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Driver Training Program

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Presentation on theme: "Driver Training Program"— Presentation transcript:

1 Driver Training Program
Emergency Vehicle Driver Training Program

2 Program Overview Introduction 10 min. Extent of the Problem 45 min.
Personnel Selection 45 min. Necessity of SOGs 20 min. Legal Aspects 45 min. Vehicle Dynamics 45 min.

3 Program Overview Inspections/Maintenance 60 min.
Vehicle/Ops Safety 60 min. Competency Course 30 min. Appendices Bibliography

4 Objectives Objectives
Understand the goal of this emergency vehicle driver training program. Recognize the importance of an emergency vehicle driver training program. Identify the elements of a comprehensive emergency vehicle driver training program

5 Course Goal Present the necessary classroom, competency course training, and testing for new and existing emergency vehicle drivers. The program will verify proficiency in both the knowledge and understanding of, as well as, the practical application to emergency vehicle driving.

6 Importance of Driver Training
All emergencies involve vehicle response. 25% of firefighters killed are responding to or returning from incidents. Drivers being criminally charged. Driver training program demonstrates the organization’s commitment to safety.

7 Comprehensive Emergency Vehicle Driver Training
Classroom Instruction Competency Course Completion Street and Highway Driving Testing

8 Module II Extent of the Problem
Objectives Understand the complexities of driving under emergency conditions and the existence of laws governing an emergency vehicle. Recognize the high incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles and the associated deaths and injuries.

9 Module II Extent of the Problem
Know the types, conditions, and causes of accidents involving emergency vehicles. Recognize the factors that contribute to the incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles.

10 Perspective Misconception
…to rely solely on the fact that there are laws governing emergency vehicle response and that this will insure a safe emergency vehicle response.

11 On-Duty Firefighter Deaths 1977 - 1999
Source: U. S. F.A, Annual Firefighter Fatality Studies * NFPA Journal

12 Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Frequency of Accidents
13% 11% 45% 7% Intersections 24% Source: VFIS

13 Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Severity of Accidents
13% 8% 29% 5% Intersections 45% Source:VFIS

14 Contributing Factor 59% 53% 21% 21% 18% 12% 8% 8% Source: VFIS

15 Intersection Accident Details
Type of Response Warning Devices Percent of Reported Incidents Emergency Lights/Siren 68 % Emergency Lights Only 8 % Emergency Neither 2 % Emergency Unknown 1 % Return from Emergency Lights Only 1 % Return from Emergency Neither 2 % Training Neither 1 % Other Neither 5 % Unknown Unknown 12 % Source: VFIS

16 Impacts of Vehicle Accidents
Personnel Injury or Death to Emergency Responders Peripheral Injury or Death to Others Vehicle and Equipment Loss Long Term Impact

17 Emergency Vehicle Incidents
Rock Springs Teen Dies in Collision Suburban Van at Intersection Pumper Experiences Rear-End Collision Civilian Fatality at Intersection Accident Tanker Rolls Over, Driver Killed County Firefighter Killed in Head-On Collision with Fire Truck

18 Unfortunately, the story continues….
California Texas Oklahoma North Carolina Indiana Wisconsin

19 Criminalization of Emergency Service Personnel
Ohio Texas Georgia

20 Module III Personnel Selection
Objectives Recognize that proper personnel selection procedures are the first steps in developing an effective program. Understand that the human aspects of driver selection are an important component of the process. Recognize that a number of abilities necessary for driving must be acquired.

21 Module III Personnel Selection
Recognize the importance of maintaining accurate and complete personnel records. Understand the importance of maintaining proficiency through an on-going re-certification program.

