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The Course (Re)Design Workshop Ryerson University June 5, 2006 We would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Lynn McAlpine of the McGill Centre for University.

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Presentation on theme: "The Course (Re)Design Workshop Ryerson University June 5, 2006 We would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Lynn McAlpine of the McGill Centre for University."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Course (Re)Design Workshop Ryerson University June 5, 2006 We would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Lynn McAlpine of the McGill Centre for University Teaching and Learning for permission to base our workshop series on their Course Design and Teaching Workshop model and her generosity in sharing resources.

3 AT YOUR TABLES Who are you? With which academic unit are you associated ? On what CONCEPT are you working?

4 Intentions for the CRW To work collaboratively (within and between areas of study) on the design of an instructional event that addresses effective learning of a concept that is critical to your course To work collaboratively (within and between areas of study) on the design of an instructional event that addresses effective learning of a concept that is critical to your course To learn to use a set of simple conceptual tools of course design that are generalizable To learn to use a set of simple conceptual tools of course design that are generalizable

5 Our intentional strategy To use your scholarly abilities of analysis and inquiry to contribute to a process that is systematic, reasoned and intentional To use your scholarly abilities of analysis and inquiry to contribute to a process that is systematic, reasoned and intentional Your thinking leads to your actions which leads to student learning Your thinking leads to your actions which leads to student learning To develop a language, framework, and conceptual tools to enable: To develop a language, framework, and conceptual tools to enable: The design, development and assessment of instruction The design, development and assessment of instruction The analysis and critique of thinking and decisions of self and others The analysis and critique of thinking and decisions of self and others An improvement in the ease of discussion about teaching with others An improvement in the ease of discussion about teaching with others

6 As a result of your inquiry, you will decide: Content: What is the subject matter of the concept? Content: What is the subject matter of the concept? Learning outcomes: What will students know, value, do as a result of learning about this concept? Learning outcomes: What will students know, value, do as a result of learning about this concept? Instructional strategies: What kinds of practice and feedback will help students reach the learning outcomes? Instructional strategies: What kinds of practice and feedback will help students reach the learning outcomes? Assessment of learning: How will I and the students be able to assess progress towards the learning outcomes? Assessment of learning: How will I and the students be able to assess progress towards the learning outcomes?

7 Some Assumptions Student learning is central to the design of courses Student learning is central to the design of courses It is what students do that is important to the quality of their learning It is what students do that is important to the quality of their learning What students do depends on what you require of them What students do depends on what you require of them What we know about the learning process will influence our choices of instructional strategies and assessment methods What we know about the learning process will influence our choices of instructional strategies and assessment methods We are willing to consider ways of teaching and assessing that are different from what is currently done but are supported by what we know about the process of learning We are willing to consider ways of teaching and assessing that are different from what is currently done but are supported by what we know about the process of learning

8 The Ryerson Context Experiential learning Experiential learning Student Engagement Student Engagement –Academic Challenge –Community Involvement –Learning Focused Graduate Students as Teacher/Teacher Associates Graduate Students as Teacher/Teacher Associates

9 Overview Part 1 Overview Overview The CD Process The CD Process Concept Mapping Concept Mapping Representing the Course Content Representing the Course Content

10 Overview Part 2 Review of Concept Maps Review of Concept Maps Writing Learning Outcomes Writing Learning Outcomes Developing Learning Outcomes Developing Learning Outcomes Giving and Receiving Feedback Giving and Receiving Feedback

11 Overview Part 3 Instructional Strategies Instructional Strategies Developing Aligned Instructional Strategies Developing Aligned Instructional Strategies

12 Overview Part 4 Assessment Assessment Developing Aligned Assessment Developing Aligned Assessment Presenting Aligned Assessment Presenting Aligned Assessment

13 Overview Part 5 Criteria and Standards Criteria and Standards Developing Criteria and Standards for Grading Developing Criteria and Standards for Grading Formative Assessment Formative Assessment Poster Session of Instructional Event Poster Session of Instructional Event Wrap Up Wrap Up

14 LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR P1 1. You will be able to describe the course design process 2. You will be able to articulate some of the factors contributing to improved student learning 3. You will be able to describe in detail one process through which the content of a course could be determined. 4. You will be able to clearly articulate a major concept for your course or project of choice, identify the central and peripheral course content and describe the relationships amongst the course content related to your concept of choice.

