary household language, but over 60% of these are in the NT "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 26

27 As we are aware many languages are no longer spoken. With some the only thing left behind is a name for the language. Nothing else is known "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew

28 The languages of the populated areas of Vic, NSW, SA, Qld and WA are not spoken as first languages. However what remains of many of these languages are being collected and revived "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 28

29 Contrary to popular belief there are Tasmanian Aboriginal people, however not much of their traditional languages remain "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 29

30 Only Blue Areas Have Languages With More Than 100 Speakers 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 30

31 Our main focus is languages still spoken so we will very briefly compare four languages from the blue areas as representative of the Australian Aboriginal Language Family: Tiwi (T), Gupapuyngu (G), Pitjantjatjara (P), Warlpiri (W) "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 31

32 Most Australians are unaware that Aboriginal Languages are still spoken as first languages, explain why? In the larger population regions of Australia there are no speakers of the original Aboriginal languages "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 32

33 Tiwi Green, Gupapuyngu Orange, Warlpiri Purple Pitjantjatjara Brown,, Nyungar/Noongar Yellow "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 33

34 What Are Some Common Features Of Australian Aboriginal Languages? 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 34

35 Some Common Features Of Australian Aboriginal Languages: Some Common Features Of Australian Aboriginal Languages: Phonology or Sounds Numerals Roots Grammatical features 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 35

36 Writing systems differ for different languages. For example, tj, j, ty, dj and ch are used to represent the same sound in different languages. A side view of the head showing the tongue position for this sound is seen below "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 36

37 Phonology Phonology S. A. Wurm an expert on Aboriginal languages noted the remarkably similar phonological features (sound systems) of the Languages of Australia "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 37

38 Most (70%) aboriginal languages have three vowels. The rest have two or four "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 38

39 Vowels Vowels The three vowels a, i, u. A as in Papa I as in Dili Within the word it is short as in hit. But on the end of a word it is a long (an ee sound.) U is always as in put "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 39

40 Common Consonants of Aboriginal Languages Common Consonants of Aboriginal Languages Bilabials: p, m, w. Alveolars: t, n, l, r. Post alveolars (Retroflex):r, t, n, l. Palatals: tj, ny, ly, y. Velars: k, g "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 40

41 Sounds Distinct From English Sounds Distinct From English The sounds represented by: rl/l, rn/n, rt/t, tj/j, ny, ly. Ng at the start of words eg. ngali We will look at these sounds in the next slide "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 41

42 Warlpiri (above) and Tiwi belong to different sub families yet their phonologies are more similar than English and French "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 42

43 Numerals Numerals Most Aboriginal languages have number systems with one, two, three then many "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 43

44 Tiwi and Pitjantjatjara have 12% of their words with the same roots. An example of roots is considered below Nyungar/Pitjantjatjara/English Tjin tjina foot Muly mulya nose kaat kata head tjaa tjaa mouth maar mara hand 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 44

45 Grammatical Features Grammatical Features No Verb to be: (is, was, will be) All below are literally man good, but English has The man is good Wati palya P Wati ngurrju W Tini pupuni T Gurrmal manymak G Kwop nyungar N 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 45

46 Aboriginal languages make a distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs seen in noun endings. Transitive verbs have two involved in the action. Intransitive verbs only have one involved in the action "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 46

47 Pitjantjatjara Pitjantjatjara Wati and Watingku both mean man. Intransitive. Wati nyinanyi. The man is sitting Transitive Watingku mai ngalkunu. The man ate the food "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 47

48 Nyunyul WA (Near Broome) Nyunyul WA (Near Broome) Wamb and Wambin both mean man. Intransitive. Wamb injalk The man he-fell. Transitive Wambin barn inaw burrak The man he-shot the kangaroo "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 48

49 What Are Some Common Features Of Australian Aboriginal Languages? What Are Some Common Features Of Australian Aboriginal Languages? Their sounds, word roots, grammar and numerals "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 49