22 Importance of Driver Selection
Human Aspects Acquired Abilities Vehicle Characteristics Personnel Records

23 Human Aspects Attitude Knowledge Mental Fitness Judgment
Physical Fitness Age Habits Driving Characteristics

24 Acquired Abilities Driver’s License State and Local Laws
Defensive Driving Techniques Vehicle Characteristics

25 Defensive Driving Techniques
Space Management Following Distance and Rate of Closure Hazard Identification Correct Braking Techniques

26 Vehicle Characteristics
Type of Emergency Vehicle Vehicle Components and Features Special Driver Training

27 Personnel Files Training Records Physical Capability Driving Record
Suspected Substance Abuse

28 Driver Re-certification
Actual Emergency Vehicle Driving Experience Observed Proficiency Time Since Last Re-certification Introduction of New Vehicles Introduction of New Technology

29 Module IV Necessity of SOGs
Objectives Understand the reasons that SOGs are important to operating an effective driver training program. Recognize the subject areas for SOGs that impact the certification, operation, and re-certification of emergency vehicle drivers.

30 Significance of SOGs All Personnel Understand What is Expected or Required Intended Compliance with All Necessary Requirements is Identified Pre-planned and Agreed Upon Actions Resource Documents Upon Which to Base Training Required Anticipated Actions

31 SOG Subject Areas Eligibility Requirements for Drivers
Training and Proficiency Testing Requirements for Drivers Emergency Response Procedures and Requirements Customary and Ordinary Operational Procedures Special Situation Procedures

32 Module V Legal Aspects Objectives
Understand the changing legal climate which exists and its impact upon emergency vehicle drivers and the organization. Identify the primary legal principles which affect drivers and recognize their implications upon emergency vehicle operation.

33 Module V Legal Aspects Recognize that specific state driving laws affect the emergency vehicle driver. Recognize that individual state or local laws, standards, and requirements impact emergency vehicle driver training and operations.

34 Five Categories of Requirements
State motor vehicle and traffic laws Nationally recognized standards State and federal occupational and safety regulations Local ordinances Organizational policies, procedures, and guidelines

35 Changing Legal Climate
Concept of public kindness “King can do no wrong”

36 Legal Principles and Terms
Subject to laws unless specific exemption exists Exemptions apply only to true emergencies Emergency vehicle drivers can be found criminally and/or civilly liable

37 Legal Principles and Terms
True Emergency Due Regard Negligence Gross Negligence Willful and Wanton Vicarious Liability

38 Legal Principles and Terms
Judicial review based on …. Was it a true emergency? Was due regard for the safety of others exercised?

39 Emergency Vehicle Driving Laws
CDL requirements Exemptions granted to emergency vehicle drivers Requirements for members of the public Requirements for emergency responders in POVs

40 Other Requirements and Standards
National Fire Protection Association Standards State Laws and/or Administrative Regulations Local Ordinances or Statues Organizational Rules and Regulations and Standard Operating Guidelines

41 Module VI Vehicle Dynamics
Objectives Understand the physical forces which act upon vehicles and their impact upon vehicle handling. Recognize that certain vehicle characteristics can influence the impact of physical forces on emergency vehicles.

42 Physical Forces Friction Velocity Momentum Inertia Centrifugal Force

43 Physical Forces Friction – resistance to motion between two moving objects that touch. Tire/Road Friction Brake Friction Steering Friction

44 Physical Forces Velocity – speed Acceleration (velocity increase)
Deceleration (velocity decrease) Braking (velocity decrease)

45 Physical Forces Directional Control – a derivative of three factors.
Steering Turning Tracking

46 Physical Forces Momentum – is measured as the product of the object’s mass or weight times its velocity. Inertia – the force it takes for a moving object to stay in motion in the same direction.

47 Physical Forces Centrifugal Force – the force caused by inertia, which tends to make a rotating body move away from the center of rotation.

48 Physical Forces Centrifugal Force

49 Vehicle Characteristics
Total weight and weight distribution Suspension system Braking system(s) Baffling system

50 Vehicle Characteristics
Total weight and weight distribution Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) or (GCWR) Weight Distribution – horizontal and vertical centers of gravity

51 Vehicle Characteristics
Suspension System Axles Springs Wheels and Tires

52 Vehicle Characteristics
Braking Systems Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) Secondary or Auxiliary Engine Brake Automatic Transmission Retarder Driveline Retarder

53 Vehicle Characteristics
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Report Engine Retarders Limiting Valves Baffling Systems

54 Module VII Inspections & Maintenance
Objectives Understand the value and importance of regular inspections of emergency vehicles. Identify the major component systems of an emergency vehicle. Understand how to perform pre- and post-trip inspections.