15 Instructional Design The systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into the specification of instructional materials and activities. Implicit in the definition is that as a result of good instructional design there will be more learning in less time with greater satisfaction. (Johnson and Foa,1989)

16 This is only one way to engage in course design/redesign. This method may be modified or rejected depending on the needs of your discipline and your own perspectives on learning and teaching.

17 What evidence to we have that this sort of activity is productive?

18 Centre for Academic Transformation: case studies in 9 US research universities Centre for Academic Transformation: case studies in 9 US research universities Research on impact on student learning between innovative teaching projects and course redesign projects Research on impact on student learning between innovative teaching projects and course redesign projects

19 So whats in it for students? Improved student learning both in quality (deep vs. surface) and effectiveness (grades). Improved student learning both in quality (deep vs. surface) and effectiveness (grades). Improved transfer of knowledge, skills and values Improved transfer of knowledge, skills and values Improved satisfaction with educational process and with institution Improved satisfaction with educational process and with institution

20 Whats in it for you? Increased satisfaction with teaching Increased satisfaction with teaching Improved student ratings of teaching in the longer term Improved student ratings of teaching in the longer term Content for your teaching dossier Content for your teaching dossier Initially an increased workload but eventually a streamlined process for teaching Initially an increased workload but eventually a streamlined process for teaching

21 Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Student Learning Content Learning Outcomes Assessment CONTEXT

22 Creating a Concept Map 1. Intensive writing: 5 minutes, just keep writing, dont edit, dont stop! 2. Read what you have written; circle anything that you consider to be important content or process. 3. Create a comprehensive list from the course content and processes that you have identified in the writing exercise.

23 Creating a Concept Map Write each item on a post-it note. Write each item on a post-it note. Arrange them in a way that you think reflects the relationships between/among these items. Arrange them in a way that you think reflects the relationships between/among these items. Think about the overall shape or format of your arrangement. Does it reflect the overall structure of knowledge about the concept? Think about the overall shape or format of your arrangement. Does it reflect the overall structure of knowledge about the concept?

24 Creating a Concept Map 8. Try to label the connecting lines/arrows between and among items to more clearly indicate the nature of the relationship among them. 9. Get feedback from someone who is not at your table.

25 Creating a Concept Map 10. When you are satisfied with your first draft, construct a diagram that represents the arrangement of the post-its. 11. Present your concept map to the group at your table.

26 Course RedesignWorkshop Part 2

27 I would be content if we began, all of us, by recognizing that discovering how to make something comprehensible to (our students) is only a continuation of making something comprehensible to ourselves in the first place Jerome Bruner, quoted in Ramsden, 1992, p. 150

28 Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Student Learning Content Learning Outcomes Assessment and Evaluation CONTEXT

29 Research has shown that people learn more effectively and successfully when: They know what the end result of their learning will be (outcomes). They know what the end result of their learning will be (outcomes). The outcomes are meaningful (relevancy) The outcomes are meaningful (relevancy) They have the prerequisites for learning (needs assessment/sequencing). They have the prerequisites for learning (needs assessment/sequencing). They are presented with an appropriate level of challenge (effort) They are presented with an appropriate level of challenge (effort)

30 `Cheshire Puss,' she began, rather timidly, … `Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?' `That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,' said the Cat. `I don't much care where--' said Alice. `Then it doesn't matter which way you go,' said the Cat. `--so long as I get somewhere,' Alice added as an explanation. `Oh, you're sure to do that,' said the Cat, `if you only walk long enough

31 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. You will be able to describe how to develop a learning outcome. 1. You will be articulate clear and appropriate learning outcomes for the course content that you have identified in your concept map.

