4Objectives Objectives Understand the goal of this emergency vehicle driver training program.Recognize the importance of an emergency vehicle driver training program.Identify the elements of a comprehensive emergency vehicle driver training program
5Course GoalPresent the necessary classroom, competency course training, and testing for new and existing emergency vehicle drivers. The program will verify proficiency in both the knowledge and understanding of, as well as, the practical application to emergency vehicle driving.
6Importance of Driver Training All emergencies involve vehicle response.25% of firefighters killed are responding to or returning from incidents.Drivers being criminally charged.Driver training program demonstrates the organization’s commitment to safety.
7Comprehensive Emergency Vehicle Driver Training Classroom InstructionCompetency Course CompletionStreet and Highway DrivingTesting
8Module II Extent of the Problem ObjectivesUnderstand the complexities of driving under emergency conditions and the existence of laws governing an emergency vehicle.Recognize the high incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles and the associated deaths and injuries.
9Module II Extent of the Problem Know the types, conditions, and causes of accidents involving emergency vehicles.Recognize the factors that contribute to the incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles.
10Perspective Misconception …to rely solely on the fact that there are laws governing emergency vehicle response and that this will insure a safe emergency vehicle response.
11On-Duty Firefighter Deaths 1977 - 1999 Source: U. S. F.A, Annual Firefighter Fatality Studies * NFPA Journal
12Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Frequency of Accidents 13%11%45%7%Intersections 24%Source: VFIS
13Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Severity of Accidents 13%8%29%5%Intersections 45%Source:VFIS
15Intersection Accident Details Type of Response Warning Devices Percent of Reported IncidentsEmergency Lights/Siren 68 %Emergency Lights Only 8 %Emergency Neither 2 %Emergency Unknown 1 %Return from Emergency Lights Only 1 %Return from Emergency Neither 2 %Training Neither 1 %Other Neither 5 %Unknown Unknown 12 %Source: VFIS
16Impacts of Vehicle Accidents Personnel Injury or Death to Emergency RespondersPeripheral Injury or Death to OthersVehicle and Equipment LossLong Term Impact
17Emergency Vehicle Incidents Rock Springs Teen Dies in CollisionSuburban Van at IntersectionPumper Experiences Rear-End CollisionCivilian Fatality at Intersection AccidentTanker Rolls Over, Driver KilledCounty Firefighter Killed in Head-On Collision with Fire Truck
18Unfortunately, the story continues…. CaliforniaTexasOklahomaNorth CarolinaIndianaWisconsin
19Criminalization of Emergency Service Personnel OhioTexasGeorgia
20Module III Personnel Selection ObjectivesRecognize that proper personnel selection procedures are the first steps in developing an effective program.Understand that the human aspects of driver selection are an important component of the process.Recognize that a number of abilities necessary for driving must be acquired.
21Module III Personnel Selection Recognize the importance of maintaining accurate and complete personnel records.Understand the importance of maintaining proficiency through an on-going re-certification program.
22Importance of Driver Selection Human AspectsAcquired AbilitiesVehicle CharacteristicsPersonnel Records
24Acquired Abilities Driver’s License State and Local Laws Defensive Driving TechniquesVehicle Characteristics
25Defensive Driving Techniques Space ManagementFollowing Distance and Rate of ClosureHazard IdentificationCorrect Braking Techniques
26Vehicle Characteristics Type of Emergency VehicleVehicle Components and FeaturesSpecial Driver Training
27Personnel Files Training Records Physical Capability Driving Record Suspected Substance Abuse
28Driver Re-certification Actual Emergency Vehicle Driving ExperienceObserved ProficiencyTime Since Last Re-certificationIntroduction of New VehiclesIntroduction of New Technology
29Module IV Necessity of SOGs ObjectivesUnderstand the reasons that SOGs are important to operating an effective driver training program.Recognize the subject areas for SOGs that impact the certification, operation, and re-certification of emergency vehicle drivers.
30Significance of SOGsAll Personnel Understand What is Expected or RequiredIntended Compliance with All Necessary Requirements is IdentifiedPre-planned and Agreed Upon ActionsResource Documents Upon Which to Base TrainingRequired Anticipated Actions
31SOG Subject Areas Eligibility Requirements for Drivers Training and Proficiency Testing Requirements for DriversEmergency Response Procedures and RequirementsCustomary and Ordinary Operational ProceduresSpecial Situation Procedures
32Module V Legal Aspects Objectives Understand the changing legal climate which exists and its impact upon emergency vehicle drivers and the organization.Identify the primary legal principles which affect drivers and recognize their implications upon emergency vehicle operation.
33Module V Legal AspectsRecognize that specific state driving laws affect the emergency vehicle driver.Recognize that individual state or local laws, standards, and requirements impact emergency vehicle driver training and operations.
