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EVDT PPT - 1 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000. EVDT PPT - 2 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Program Overview I. Introduction10 min. II. Extent of.

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Presentation on theme: "EVDT PPT - 1 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000. EVDT PPT - 2 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Program Overview I. Introduction10 min. II. Extent of."— Presentation transcript:

1 EVDT PPT - 1 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000

2 EVDT PPT - 2 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Program Overview I. Introduction10 min. II. Extent of the Problem45 min. III. Personnel Selection45 min. IV. Necessity of SOGs20 min. V. Legal Aspects45 min. VI. Vehicle Dynamics45 min.

3 EVDT PPT - 3 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Program Overview VII. Inspections/Maintenance60 min. VIII. Vehicle/Ops Safety60 min. IX. Competency Course30 min. X. Appendices XI. Bibliography

4 EVDT PPT - 4 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Objectives l Understand the goal of this emergency vehicle driver training program. l Recognize the importance of an emergency vehicle driver training program. l Identify the elements of a comprehensive emergency vehicle driver training program

5 EVDT PPT - 5 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Course Goal Present the necessary classroom, competency course training, and testing for new and existing emergency vehicle drivers. The program will verify proficiency in both the knowledge and understanding of, as well as, the practical application to emergency vehicle driving.

6 EVDT PPT - 6 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Importance of Driver Training l All emergencies involve vehicle response. l 25% of firefighters killed are responding to or returning from incidents. l Drivers being criminally charged. l Driver training program demonstrates the organizations commitment to safety.

7 EVDT PPT - 7 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Comprehensive Emergency Vehicle Driver Training 1. Classroom Instruction 2. Competency Course Completion 3. Street and Highway Driving 4. Testing

8 EVDT PPT - 8 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module II Extent of the Problem Objectives 1. Understand the complexities of driving under emergency conditions and the existence of laws governing an emergency vehicle. 2. Recognize the high incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles and the associated deaths and injuries.

9 EVDT PPT - 9 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module II Extent of the Problem 3. Know the types, conditions, and causes of accidents involving emergency vehicles. 4. Recognize the factors that contribute to the incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles.

10 EVDT PPT - 10 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Perspective Misconception …to rely solely on the fact that there are laws governing emergency vehicle response and that this will insure a safe emergency vehicle response.

11 EVDT PPT - 11 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 On-Duty Firefighter Deaths Source: U. S. F.A, Annual Firefighter Fatality Studies * NFPA Journal

12 EVDT PPT - 12 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Frequency of Accidents 45% 13% 11% 7% Intersections 24% Source: VFIS

13 EVDT PPT - 13 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Severity of Accidents 29% 13% 8% 5% Intersections 45% Source:VFIS

14 EVDT PPT - 14 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Contributing Factor 53% 18% 8% 21% 59% 21% 8% 12% Source: VFIS

15 EVDT PPT - 15 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Intersection Accident Details Type of Response Warning Devices Percent of Reported Incidents EmergencyLights/Siren68 % EmergencyLights Only8 % EmergencyNeither2 % EmergencyUnknown1 % Return from EmergencyLights Only1 % Return from EmergencyNeither2 % TrainingNeither1 % OtherNeither5 % UnknownUnknown12 % Source: VFIS

16 EVDT PPT - 16 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Impacts of Vehicle Accidents 1. Personnel Injury or Death to Emergency Responders 2. Peripheral Injury or Death to Others 3. Vehicle and Equipment Loss 4. Long Term Impact

17 EVDT PPT - 17 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Incidents l Rock Springs Teen Dies in Collision l Suburban Van at Intersection l Pumper Experiences Rear-End Collision l Civilian Fatality at Intersection Accident l Tanker Rolls Over, Driver Killed l County Firefighter Killed in Head-On Collision with Fire Truck

18 EVDT PPT - 18 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Unfortunately, the story continues…. California Texas Oklahoma North Carolina Indiana Wisconsin

19 EVDT PPT - 19 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Criminalization of Emergency Service Personnel Ohio Texas Georgia

20 EVDT PPT - 20 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module III Personnel Selection Objectives 1. Recognize that proper personnel selection procedures are the first steps in developing an effective program. 2. Understand that the human aspects of driver selection are an important component of the process. 3. Recognize that a number of abilities necessary for driving must be acquired.