32 Learning? A relatively permanent change in knowledge, skills and values brought about by practice or experience A relatively permanent change in knowledge, skills and values brought about by practice or experience Is internal and so can only be assessed by what the student produces Is internal and so can only be assessed by what the student produces What the student produces depends on what you require What the student produces depends on what you require

33 Outcome? Comes from systems theory and refers to results or products Comes from systems theory and refers to results or products Outcomes focus on the interaction between the the course content and the student Outcomes focus on the interaction between the the course content and the student All elements of educational activity in the course are linked to the outcome and so is useful as an analytic device. All elements of educational activity in the course are linked to the outcome and so is useful as an analytic device.

34 Learning Outcomes Are the competencies acquired by students as a result of the knowledge, skills and values developed through the educational experiences in your course. Are the competencies acquired by students as a result of the knowledge, skills and values developed through the educational experiences in your course. Measurable indicators of change Measurable indicators of change Explicit indicators that the students have reached the course goals Explicit indicators that the students have reached the course goals

35 Benefits Communicates your expectations to students Communicates your expectations to students Communicates to administrators, other instructors etc. the nature of what was included in the course Communicates to administrators, other instructors etc. the nature of what was included in the course A valuable aid to planning A valuable aid to planning

36 Backward planning? By stating the learning outcomes well, we can work backwards from the outcomes to determine the best way to achieve those results [teaching methods and materials; feedback and assessment methods]

37 SMAC able Learning Outcomes S pecific S pecific M easurable M easurable A ttainable A ttainable C learly stated and Concise C learly stated and Concise SMART: Specific, Measurable, Assessable, Realistic, Time based. SMART: Specific, Measurable, Assessable, Realistic, Time based.

38 Domains of learning cognitive procedural affective

39 Domains of Learning Cognitive: all intellectual processes that require decision making Cognitive: all intellectual processes that require decision making Procedural: any skilled process –usually serial, repetitious and predictable Procedural: any skilled process –usually serial, repetitious and predictable Affective: values, attitudes, beliefs, emotions, motivations Affective: values, attitudes, beliefs, emotions, motivations These are overlapping and difficult to separate and so a learning outcome may be expressed in terms of the dominant domain.

40 Exercise #1 Choose one central concept in your course Choose one central concept in your course Identify one outcome for this concept in each of the 3 domains by completing the following statement Identify one outcome for this concept in each of the 3 domains by completing the following statement Students who have learned successfully in this course will be able to…..

41 Exercise #2 Review your previously stated learning outcomes and analyze them in terms of the level of learning that they address Review your previously stated learning outcomes and analyze them in terms of the level of learning that they address

42 Exercise #3 Write one learning outcome for your course for each of the following levels of learning Write one learning outcome for your course for each of the following levels of learning Acquiring and integrating knowledge Acquiring and integrating knowledge Refining and extending knowledge Refining and extending knowledge Meaningful application of knowledge Meaningful application of knowledge Students who learned successfully in this course will (be able to…..)

43 Instructional (Re)design Part 3

44 Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Student Learning Content Learning Outcomes Assessment and Evaluation CONTEXT

45 Bridging the Gap Desired level of skill, knowledge, and attitude Learning experienceinstructional activity Current level of skill, knowledge, and attitude

46 A Surface Approach to Learning Students appear to: –study to reproduce information to meet assessment demands; –aim for achieving minimal requirements, and appear to be focused solely on passing with little attention to learning and transfer to other contexts or courses. –focus on pieces of information in isolation, rather than making connections between concepts and seeing the structure of what is being learned; – rote learn information for the purpose of reproducing it; – have a negative perspective on learning. – have a negative perspective on learning.

47 A Deep Approach to Learning Students appear to: –attempt to develop understanding and make sense of what they're learning; –focus on the meaning of what they're learning. –make ideas their own; –make connections between course concepts and make connections with previous experiences; –reflect on what they're learning, discuss their ideas with others; – explore the subject beyond the immediate requirements; –have positive perspective on learning and the course material

48 A deep approach is encouraged by: an understanding of the relevance of the course materials an understanding of the relevance of the course materials to their program of study to their program of study frequent opportunities for course participation and interaction with instructor and peers opportunities to connect and integrate new concepts with prior learning or experience

49 A critical distinction between these two approaches A deep approach is used for the purpose of understanding and creating meaning from the course material. A surface approach is used for the purpose of reproducing the course material. A surface approach is used for the purpose of reproducing the course material. Memorization may be a part of either approach.

