Presentation on theme: "The Course (Re)Design Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1The Course (Re)Design Workshop Ryerson UniversityJune 5, 2006We would like to acknowledge and thank Dr. Lynn McAlpine of the McGill Centre for University Teaching and Learning for permission to base our workshop series on their Course Design and Teaching Workshop model and her generosity in sharing resources.
2AT YOUR TABLES Who are you? With which academic unit are you associated ? On what CONCEPT are you working?
3Intentions for the CRWTo work collaboratively (within and between areas of study) on the design of an instructional event that addresses effective learning of a concept that is critical to your courseTo learn to use a set of simple conceptual tools of course design that are generalizable
4Our intentional strategy To use your scholarly abilities of analysis and inquiry to contribute to a process that is systematic, reasoned and intentionalYour thinking leads to your actions which leads to student learningTo develop a language, framework, and conceptual tools to enable:The design, development and assessment of instructionThe analysis and critique of thinking and decisions of self and othersAn improvement in the ease of discussion about teaching with others
5As a result of your inquiry, you will decide: Content: What is the subject matter of the concept?Learning outcomes: What will students know, value, do as a result of learning about this concept?Instructional strategies: What kinds of practice and feedback will help students reach the learning outcomes?Assessment of learning: How will I and the students be able to assess progress towards the learning outcomes?5
6Some Assumptions Student learning is central to the design of courses It is what students do that is important to the quality of their learningWhat students do depends on what you require of themWhat we know about the learning process will influence our choices of instructional strategies and assessment methodsWe are willing to consider ways of teaching and assessing that are different from what is currently done but are supported by what we know about the process of learning
7The Ryerson Context Experiential learning Student Engagement Academic ChallengeCommunity InvolvementLearning FocusedGraduate Students as Teacher/Teacher Associates
8Overview Part 1 Overview The CD Process Concept Mapping Representing the Course Content
9Overview Part 2 Review of Concept Maps Writing Learning Outcomes Developing Learning OutcomesGiving and Receiving Feedback
10Overview Part 3 Instructional Strategies Developing Aligned Instructional Strategies
11Overview Part 4 Assessment Developing Aligned Assessment Presenting Aligned Assessment
12Overview Part 5 Criteria and Standards Developing Criteria and Standards for GradingFormative AssessmentPoster Session of Instructional EventWrap Up
13LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR P1 You will be able to describe the course design processYou will be able to articulate some of the factors contributing to improved student learningYou will be able to describe in detail one process through which the content of a course could be determined.You will be able to clearly articulate a major concept for your course or project of choice, identify the central and peripheral course content and describe the relationships amongst the course content related to your concept of choice.
14Instructional DesignThe systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into the specification of instructional materials and activities.Implicit in the definition is that as a result of good instructional design there will be “more learning in less time with greater satisfaction.” (Johnson and Foa,1989)
15This is only one way to engage in course design/redesign This is only one way to engage in course design/redesign. This method may be modified or rejected depending on the needs of your discipline and your own perspectives on learning and teaching.
16What evidence to we have that this sort of activity is productive?
17What evidence to we have that this sort of activity is productive? Centre for Academic Transformation: case studies in 9 US research universitiesResearch on impact on student learning between ‘innovative teaching projects’ and course redesign projects
18So what’s in it for students? Improved student learning both in quality (deep vs. surface) and effectiveness (grades).Improved transfer of knowledge, skills and valuesImproved satisfaction with educational process and with institution
19What’s in it for you? Increased satisfaction with teaching Improved student ratings of teaching in the longer termContent for your teaching dossierInitially an increased workload but eventually a ‘streamlined’ process for teaching
20Course Design Process Instructional Strategies Content Learning Student LearningContentLearningOutcomesAssessmentCONTEXT
21Creating a Concept MapIntensive writing: 5 minutes, just keep writing, don’t edit, don’t stop!Read what you have written; circle anything that you consider to be important content or process.Create a comprehensive list from the course content and processes that you have identified in the writing exercise.
22Creating a Concept Map Write each item on a post-it note. Arrange them in a way that you think reflects the relationships between/among these items.Think about the overall shape or format of your arrangement. Does it reflect the overall structure of knowledge about the concept?
23Creating a Concept MapTry to label the connecting lines/arrows between and among items to more clearly indicate the nature of the relationship among them.Get feedback from someone who is not at your table.
24Creating a Concept MapWhen you are satisfied with your first draft, construct a diagram that represents the arrangement of the post-its.Present your concept map to the group at your table.
26I would be content if we began, all of us, by recognizing that discovering how to make something comprehensible to (our students) is only a continuation of making something comprehensible to ourselves in the first placeJerome Bruner, quoted in Ramsden, 1992, p. 150
27Course Design Process CONTEXT Instructional Strategies Student LearningContentLearningOutcomesAssessment andEvaluationCONTEXT
28Research has shown that people learn more effectively and successfully when: They know what the end result of their learning will be (outcomes).The outcomes are meaningful (relevancy)They have the prerequisites for learning (needs assessment/sequencing).They are presented with an appropriate level of challenge (effort)
29`Cheshire Puss,' she began, rather timidly, … `Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?' `That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,' said the Cat. `I don't much care where--' said Alice. `Then it doesn't matter which way you go,' said the Cat. `--so long as I get somewhere,' Alice added as an explanation. `Oh, you're sure to do that,' said the Cat, `if you only walk long enough
30LEARNING OUTCOMESYou will be able to describe how to develop a learning outcome.You will be articulate clear and appropriate learning outcomes for the course content that you have identified in your concept map.