21 EVDT PPT - 21 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module III Personnel Selection 4. Recognize the importance of maintaining accurate and complete personnel records. 5. Understand the importance of maintaining proficiency through an on- going re-certification program.

22 EVDT PPT - 22 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Importance of Driver Selection l Human Aspects l Acquired Abilities l Vehicle Characteristics l Personnel Records

23 EVDT PPT - 23 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Human Aspects l Attitude l Knowledge l Mental Fitness l Judgment l Physical Fitness l Age l Habits l Driving Characteristics

24 EVDT PPT - 24 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Acquired Abilities l Drivers License l State and Local Laws l Defensive Driving Techniques l Vehicle Characteristics

25 EVDT PPT - 25 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Defensive Driving Techniques l Space Management l Following Distance and Rate of Closure l Hazard Identification l Correct Braking Techniques

26 EVDT PPT - 26 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Vehicle Characteristics l Type of Emergency Vehicle l Vehicle Components and Features l Special Driver Training

27 EVDT PPT - 27 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Personnel Files l Training Records l Physical Capability l Driving Record l Suspected Substance Abuse

28 EVDT PPT - 28 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Driver Re-certification l Actual Emergency Vehicle Driving Experience l Observed Proficiency l Time Since Last Re-certification l Introduction of New Vehicles l Introduction of New Technology

29 EVDT PPT - 29 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module IV Necessity of SOGs Objectives 1. Understand the reasons that SOGs are important to operating an effective driver training program. 2. Recognize the subject areas for SOGs that impact the certification, operation, and re-certification of emergency vehicle drivers.

30 EVDT PPT - 30 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Significance of SOGs 1. All Personnel Understand What is Expected or Required 2. Intended Compliance with All Necessary Requirements is Identified 3. Pre-planned and Agreed Upon Actions 4. Resource Documents Upon Which to Base Training 5. Required Anticipated Actions

31 EVDT PPT - 31 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 SOG Subject Areas 1. Eligibility Requirements for Drivers 2. Training and Proficiency Testing Requirements for Drivers 3. Emergency Response Procedures and Requirements 4. Customary and Ordinary Operational Procedures 5. Special Situation Procedures

32 EVDT PPT - 32 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module V Legal Aspects Objectives 1. Understand the changing legal climate which exists and its impact upon emergency vehicle drivers and the organization. 2. Identify the primary legal principles which affect drivers and recognize their implications upon emergency vehicle operation.

33 EVDT PPT - 33 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module V Legal Aspects 3. Recognize that specific state driving laws affect the emergency vehicle driver. 4. Recognize that individual state or local laws, standards, and requirements impact emergency vehicle driver training and operations.

34 EVDT PPT - 34 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Five Categories of Requirements l State motor vehicle and traffic laws l Nationally recognized standards l State and federal occupational and safety regulations l Local ordinances l Organizational policies, procedures, and guidelines

35 EVDT PPT - 35 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Changing Legal Climate l Concept of public kindness l King can do no wrong

36 EVDT PPT - 36 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Legal Principles and Terms l Subject to laws unless specific exemption exists l Exemptions apply only to true emergencies l Emergency vehicle drivers can be found criminally and/or civilly liable

37 EVDT PPT - 37 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Legal Principles and Terms l True Emergency l Due Regard l Negligence l Gross Negligence l Willful and Wanton l Vicarious Liability

38 EVDT PPT - 38 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Legal Principles and Terms Judicial review based on …. 1. Was it a true emergency? 2. Was due regard for the safety of others exercised?