50 Distinctions In the deep approach, the memorized material is used in analysis, synthesis, making judgements, etc. In the surface approach the material is only reproduced without extensive interpretation. If one assesses for understanding and creates opportunities for a deep approach to learning, students will be encouraged to do so. If one assesses for understanding and creates opportunities for a deep approach to learning, students will be encouraged to do so.

51 A surface approach often results from: excessive amounts of course material excessive amounts of course material few of opportunity to work with the content in depth lack of choice in subjects and/or in methods of study high-stakes assessments without formative assessment and useful feedback

52 Learning More than ever, the sheer magnitude of human knowledge renders the coverage by education an impossibility; rather the goal of education is better conceived as helping students to develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge to think productively about history, science and technology, social phenomena, mathematics and the arts. (Bransford, et al., 2002, p. ii)

53 Bransford, Cocking, and Brown (2000) Engage initial understanding/pre-existing understanding to enable understanding and retention of newer concepts Engage initial understanding/pre-existing understanding to enable understanding and retention of newer concepts Develop a deep foundation of factual knowledge within a conceptual/meaningful framework that organizes knowledge in such a way that retrieval and application is facilitated Develop a deep foundation of factual knowledge within a conceptual/meaningful framework that organizes knowledge in such a way that retrieval and application is facilitated Adopt a metacognitive approach to instruction can help student to take control of their learning through the definition of learning goals and monitoring progress Adopt a metacognitive approach to instruction can help student to take control of their learning through the definition of learning goals and monitoring progress

54 Good Practice in University Teaching (Gamson and Chickering, 1992) Encourages student-instructor contact Encourages student-instructor contact Encourages cooperation amongst students Encourages cooperation amongst students Encourages active learning Encourages active learning Gives prompt feedback Gives prompt feedback Emphasizes time on task Emphasizes time on task Communicates high expectations Communicates high expectations Respects diverse talents and ways of knowing Respects diverse talents and ways of knowing

55 First Principles of Instruction Learning is facilitated when: Learning is facilitated when: –The learner is engaged in solving real world problems –New knowledge builds on the learners existing knowledge –New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner –New knowledge is applied by the learner –New knowledge is integrated into the learners world David Merrill

56 Practice Quantity -- Time on Task Quantity -- Time on Task Quality – promotion of understanding/meaning/connections/ Quality – promotion of understanding/meaning/connections/

57 Some Assumptions: We are designing this event for learning not for teaching. We are designing this event for learning not for teaching. Learning takes place in and out of class time so we are designing courses for approximately 120 hours of learning as opposed to 36 hours of teaching (1:2 ratio of class time to practice time). Learning takes place in and out of class time so we are designing courses for approximately 120 hours of learning as opposed to 36 hours of teaching (1:2 ratio of class time to practice time). Students can learn without us being present and can learn material that we have not covered. Students can learn without us being present and can learn material that we have not covered.

58 A = Relevancy-setting the stage B = Informing (on content or task) C= Instructional Strategies (fading feedback and structure) D = Formative Assessment E = Summative Assessment A B C E TIME D D D D McAlpine (2004)

59 Bridging the Gap Desired level of skill, knowledge, and attitude Learning experienceinstructional activity Current level of skill, knowledge, and attitude

60 What constitutes an instructional activity? Anything that engages the student with the course content/processes Anything that engages the student with the course content/processes –What they do in class (e.g. small group discussion; peer instruction; free writing exercise; student presentation; guest lecture; …) –What they do out of class (e.g. problem sets; literature search; pre-class readings; collaborative project; essay writing; preparing for assessment of any kind …)

61 Choice of Instructional Strategies Depends on your perspective on teaching and student learning

62 1. Teaching is providing the students with an organizational framework with they can make sense of the course material. 2. Teaching is the development of meaningful interactions between the instructor and the student 3. Teaching is the transmission of information 4. Teaching is the promotion of conceptual change and intellectual development in students

63 Course Orientation and aligned instructional strategies. Course Orientation and aligned instructional strategies. Transmission– e.g. lecture Transmission– e.g. lecture Transaction– e.g. case study Transaction– e.g. case study Transformation – e.g. inquiry learning Transformation – e.g. inquiry learning –Other examples?