55 Module VII Inspections & Maintenance
Understand the various classes of PM and the importance of a PM program for emergency vehicles. Recognize the role of the driver in inspections and maintenance. Understand the importance of keeping accurate and complete records.

56 Emergency Vehicle Components
Chassis Body Primary Function Components (Task or Mission) Auxiliary Systems

57 Emergency Vehicle Components
Chassis Frame Suspension System Steering and Braking Systems Power Train Components

58 Emergency Vehicle Components
Body Primary Function Auxiliary Systems

59 Inspections Post-Trip Cleaning of vehicle. Replacing supplies.
Re-fueling and checking fluid levels, if justified. Report any unusual occurrences or malfunctions.

60 Inspections Pre-trip Vehicle overview Check the engine compartment
Start engine and check inside cab Check headlights, signal lights, warning lights, and audio devices Conduct walk around inspection Check controls and indicators Check brake system (air brakes)

61 Types of Preventative Maintenance
Routine Maintenance Scheduled Maintenance Crisis Maintenance

62 Types of Preventative Maintenance
Routine Fluid level checks Wheels and tires Electrical systems and devices

63 Types of Preventative Maintenance
Scheduled Manufacturer’s recommended schedule Amount of use Organizational policy Professional standards

64 Types of Preventative Maintenance
Crisis Classification A (Immediate) Classification B (As Soon As Possible) Classification C (Next P.M.)

65 Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver
Battery or Batteries Braking System Coolant System Electrical System Fuel Hydraulic Fluids

66 Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver
Lubrication Oil (Engine) Tires Steering System Belts Tools, Appliances, and Equipment

67 Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver
Document the need for maintenance on the assigned vehicle. Verify that the requested and needed maintenance was performed.

68 Recordkeeping Maintenance Records Training Records Operational Records

69 Module VIII: Emergency Vehicle Operations/Safety
Objectives Recognize that motivation is both physically and mentally based. Understand that there are a number of important actions which must be completed prior to initiating driving. Recognize that emergency response driving is a complex process.

70 Motivation Routine Comfort Confidence

71 Defensive Driving Goals
To maintain the highest level of safety possible. To be prepared for unexpected situations and conditions which can adversely affect emergency vehicle operation. To avoid, through effective training and applied practice, unnecessary legal consequences.

72 Preparing to Drive Route Planning Driver Readiness
Effective Start-Up Procedures

73 Preparing to Drive Route Planning Minimizing accident exposure
Enabling the emergency vehicle driver to focus on actual driving tasks Avoiding environmental and construction hazards

74 Preparing to Drive Driver Readiness Fatigue Health Personal Problems

75 Preparing to Drive Effective Start-Up Procedures
Circle of Safety Inspection Adjustment of Cab Features Wearing of Occupant Restraints Receive Signal Before Moving

76 Emergency Response Driving
Predicting the predictable Expect the unexpected Handling any unexpected problems

77 Emergency Response Driving
IPDE System Identify Predict Decide Execute

78 Emergency Response Driving
Five Visual Habits Aim high in steering Get the big picture Keep eyes moving, scan Make sure the other drivers see the emergency vehicle Identify an escape route

79 Use of Emergency Lights and Siren
Signal two basic concepts: They notify other drivers that an approaching emergency vehicle is operating in an emergency mode. They request other drivers to yield the right of way to the emergency vehicle in accordance with state and/or local law.

80 Use of Emergency Lights and Siren
RED – Stop. May also attract. BLUE – Emergency vehicle (fire or police). AMBER – Danger/Caution. Excellent for rear of vehicle. CLEAR – Caution. Good visibility, shut off at scenes.