34Five Categories of Requirements State motor vehicle and traffic lawsNationally recognized standardsState and federal occupational and safety regulationsLocal ordinancesOrganizational policies, procedures, and guidelines
35Changing Legal Climate Concept of public kindness“King can do no wrong”
36Legal Principles and Terms Subject to laws unless specific exemption existsExemptions apply only to true emergenciesEmergency vehicle drivers can be found criminally and/or civilly liable
37Legal Principles and Terms True EmergencyDue RegardNegligenceGross NegligenceWillful and WantonVicarious Liability
38Legal Principles and Terms Judicial review based on ….Was it a true emergency?Was due regard for the safety of others exercised?
39Emergency Vehicle Driving Laws CDL requirementsExemptions granted to emergency vehicle driversRequirements for members of the publicRequirements for emergency responders in POVs
40Other Requirements and Standards National Fire Protection Association StandardsState Laws and/or Administrative RegulationsLocal Ordinances or StatuesOrganizational Rules and Regulations and Standard Operating Guidelines
41Module VI Vehicle Dynamics ObjectivesUnderstand the physical forces which act upon vehicles and their impact upon vehicle handling.Recognize that certain vehicle characteristics can influence the impact of physical forces on emergency vehicles.
42Physical ForcesFrictionVelocityMomentumInertiaCentrifugal Force
43Physical ForcesFriction – resistance to motion between two moving objects that touch.Tire/Road FrictionBrake FrictionSteering Friction
49Vehicle Characteristics Total weight and weight distributionSuspension systemBraking system(s)Baffling system
50Vehicle Characteristics Total weight and weight distributionGross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR)Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) or (GCWR)Weight Distribution – horizontal and vertical centers of gravity
51Vehicle Characteristics Suspension SystemAxlesSpringsWheels and Tires
52Vehicle Characteristics Braking SystemsAnti-lock Braking Systems (ABS)Secondary or AuxiliaryEngine BrakeAutomatic Transmission RetarderDriveline Retarder
53Vehicle Characteristics National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) ReportEngine RetardersLimiting ValvesBaffling Systems
54Module VII Inspections & Maintenance ObjectivesUnderstand the value and importance of regular inspections of emergency vehicles.Identify the major component systems of an emergency vehicle.Understand how to perform pre- and post-trip inspections.
55Module VII Inspections & Maintenance Understand the various classes of PM and the importance of a PM program for emergency vehicles.Recognize the role of the driver in inspections and maintenance.Understand the importance of keeping accurate and complete records.
56Emergency Vehicle Components ChassisBodyPrimary Function Components (Task or Mission)Auxiliary Systems
57Emergency Vehicle Components ChassisFrameSuspension SystemSteering and Braking SystemsPower Train Components
58Emergency Vehicle Components BodyPrimary FunctionAuxiliary Systems
59Inspections Post-Trip Cleaning of vehicle. Replacing supplies. Re-fueling and checking fluid levels, if justified.Report any unusual occurrences or malfunctions.
60Inspections Pre-trip Vehicle overview Check the engine compartment Start engine and check inside cabCheck headlights, signal lights, warning lights, and audio devicesConduct walk around inspectionCheck controls and indicatorsCheck brake system (air brakes)
61Types of Preventative Maintenance Routine MaintenanceScheduled MaintenanceCrisis Maintenance
62Types of Preventative Maintenance RoutineFluid level checksWheels and tiresElectrical systems and devices
63Types of Preventative Maintenance ScheduledManufacturer’s recommended scheduleAmount of useOrganizational policyProfessional standards
64Types of Preventative Maintenance CrisisClassification A (Immediate)Classification B (As Soon As Possible)Classification C (Next P.M.)
65Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver Battery or BatteriesBraking SystemCoolant SystemElectrical SystemFuelHydraulic Fluids
66Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver LubricationOil (Engine)TiresSteering SystemBeltsTools, Appliances, and Equipment
67Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver Document the need for maintenance on the assigned vehicle.Verify that the requested and needed maintenance was performed.
68RecordkeepingMaintenance RecordsTraining RecordsOperational Records
69Module VIII: Emergency Vehicle Operations/Safety ObjectivesRecognize that motivation is both physically and mentally based.Understand that there are a number of important actions which must be completed prior to initiating driving.Recognize that emergency response driving is a complex process.
71Defensive Driving Goals To maintain the highest level of safety possible.To be prepared for unexpected situations and conditions which can adversely affect emergency vehicle operation.To avoid, through effective training and applied practice, unnecessary legal consequences.