64 Exercise Develop one instructional strategy for one of the learning outcomes determined in the previous session. Develop one instructional strategy for one of the learning outcomes determined in the previous session.

65 CRW Part 4

66 Course Preparation Course Delivery

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68 Assessment The assessment of students is a serious and often tragic enterprise. Ramsden, P. (1992), p.181

69 Learning Outcomes You will be able to distinguish between formative and summative assessment and their functions. You will be able to distinguish between formative and summative assessment and their functions. Describe various methods of assessment and a be able to choose appropriate methods for specified learning outcomes. Describe various methods of assessment and a be able to choose appropriate methods for specified learning outcomes.

70 Some Assumptions: Assessment activities are part of the learning process Assessment activities are part of the learning process We are assessing for learning (long term retention/transfer/deep learning) not for assessment-specific performance. We are assessing for learning (long term retention/transfer/deep learning) not for assessment-specific performance. Learning takes place in and out of class so our assessment plan is for approximately 120 hours of learning as opposed to 36 hours of teaching (1:2 ratio of class time to practice time). Learning takes place in and out of class so our assessment plan is for approximately 120 hours of learning as opposed to 36 hours of teaching (1:2 ratio of class time to practice time). Students can contribute to their own assessment and can help to assess others. Students can contribute to their own assessment and can help to assess others.

71 Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Student Learning Content Learning Outcomes Assessment CONTEXT

72 Why Assess? The Student to pass or fail to grade or mark to allow to proceed to licence to predict success to select for a particular program to detect strengths & weaknesses to motivate to give feedback

73 If you do what you've always done, you'll get what you have always gotten. Anon.

74 Strategy For every learning outcome, there are instructional practices and assessment schemes For every learning outcome, there are instructional practices and assessment schemes There must be congruence amongst these three aspects There must be congruence amongst these three aspects Multiple ways of practicing and multiple ways of being assessed. Multiple ways of practicing and multiple ways of being assessed. Practice and assessment can be individual and collaborative (collaboration can be part of the scaffold) Practice and assessment can be individual and collaborative (collaboration can be part of the scaffold)

75 Link back to LOs and instructional strategies A = relevancy-setting the stage B = informing (on content or task) C= Instructional Strategies (fading feedback and structure) D = Formative Assessment E = Summative Assessment A B C E TIME D D D D

76 Formative Assessment: Formative Assessment: –Assessment activities that contribute to learning as well as indicating the degree of learning –Used by students and instructors to inform them of their progress and enable adjustments –May be graded or ungraded –Range from formal to informal Summative Assessment Summative Assessment –Assessment activities that occur at the end of a period of learning and are used to obtain a macro view of learning and to determine the level of learning.

77 Levels of Learning The learning outcome can be directed at one or more level of learning The learning outcome can be directed at one or more level of learning Acquiring and integrating knowledgeAcquiring and integrating knowledge knowing knowing Refining and extending knowledgeRefining and extending knowledge understanding understanding Meaningful application of knowledgeMeaningful application of knowledge Critical and creative thinking Critical and creative thinking

78 Some influences on student learning Surface learning may be induced by: heavy workloads heavy workloads sole use of examinations, sole use of examinations, multiple choice questions that test only recall. multiple choice questions that test only recall. Deep learning may be induced by: reasonable workloads reasonable workloads some choice some choice a variety of assessment tasks a variety of assessment tasks project work project work multiple choice questions that test understanding multiple choice questions that test understanding

79 Some key features Meaningful Meaningful Authentic-valid and reliable Authentic-valid and reliable Challenging Challenging Mark-able (time and content) Mark-able (time and content) You are able to describe clear criteria for success You are able to describe clear criteria for success You are able to determine the level of engagement You are able to determine the level of engagement