39 EVDT PPT - 39 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Driving Laws 1. CDL requirements 2. Exemptions granted to emergency vehicle drivers 3. Requirements for members of the public 4. Requirements for emergency responders in POVs

40 EVDT PPT - 40 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Other Requirements and Standards l National Fire Protection Association Standards l State Laws and/or Administrative Regulations l Local Ordinances or Statues l Organizational Rules and Regulations and Standard Operating Guidelines

41 EVDT PPT - 41 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module VI Vehicle Dynamics Objectives 1. Understand the physical forces which act upon vehicles and their impact upon vehicle handling. 2. Recognize that certain vehicle characteristics can influence the impact of physical forces on emergency vehicles.

42 EVDT PPT - 42 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces l Friction l Velocity l Momentum l Inertia l Centrifugal Force

43 EVDT PPT - 43 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces Friction – resistance to motion between two moving objects that touch. l Tire/Road Friction l Brake Friction l Steering Friction

44 EVDT PPT - 44 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces Velocity – speed l Acceleration (velocity increase) l Deceleration (velocity decrease) l Braking (velocity decrease)

45 EVDT PPT - 45 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces Directional Control – a derivative of three factors. l Steering l Turning l Tracking

46 EVDT PPT - 46 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces Momentum – is measured as the product of the objects mass or weight times its velocity. Inertia – the force it takes for a moving object to stay in motion in the same direction.

47 EVDT PPT - 47 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces Centrifugal Force – the force caused by inertia, which tends to make a rotating body move away from the center of rotation.

48 EVDT PPT - 48 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Physical Forces Centrifugal Force

49 EVDT PPT - 49 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Vehicle Characteristics l Total weight and weight distribution l Suspension system l Braking system(s) l Baffling system

50 EVDT PPT - 50 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Vehicle Characteristics Total weight and weight distribution l Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) l Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) or (GCWR) l Weight Distribution – horizontal and vertical centers of gravity

51 EVDT PPT - 51 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Vehicle Characteristics Suspension System 1. Axles 2. Springs 3. Wheels and Tires

52 EVDT PPT - 52 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Vehicle Characteristics Braking Systems l Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) l Secondary or Auxiliary l Engine Brake l Automatic Transmission Retarder l Driveline Retarder

53 EVDT PPT - 53 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Vehicle Characteristics National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Report l Engine Retarders l Limiting Valves Baffling Systems

54 EVDT PPT - 54 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module VII Inspections & Maintenance Objectives 1. Understand the value and importance of regular inspections of emergency vehicles. 2. Identify the major component systems of an emergency vehicle. 3. Understand how to perform pre- and post-trip inspections.

55 EVDT PPT - 55 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module VII Inspections & Maintenance 4. Understand the various classes of PM and the importance of a PM program for emergency vehicles. 5. Recognize the role of the driver in inspections and maintenance. 6. Understand the importance of keeping accurate and complete records.

56 EVDT PPT - 56 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Components l Chassis l Body l Primary Function Components (Task or Mission) l Auxiliary Systems

57 EVDT PPT - 57 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Components Chassis l Frame l Suspension System l Steering and Braking Systems l Power Train Components

58 EVDT PPT - 58 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Vehicle Components l Body l Primary Function l Auxiliary Systems

59 EVDT PPT - 59 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Inspections Post-Trip l Cleaning of vehicle. l Replacing supplies. l Re-fueling and checking fluid levels, if justified. l Report any unusual occurrences or malfunctions.

60 EVDT PPT - 60 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Inspections Pre-trip l Vehicle overview l Check the engine compartment l Start engine and check inside cab l Check headlights, signal lights, warning lights, and audio devices l Conduct walk around inspection l Check controls and indicators l Check brake system (air brakes)

61 EVDT PPT - 61 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Types of Preventative Maintenance l Routine Maintenance l Scheduled Maintenance l Crisis Maintenance

62 EVDT PPT - 62 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Types of Preventative Maintenance Routine l Fluid level checks l Wheels and tires l Electrical systems and devices

63 EVDT PPT - 63 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Types of Preventative Maintenance Scheduled l Manufacturers recommended schedule l Amount of use l Organizational policy l Professional standards

64 EVDT PPT - 64 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Types of Preventative Maintenance Crisis l Classification A (Immediate) l Classification B (As Soon As Possible) l Classification C (Next P.M.)

