Presentation on theme: "Ayutthaya Historical Research By Tricky VandenbergV2 – April 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Ayutthaya Historical Research By Tricky VandenbergV2 – April 2010
THE CHAO PHRAYA ISSUE Ayutthaya Historical Research
The original Chao Phraya (now referred to as the Chao Phraya Noi) flowed west of its present course beginning just below Chainat and running to Ang Thong via Sankha Buri and Phrom Buri. After some time, it appears to have silted up and it shifted to the east to nearly its present channel via In Buri and Sing Buri. The river must then have breached a wall in its right bank because in its route it ran south-west from Ban In- Pramun (15 Km north of Ang Thong on the Chainat - Ang Thong canal), to Bang Sai via Wiset Chai Chan, Phak Hai, and Sena, and then entered its present-day channel. [Ref: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1994)] Ayutthaya
The Pa Sak River flowed through Nakhon Luang towards Ban Ko, north of Ayutthaya in the river bed of the present Khlong Oom and Khlong Hantra. After a right bow the river joined the Lopburi somewhere south of Ayutthaya. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab mentions the mouth of the Khlong Khao San, as being the exit point of the Pa Sak River in the Ayutthayan era. Ban Ko
The Lopburi River flowed west of the city of Lopburi - through Bang Pahan district - towards Ayutthaya, where it meandered to the west, to retake its course southwards. After Bang Pa-In, the Lopburi ran again west to join the Chao Phraya south of Bang Sai. Bang Pahan Bang Pa In Bang Sai
The City of Ayodhya was situated within the ox-bow of the Pa Sak River. This must have been the situation when Prince U-Thong arrived at Wiang Lek in 1347. Prince U-Thong decided to establish his City of Ayutthaya within the ox-bow of the Lopburi River.
Somewhere between the establishment of Ayutthaya in 1351 and the reign of King Chakkraphat (r. 1548-1569) a canal had been dug between the Chao Phraya River and the Lopburi River. King Chakkraphat used this canal in his escape from his palace during a rebellion in 1561. [RCA - Cushman - p41] This canal was called the Maha Phram canal and is mentioned on one of the maps of the French engineer La Mare.
Maha Phram canal Chao Phraya R. Lopburi R. Pa Sak R.
It was not until 1857 that an alternative path was created. A 5-kilometre channel was dug from the entrance of Wat Chulamani to Ban Mai. The river responded by following this new course and abandoning the old one, in effect making a secondary river of the stretch that ran from Ban Mai, and into the Chao Phya Noi. Half as wide as the river above and below it, the 1857 Ban Mai shunt funnels the Chao Phya down to Ayutthaya. [Ref: The Chao Phya, river in transition - Steve Van Beeck (1994)]
From 1857 onwards the Chao Phraya River takes the river bed of its tributary, the Lopburi River, in its course to the Gulf of Siam. Conclusion: The Ancient City of Ayutthaya had never been established on an island situated at the confluence of three rivers.
Open questions Additional information on Khlong Maha Phram, linking the Lopburi River around Ayutthaya to the Chao Phraya River in the Ayutthayan era (1351 – 1767). Ayutthaya Historical Research
THE LOPBURI ISSUE Ayutthaya Historical Research
The Lopburi River ran into a meander around the City of Ayutthaya.
The City of Ayutthaya was initially of a much smaller size … City stockade and moat at the beginning of the 15 th Century
… but expanded with the centuries passing by. City wall in the mid 16 th Century before the 1 st fall of Ayutthaya
1568 – For the citys protection, it was necessary to dig an additional moat to the city, called Khlong Khue Na (canal in front of the city). [Ref: Our Wars with The Burmese - Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (1917)] City wall and moat in the mid 16 th Century before the 1 st fall of Ayutthaya
City wall in the mid 16 th Century before the 1 st fall of Ayutthaya Approx 1580 - On the eastern side where the enemy was often able to enter the city, King Maha Thammaracha let dug an extension of the canal of the moat in front of the capital from the Mae Nang Plum monastery (i.e. from opposite the mouth of the city canal at the present day) down to the mouth of Khao San canal. [Ref: Our Wars with The Burmese - Prince Damrong Rajanubhab (1917)]. Wat Mae Nang Plum Khao San Canal
City wall after the 1 st fall of Ayutthaya From 1584 onwards, the river encircled completely the city. [Ref: Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Cushman (2006) - p97]
Lopburi River Pa Sak Shunt Mouth of Pa Sak River Front city moat
Straightening of the Pa Sak River, digging of Khlong Sai and junction with the city moat (Pa Sak Shunt) between 1580 and 1685. Pa Sak River in 1685 did not yet changes it course (See Bellin map) Khlong Sai Khlong Oom Khlong Hantra Somewhere after 1685, the Pa Sak River changed its course, running into the eastern Front city moat. Front city moat
When did the island cuttings occur? No islands visible on maps publicized in the 18 th century (see Bellin, Kaempfer, Andrews)
The (old) Lopburi River, (present Hua Ro canal) called The Maenam The (new) Lopburi River, before the Bang Duea canal. Khlong Sai Khlong Oom Pa Sak shunt (khlong lat) No island yet has been formed Bellins map published in 1750 AD.
Open questions In what year of the Ayutthayan era was the Pa Sak shunt and Khlong Sai dug? When did the Pa Sak River change his course into the Front city canal. When were Ko Loy and Ko Chong Lom created and was their any reason or event? Ayutthaya Historical Research
The New Lopburi River Ayutthaya Historical Research
END New Lopburi River Old Lopburi River Bang Duea canal Old Lopburi River Khlong chuam Wat Khoa Din Wat Muang Wat Sop Sawan
1970s - Deviation of the Lopburi River at Wat Khao Din towards Bang Duea canal.
Khlong Bang Duea Bellins map published in 1750 AD – based on sketch of 1685
Khlong Bang Duea Kaempfers map drafted in 1690 AD.