81 Use of Emergency Lights and Siren
Procedures for Use of Siren Use when responding to an emergency Change to yelp mode at least 200’ from intersection High-low mode is least effective Use another audible device to alert drivers who fail to hear siren

82 Space Management Following Distance Rate of Closure
4 second rule at 40 mph or less; 5 second rule above 40 mph Rate of Closure Blind Spots Alongside Traffic Closure from Behind

83 Speed Management Two important rules:
Emergency vehicles must not be driven in excess of the posted speed limits. Emergency vehicles must not exceed cautionary speeds.

84 Basic Maneuvers Steering Use both hands Keep arms inside of vehicle
Maintain hands in “3” and “9” position

85 Basic Maneuvers Braking and Stopping Hydraulic – Pump brake pedal
Air – Firmly and steadily press brake pedal, release if wheels lock ABS – Apply firmly and hold down for duration

86 Basic Maneuvers Backing Up Park Intelligently Give Audible Notice
Use a Spotter Understand Signals Use Side Mirrors Check Front Corners Maintain Speed Control

87 Basic Maneuvers Lane Changing Plan Ahead Signal Intention
Practice Space Management Make the Change of Lanes Smoothly

88 Basic Maneuvers Turning Always signal before turning
Whenever possible turn from one proper lane into another proper lane

89 Basic Maneuvers Passing Check traffic both ahead and behind
Check sides and double check blind spots Signal before initiating pass Accelerate while changing lanes Signal before returning to the driving lane Check mirror before returning to the driving lane Cancel directional signal and resume cruising speed

90 Basic Maneuvers Negotiating Intersections Scan for possible hazards
Slow down Change siren cadence Check options and avoid opposing lane Come to a complete stop (controlled intersection) Establish eye contact Proceed one lane at a time

91 Operating Under Adverse Conditions
Traction Implications Rain Snow and Ice Leaves Adverse Handling Implications High Winds Vision Implications Night Driving Precipitation

92 Crash Avoidance Crash Avoidance Identify Escape Route
Brake Smoothly and Firmly Accelerate Smoothly Steer to Avoid Head-On Impact

93 Placement of Vehicles at Emergency Incidents
Placement on streets and highways Positioning so as to minimize the blinding effect of warning lights Identify potential hazards at scenes Identify safe distances from certain scenes Consideration for the ease of leaving the scene

94 Module IX: Emergency Vehicle Competency Course
Objectives Understand the purpose of successfully completing a competency course. Recognize the importance of safe operations when participating on a competency course. Understand the method of scoring the competency course.

95 Purpose of a Course Program
Assist in the training of a candidate driver. Verify the competency of an existing driver. Examine the proficiency of an existing emergency vehicle driver.

96 Performance Criteria Comfortable seating position
Ease and convenience for reaching all essential vehicle controls Proper hand position on the steering wheel Careful vehicle control Precise steering adjustments Consistent vehicle speed Proper adjustment and effective use of vehicle mirrors

97 Supplemental Highway Driving
Comply with NFPA 1002 and/or NHTSA’s national standard curriculum – ambulance Successfully complete competency course first Minimum of eight hours of highway driving

98 Emphasis on Safety Dedicated Safety Officer
All personnel identified and visible Only personnel with assignment on course Vehicle can be declared as unsafe Malfunctions reported immediately Only one vehicle on course at any time

99 Emphasis on Safety Second person in cab of vehicle
All personnel seated and belted No food, drink, or smoking permitted Maximum course speed – 15 mph Operate with headlights on Proceed only after being given signal

100 Scoring of Competency Course
Each cone brushed, moved or overturned 10 points Cross any line, each time crossed 3 points Park 12” or more from curb 3 points Stop more than 6” but less than 12” from the measured point 3 points Stop 12” or more but less than 18” from the measured point 6 points Stop 18” or more from or go past the measured point 10 points

101 Appendix Competency Course
Station One Straight Line Station Two Confined Space Turn Around Station Three Alley Dock Station Four Serpentine Station Five Offset Alley Station Six Parallel Parking Station Seven Diminishing Clearance Station Eight Stop Sign


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