65 EVDT PPT - 65 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver l Battery or Batteries l Braking System l Coolant System l Electrical System l Fuel l Hydraulic Fluids

66 EVDT PPT - 66 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver l Lubrication l Oil (Engine) l Tires l Steering System l Belts l Tools, Appliances, and Equipment

67 EVDT PPT - 67 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver l Document the need for maintenance on the assigned vehicle. l Verify that the requested and needed maintenance was performed.

68 EVDT PPT - 68 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Recordkeeping l Maintenance Records l Training Records l Operational Records

69 EVDT PPT - 69 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module VIII: Emergency Vehicle Operations/Safety Objectives 1. Recognize that motivation is both physically and mentally based. 2. Understand that there are a number of important actions which must be completed prior to initiating driving. 3. Recognize that emergency response driving is a complex process.

70 EVDT PPT - 70 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Motivation l Routine l Comfort l Confidence

71 EVDT PPT - 71 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Defensive Driving Goals l To maintain the highest level of safety possible. l To be prepared for unexpected situations and conditions which can adversely affect emergency vehicle operation. l To avoid, through effective training and applied practice, unnecessary legal consequences.

72 EVDT PPT - 72 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Preparing to Drive l Route Planning l Driver Readiness l Effective Start-Up Procedures

73 EVDT PPT - 73 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Preparing to Drive Route Planning l Minimizing accident exposure l Enabling the emergency vehicle driver to focus on actual driving tasks l Avoiding environmental and construction hazards

74 EVDT PPT - 74 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Preparing to Drive Driver Readiness l Fatigue l Health l Personal Problems

75 EVDT PPT - 75 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Preparing to Drive Effective Start-Up Procedures l Circle of Safety Inspection l Adjustment of Cab Features l Wearing of Occupant Restraints l Receive Signal Before Moving

76 EVDT PPT - 76 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Response Driving l Predicting the predictable l Expect the unexpected l Handling any unexpected problems

77 EVDT PPT - 77 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Response Driving IPDE System l Identify l Predict l Decide l Execute

78 EVDT PPT - 78 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emergency Response Driving Five Visual Habits 1. Aim high in steering 2. Get the big picture 3. Keep eyes moving, scan 4. Make sure the other drivers see the emergency vehicle 5. Identify an escape route

79 EVDT PPT - 79 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Use of Emergency Lights and Siren Signal two basic concepts: 1. They notify other drivers that an approaching emergency vehicle is operating in an emergency mode. 2. They request other drivers to yield the right of way to the emergency vehicle in accordance with state and/or local law.

80 EVDT PPT - 80 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Use of Emergency Lights and Siren l RED – Stop. May also attract. l BLUE – Emergency vehicle (fire or police). l AMBER – Danger/Caution. Excellent for rear of vehicle. l CLEAR – Caution. Good visibility, shut off at scenes.

81 EVDT PPT - 81 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Use of Emergency Lights and Siren Procedures for Use of Siren l Use when responding to an emergency l Change to yelp mode at least 200 from intersection l High-low mode is least effective l Use another audible device to alert drivers who fail to hear siren

82 EVDT PPT - 82 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Space Management l Following Distance 4 second rule at 40 mph or less; 5 second rule above 40 mph l Rate of Closure l Blind Spots Alongside l Traffic Closure from Behind

83 EVDT PPT - 83 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Speed Management Two important rules: 1. Emergency vehicles must not be driven in excess of the posted speed limits. 2. Emergency vehicles must not exceed cautionary speeds.