50 What Are The Two Divisions Of Australian Aboriginal Languages? What Is The Percentage Of The Larger Division? 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 50

51 We have considered a few common features now we will breakdown the Australian Aboriginal Language Family and take a quick look at Pama- Nyungan languages "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 51

52 The Non Pama-Nyungan are described as prefixing languages. This means the pronoun (the word I and you) is at the beginning of the verb. While Pama- Nyungan languages put the pronoun on the end of the verb. Seen in the next slide "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 52

53 Non Pama-Nyungan Non Pama-Nyungan Prefixing eg Tiwi ngiri- I, jiyi- you Ngiya ngiri-majirripi kapi warta. I slept in the bush. Nginja jiyimajirripi kapi warta. You slept in the bush. Pama-Nyungan -na I Ngayulu nyninanyi(-na) I am sitting 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 53

54 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 54

55 Pama means man in the North Qld Paman group. Nyunga means man in the Nyunga group of South West WA "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 55

56 Approx 90% Languages Pama Nyungan 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 56

57 What are the two divisions of Australian Aboriginal Language Family? What is the percentage of the larger division? Pama-Nyungan 90%, Non Pama- Nyungan 10% "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 57

58 Pama Nyungan How Similar? North Queensland languages average 22% of roots the same as Pitjantjatjara and words from Nyungar SW of WA have 35% of roots same "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 58

59 When learning to pronounce Pama Nyungan (PN) words break them into syllables. Emphasis is usually on the first syllable. There are FOUR possible syllables: (C=Consonant V=Vowel) VC, CVC, CV, V "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 59

60 Numbers of speakers of the larger groups and languages: Western Desert Group 8,000 Yolngu Group 6,000 Arandic Group 5,000 Creoles 12,000 Pitjantjatjara "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 60

61 The languages we look at very briefly are Gupapuyngu (G) which is part of the Yolngu group. Pitjantjatjara (P) and Warlpiri (W) are both part of the South West Wati branch. Pitjantjatjara is part of the Western Desert Group, Nyungar (N) was a group of languages remnants of which are seen in Noongar "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 61

62 Gupapuyngu (G) Orange, Pitjantjatjara (P) Brown, Warlpiri (W) Purple, Nyungar/Noongar (N) Yellow "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 62

63 We can see similarities in these four languages with the words for sit and talk. Talk! Sit! P wangka nyina W wangkaya nyinaya N wangk nyin G wanga nhina 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 63

64 Similarities lessen as seen in the word Eat: ngalkuni P, ngarni W, ngarniny N, nyangthun G. As we mentioned before Pitjantjatjara and Nyungar have 35% of roots same. Warlpiri shares many words and roots with Pitjantjatjara as they both are in the same branch. Gupapuyngu while clearly having many similar words and grammatical features is the least similar to the other three "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 64

65 Semantic features Semantic features Areas of meaning of words. One word has the meaning; sit, stay, live, be in WPG[N?]. I am sitting. I am staying here. I am living at Alice Springs. I am in the tree "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 65

66 Semantic Features Semantic Features PN languages have a word for we two and another word for you two. They also distinguish between you plural and you singular. Eg Pitjantjatjara. Nyuntu you singular, Nyupali you two Nyura you mob (more than two) Ngayulu I, Ngali Us two, Nganana Us mob (more than two) 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 66

67 Semantic Features Semantic Features Many times a word will refer both to a thing and what it came from. Eg punu; tree, stick, wood ipi; breast, breast milk waru; fire, firewood 2012 "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 67

68 Some common roots in Pama- Nyungan Division: Mai food, ngura camp, nya see, nyin sit, (y)an go, ngana who, ngali we two "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 68

69 See Part 2 College of Australian Aboriginal Languages By Peter Drew We hope you enjoyed learning a bit about the Australian Aboriginal Language Family. See Part 2 College of Australian Aboriginal Languages By Peter Drew Mobile: "College of Australian Aboriginal Languages" By Peter Drew - 69


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