31Learning?A relatively permanent change in knowledge, skills and values brought about by practice or experienceIs internal and so can only be assessed by what the student ‘produces’What the student produces depends on what you require
32Outcome? Comes from systems theory and refers to results or products Outcomes focus on the interaction between the the course content and the studentAll elements of educational activity in the course are linked to the outcome and so is useful as an analytic device.
33Learning OutcomesAre the competencies acquired by students as a result of the knowledge, skills and values developed through the educational experiences in your course.Measurable indicators of changeExplicit indicators that the students have reached the course goals
34Benefits Communicates your expectations to students Communicates to administrators, other instructors etc. the nature of what was included in the courseA valuable aid to planning
35Backward planning?By stating the learning outcomes well, we can work backwards from the outcomes to determine the best way to achieve those results [teaching methods and materials; feedback and assessment methods]
36SMACable Learning Outcomes SpecificMeasurableAttainableClearly stated and ConciseSMART: Specific, Measurable, Assessable, Realistic, Time based.
38Domains of LearningCognitive: all intellectual processes that require decision makingProcedural: any skilled process –usually serial, repetitious and predictableAffective: values, attitudes, beliefs, emotions, motivationsThese are overlapping and difficult to separate and so a learning outcome may be expressed in terms of the dominant domain.
39Exercise #1 Choose one central concept in your course Identify one outcome for this concept in each of the 3 domains by completing the following statementStudents who have learned successfully in this course will be able to…..
40Exercise #2Review your previously stated learning outcomes and analyze them in terms of the level of learning that they address
41Exercise #3Write one learning outcome for your course for each of the following levels of learningAcquiring and integrating knowledgeRefining and extending knowledgeMeaningful application of knowledgeStudents who learned successfully in this course will (be able to…..)
43Course Design Process CONTEXT Instructional Strategies Student LearningContentLearningOutcomesAssessmentand EvaluationCONTEXT
44Bridging the Gap Desired level of skill, knowledge, and attitude Learning experience instructional activityCurrent level of skill, knowledge, and attitude
45A Surface Approach to Learning Students appear to:study to reproduce information to meet assessment demands;aim for achieving minimal requirements, and appear to be focused solely on passing with little attention to learning and transfer to other contexts or courses.focus on pieces of information in isolation, rather than making connections between concepts and seeing the structure of what is being learned; rote learn information for the purpose of reproducing it;have a negative perspective on learning.
46A Deep Approach to Learning Students appear to:attempt to develop understanding and make sense of what they're learning;focus on the meaning of what they're learning.make ideas their own;make connections between course concepts and make connections with previous experiences;reflect on what they're learning, discuss their ideas with others; explore the subject beyond the immediate requirements;have positive perspective on learning and the course material
47A deep approach is encouraged by: an understanding of the relevance of the course materialsto their program of studyfrequent opportunities for course participation and interaction with instructor and peersopportunities to connect and integrate new concepts with prior learning or experience
48A critical distinction between these two approaches A deep approach is used for the purpose of understanding and creating meaning from the course material.A surface approach is used for the purpose of reproducing the course material.Memorization may be a part of either approach.
49DistinctionsIn the deep approach, the memorized material is used in analysis, synthesis, making judgements, etc.In the surface approach the material is only reproduced without extensive interpretation.If one assesses for understanding and creates opportunities for a deep approach to learning, students will be encouraged to do so.
50A surface approach often results from: excessive amounts of course materialfew of opportunity to work with the content in depthlack of choice in subjects and/or in methods of studyhigh-stakes assessments without formative assessment and useful feedback
51LearningMore than ever, the sheer magnitude of human knowledge renders the coverage by education an impossibility; rather the goal of education is better conceived as helping students to develop the intellectual tools and learning strategies needed to acquire the knowledge to think productively about history, science and technology, social phenomena, mathematics and the arts.(Bransford, et al., 2002, p. ii)
52Bransford, Cocking, and Brown (2000) Engage initial understanding/pre-existing understanding to enable understanding and retention of newer conceptsDevelop a deep foundation of factual knowledge within a conceptual/meaningful framework that organizes knowledge in such a way that retrieval and application is facilitatedAdopt a metacognitive approach to instruction can help student to take control of their learning through the definition of learning goals and monitoring progress
53Good Practice in University Teaching (Gamson and Chickering, 1992) Encourages student-instructor contactEncourages cooperation amongst studentsEncourages active learningGives prompt feedbackEmphasizes time on taskCommunicates high expectationsRespects diverse talents and ways of knowing
54First Principles of Instruction Learning is facilitated when:The learner is engaged in solving real world problemsNew knowledge builds on the learner’s existing knowledgeNew knowledge is demonstrated to the learnerNew knowledge is applied by the learnerNew knowledge is integrated into the learner’s worldDavid Merrill
55Practice Quantity -- Time on Task Quality – promotion of understanding/meaning/connections/
56Some Assumptions:We are designing this event for learning not for teaching.Learning takes place in and out of class time so we are designing courses for approximately 120 hours of learning as opposed to 36 hours of teaching (1:2 ratio of class time to ‘practice’ time).Students can learn without us being present and can learn material that we have not ‘covered’.