72Preparing to Drive Route Planning Driver Readiness Effective Start-Up Procedures
73Preparing to Drive Route Planning Minimizing accident exposure Enabling the emergency vehicle driver to focus on actual driving tasksAvoiding environmental and construction hazards
74Preparing to DriveDriver ReadinessFatigueHealthPersonal Problems
75Preparing to Drive Effective Start-Up Procedures Circle of Safety InspectionAdjustment of Cab FeaturesWearing of Occupant RestraintsReceive Signal Before Moving
76Emergency Response Driving Predicting the predictableExpect the unexpectedHandling any unexpected problems
78Emergency Response Driving Five Visual HabitsAim high in steeringGet the big pictureKeep eyes moving, scanMake sure the other drivers see the emergency vehicleIdentify an escape route
79Use of Emergency Lights and Siren Signal two basic concepts:They notify other drivers that an approaching emergency vehicle is operating in an emergency mode.They request other drivers to yield the right of way to the emergency vehicle in accordance with state and/or local law.
80Use of Emergency Lights and Siren RED – Stop. May also attract.BLUE – Emergency vehicle (fire or police).AMBER – Danger/Caution. Excellent for rear of vehicle.CLEAR – Caution. Good visibility, shut off at scenes.
81Use of Emergency Lights and Siren Procedures for Use of SirenUse when responding to an emergencyChange to yelp mode at least 200’ from intersectionHigh-low mode is least effectiveUse another audible device to alert drivers who fail to hear siren
82Space Management Following Distance Rate of Closure 4 second rule at 40 mph or less; 5 second rule above 40 mphRate of ClosureBlind Spots AlongsideTraffic Closure from Behind
83Speed Management Two important rules: Emergency vehicles must not be driven in excess of the posted speed limits.Emergency vehicles must not exceed cautionary speeds.
84Basic Maneuvers Steering Use both hands Keep arms inside of vehicle Maintain hands in “3” and “9” position
85Basic Maneuvers Braking and Stopping Hydraulic – Pump brake pedal Air – Firmly and steadily press brake pedal, release if wheels lockABS – Apply firmly and hold down for duration
86Basic Maneuvers Backing Up Park Intelligently Give Audible Notice Use a SpotterUnderstand SignalsUse Side MirrorsCheck Front CornersMaintain Speed Control
87Basic Maneuvers Lane Changing Plan Ahead Signal Intention Practice Space ManagementMake the Change of Lanes Smoothly
88Basic Maneuvers Turning Always signal before turning Whenever possible turn from one proper lane into another proper lane
89Basic Maneuvers Passing Check traffic both ahead and behind Check sides and double check blind spotsSignal before initiating passAccelerate while changing lanesSignal before returning to the driving laneCheck mirror before returning to the driving laneCancel directional signal and resume cruising speed
90Basic Maneuvers Negotiating Intersections Scan for possible hazards Slow downChange siren cadenceCheck options and avoid opposing laneCome to a complete stop (controlled intersection)Establish eye contactProceed one lane at a time
91Operating Under Adverse Conditions Traction ImplicationsRainSnow and IceLeavesAdverse Handling ImplicationsHigh WindsVision ImplicationsNight DrivingPrecipitation
92Crash Avoidance Crash Avoidance Identify Escape Route Brake Smoothly and FirmlyAccelerate SmoothlySteer to Avoid Head-On Impact
93Placement of Vehicles at Emergency Incidents Placement on streets and highwaysPositioning so as to minimize the blinding effect of warning lightsIdentify potential hazards at scenesIdentify safe distances from certain scenesConsideration for the ease of leaving the scene
94Module IX: Emergency Vehicle Competency Course ObjectivesUnderstand the purpose of successfully completing a competency course.Recognize the importance of safe operations when participating on a competency course.Understand the method of scoring the competency course.
95Purpose of a Course Program Assist in the training of a candidate driver.Verify the competency of an existing driver.Examine the proficiency of an existing emergency vehicle driver.
96Performance Criteria Comfortable seating position Ease and convenience for reaching all essential vehicle controlsProper hand position on the steering wheelCareful vehicle controlPrecise steering adjustmentsConsistent vehicle speedProper adjustment and effective use of vehicle mirrors
97Supplemental Highway Driving Comply with NFPA 1002 and/or NHTSA’s national standard curriculum – ambulanceSuccessfully complete competency course firstMinimum of eight hours of highway driving
98Emphasis on Safety Dedicated Safety Officer All personnel identified and visibleOnly personnel with assignment on courseVehicle can be declared as unsafeMalfunctions reported immediatelyOnly one vehicle on course at any time
99Emphasis on Safety Second person in cab of vehicle All personnel seated and beltedNo food, drink, or smoking permittedMaximum course speed – 15 mphOperate with headlights onProceed only after being given signal
100Scoring of Competency Course Each cone brushed,moved or overturned 10 pointsCross any line, each time crossed 3 pointsPark 12” or more from curb 3 pointsStop more than 6” but less than12” from the measured point 3 pointsStop 12” or more but less than18” from the measured point 6 pointsStop 18” or more from or go pastthe measured point 10 points
101Appendix Competency Course Station One Straight LineStation Two Confined Space Turn AroundStation Three Alley DockStation Four SerpentineStation Five Offset AlleyStation Six Parallel ParkingStation Seven Diminishing ClearanceStation Eight Stop Sign