80 The effect of few assessment occasions More difficult for the students to gauge their strengths and weaknesses and therefore they are less able to improve More difficult for the students to gauge their strengths and weaknesses and therefore they are less able to improve Longer gaps between sources of feedback and therefore the student is less likely to be interested in what it tells them Longer gaps between sources of feedback and therefore the student is less likely to be interested in what it tells them With fewer feedback opportunities, the students summative work will be of lesser quality With fewer feedback opportunities, the students summative work will be of lesser quality Less of the course is sampled though assessment and students become selectively negligent Less of the course is sampled though assessment and students become selectively negligent Decrease in motivation Decrease in motivation

81 Exercise Develop one formative and one summative method of assessment Develop one formative and one summative method of assessment –Criteria »One must be collaborative »One must involve peer assessment »One must be directed at the elaboration and refining or meaningful application level of engagement

82 Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Student Learning Content Learning Outcomes Assessment CONTEXT

83 COURSE (RE)DESIGN WORKSHOP Part 5

84 Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Student Learning Content Learning Outcomes Evaluation CONTEXT

85 Few faculty members have any awareness of the expanding knowledge about learning from psychology and cognitive science. Almost no one in the academy has mastered or used this knowledge base. One of my colleagues observed that if doctors used science the way college teachers do, they would still be trying to heal with leeches. J.J. Duderstadt (2001), president emeritus University of Michigan, "A University for the 21st Century."

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87 Whatever we say about our ambitions to develop understanding and critical thinking in our disciplines, it is in our assessment practices and the amount of content we cover that we demonstrate to undergraduate students what competence in a subject really means. (p. 72).

88 Bridging the Gap Learning Outcomes SummativeAssessment Learning objectivesFormative Assessment Learning objectivesFormative Assessment Current level of skill, knowledge and attitude

89 A = relevancy-setting the stage B = informing (on content or task) C= Instructional Strategies (fading feedback and structure) D = Formative Assessment E = Summative Assessment A B C E TIME D D D D

90 Formative Assessment or Classroom Assessment Informal assessment of student learning Informal assessment of student learning Informal assessment of teaching effectiveness Informal assessment of teaching effectiveness

91 Examples One minute paper One minute paper The muddiest point…. The muddiest point…. Whats the Principle Whats the Principle Concept Map Concept Map Misconception/Preconception Check Misconception/Preconception Check Pro/Con Matrix Pro/Con Matrix

92 Formative Assessment for Tracking your own Progress Highlights/Lowlights Highlights/Lowlights Course Committee Course Committee Class Coaches Class Coaches Mid Term Check In Mid Term Check In

93 Course Elements What are you changing? And how are you doing this? Why are you changing this? What are your pedagogical reasons? Evidence? How will you know that the change has been successful? Content Learning Outcomes Instructional Strategy Assessment Tracking your Progress

94 Moving on to scholarship of teaching The vision of a research university [is an] institution that [does] not limit the objects of an investigation to those matters outside of itself. Indeed, it [is] critical that a research university treat itself as a proper subject for investigation and its own work as an ongoing experiment for such investigation. The university must be constantly and critically asking about its own work, its own efficacy, its own role, vis a vis its students, its community, and its society. The vision of the university is also the vision behind the scholarship of teaching and learning. We can hardly be a moral community with mission statements that talk about the central place of teaching and learning if we are not also places that investigate these processes and place them at the center of the scholarship in which we properly take such pride. Lee Schulman, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning, available at available at

95 Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Classroom research– testing and modifying what you do using the modes of inquiry appropriate for your area of study. Classroom research– testing and modifying what you do using the modes of inquiry appropriate for your area of study. Potential for publication. Potential for publication.

96 Course Redesign Elements: Thinking, Action, and SoTL Exchange course outlines with colleague(s) and critique using CR elements Exchange course outlines with colleague(s) and critique using CR elements Watch a videotape of your teaching from a problematic class Watch a videotape of your teaching from a problematic class Use CR elements for program review to analyze relation between courses and learning Use CR elements for program review to analyze relation between courses and learning Discuss with colleague(s) how to better assess learning outcomes using CR elements Discuss with colleague(s) how to better assess learning outcomes using CR elements

97 Work for Part 5 Work for Part 5 Pull it all together! Pull it all together! Begin your course outline Begin your course outline Figure out how you are going to track you progress. Figure out how you are going to track you progress. Enjoy your success! Enjoy your success!


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