84 EVDT PPT - 84 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Steering l Use both hands l Keep arms inside of vehicle l Maintain hands in 3 and 9 position

85 EVDT PPT - 85 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Braking and Stopping l Hydraulic – Pump brake pedal l Air – Firmly and steadily press brake pedal, release if wheels lock l ABS – Apply firmly and hold down for duration

86 EVDT PPT - 86 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Backing Up l Park Intelligently l Give Audible Notice l Use a Spotter l Understand Signals l Use Side Mirrors l Check Front Corners l Maintain Speed Control

87 EVDT PPT - 87 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Lane Changing l Plan Ahead l Signal Intention l Practice Space Management l Make the Change of Lanes Smoothly

88 EVDT PPT - 88 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Turning l Always signal before turning l Whenever possible turn from one proper lane into another proper lane

89 EVDT PPT - 89 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Passing l Check traffic both ahead and behind l Check sides and double check blind spots l Signal before initiating pass l Accelerate while changing lanes l Signal before returning to the driving lane l Check mirror before returning to the driving lane l Cancel directional signal and resume cruising speed

90 EVDT PPT - 90 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Basic Maneuvers Negotiating Intersections l Scan for possible hazards l Slow down l Change siren cadence l Check options and avoid opposing lane l Come to a complete stop (controlled intersection) l Establish eye contact l Proceed one lane at a time

91 EVDT PPT - 91 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Operating Under Adverse Conditions Traction Implications l Rain l Snow and Ice l Leaves Adverse Handling Implications l High Winds Vision Implications l Night Driving l Precipitation

92 EVDT PPT - 92 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Crash Avoidance l Identify Escape Route l Brake Smoothly and Firmly l Accelerate Smoothly l Steer to Avoid Head-On Impact

93 EVDT PPT - 93 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Placement of Vehicles at Emergency Incidents l Placement on streets and highways l Positioning so as to minimize the blinding effect of warning lights l Identify potential hazards at scenes l Identify safe distances from certain scenes l Consideration for the ease of leaving the scene

94 EVDT PPT - 94 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Module IX: Emergency Vehicle Competency Course Objectives 1. Understand the purpose of successfully completing a competency course. 2. Recognize the importance of safe operations when participating on a competency course. 3. Understand the method of scoring the competency course.

95 EVDT PPT - 95 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Purpose of a Course Program l Assist in the training of a candidate driver. l Verify the competency of an existing driver. l Examine the proficiency of an existing emergency vehicle driver.

96 EVDT PPT - 96 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Performance Criteria l Comfortable seating position l Ease and convenience for reaching all essential vehicle controls l Proper hand position on the steering wheel l Careful vehicle control l Precise steering adjustments l Consistent vehicle speed l Proper adjustment and effective use of vehicle mirrors

97 EVDT PPT - 97 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Supplemental Highway Driving l Comply with NFPA 1002 and/or NHTSAs national standard curriculum – ambulance l Successfully complete competency course first l Minimum of eight hours of highway driving

98 EVDT PPT - 98 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emphasis on Safety l Dedicated Safety Officer l All personnel identified and visible l Only personnel with assignment on course l Vehicle can be declared as unsafe l Malfunctions reported immediately l Only one vehicle on course at any time

99 EVDT PPT - 99 HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Emphasis on Safety l Second person in cab of vehicle l All personnel seated and belted l No food, drink, or smoking permitted l Maximum course speed – 15 mph l Operate with headlights on l Proceed only after being given signal

100 EVDT PPT HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Scoring of Competency Course l Each cone brushed, moved or overturned10 points l Cross any line, each time crossed 3 points l Park 12 or more from curb 3 points l Stop more than 6 but less than 12 from the measured point 3 points l Stop 12 or more but less than 18 from the measured point 6 points l Stop 18 or more from or go past the measured point10 points

101 EVDT PPT HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 Appendix Competency Course l Station OneStraight Line l Station TwoConfined Space Turn Around l Station ThreeAlley Dock l Station FourSerpentine l Station FiveOffset Alley l Station SixParallel Parking l Station SevenDiminishing Clearance l Station EightStop Sign

102 EVDT PPT HERE TO HELP Revised November 2000 THANK YOU! VFIS


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