57C A = Relevancy-setting the stage B = Informing (on content or task) C= Instructional Strategies (fading feedback and structure)D = Formative AssessmentE = Summative AssessmentCDBDDADETIMEMcAlpine (2004)
58Bridging the Gap Desired level of skill, knowledge, and attitude Learning experience instructional activityCurrent level of skill, knowledge, and attitude
59What constitutes an instructional activity? Anything that engages the student with the course content/processesWhat they do in class (e.g. small group discussion; peer instruction; free writing exercise; student presentation; guest lecture; …)What they do out of class (e.g. problem sets; literature search; pre-class readings; collaborative project; essay writing; preparing for assessment of any kind …)
60Choice of Instructional Strategies Depends on your perspective on teaching and student learning
61Teaching is providing the students with an organizational framework with they can make sense of the course material.Teaching is the development of meaningful interactions between the instructor and the studentTeaching is the transmission of informationTeaching is the promotion of conceptual change and intellectual development in students
62Course Orientation and aligned instructional strategies. Transmission– e.g. lectureTransaction– e.g. case studyTransformation – e.g. inquiry learningOther examples?
63ExerciseDevelop one instructional strategy for one of the learning outcomes determined in the previous session.
67Assessment“The assessment of students is a serious and often tragic enterprise.” Ramsden, P. (1992), p.181
68Learning OutcomesYou will be able to distinguish between formative and summative assessment and their functions.Describe various methods of assessment and a be able to choose appropriate methods for specified learning outcomes.
69Some Assumptions:Assessment activities are part of the learning processWe are assessing for learning (long term retention/transfer/deep learning) not for assessment-specific performance.Learning takes place in and out of class so our assessment plan is for approximately 120 hours of learning as opposed to 36 hours of teaching (1:2 ratio of class time to ‘practice’ time).Students can contribute to their own assessment and can help to assess others.
71Why Assess? • to grade or mark • to pass or fail • to allow to proceed TheStudent• to licence• to predict success• to motivate• to give feedback• to detect strengths & weaknesses• to select for a particular program
72If you do what you've always done, you'll get what you have always gotten. Anon.
73StrategyFor every learning outcome, there are instructional practices and assessment schemesThere must be congruence amongst these three aspectsMultiple ways of practicing and multiple ways of being assessed.Practice and assessment can be individual and collaborative (collaboration can be part of the scaffold)
74Link back to LOs and instructional strategies A = relevancy-setting the stageB = informing (on content or task)C= Instructional Strategies (fading feedback and structure)D = Formative AssessmentE = Summative AssessmentABCETIMED
75Formative Assessment: Assessment activities that contribute to learning as well as indicating the degree of learningUsed by students and instructors to inform them of their progress and enable adjustmentsMay be graded or ungradedRange from formal to informalSummative AssessmentAssessment activities that occur at the end of a period of learning and are used to obtain a macro view of learning and to determine the level of learning.
76Levels of LearningThe learning outcome can be directed at one or more level of learningAcquiring and integrating knowledgeknowingRefining and extending knowledgeunderstandingMeaningful application of knowledgeCritical and creative thinking
77Some influences on student learning Surface learning may be induced by:heavy workloadssole use of examinations,multiple choice questions that test only recall.Deep learning may be induced by:reasonable workloadssome choicea variety of assessment tasksproject workmultiple choice questions that test understanding
78Some key features Meaningful Authentic-valid and reliable Challenging Mark-able (time and content)You are able to describe clear criteria for successYou are able to determine the ‘level’ of engagement
79The effect of few assessment occasions More difficult for the students to gauge their strengths and weaknesses and therefore they are less able to improveLonger gaps between sources of feedback and therefore the student is less likely to be interested in what it tells themWith fewer feedback opportunities, the students’ summative work will be of lesser qualityLess of the course is sampled though assessment and students become selectively negligentDecrease in motivation
80Exercise Develop one formative and one summative method of assessment CriteriaOne must be collaborativeOne must involve peer assessmentOne must be directed at the “elaboration and refining “ or meaningful application level of engagement
83Course Design Process CONTEXT Instructional Strategies Student LearningContentLearningOutcomesEvaluationCONTEXT
84Few faculty members have any awareness of the expanding knowledge about learning from psychology and cognitive science. Almost no one in the academy has mastered or used this knowledge base. One of my colleagues observed that if doctors used science the way college teachers do, they would still be trying to heal with leeches J.J. Duderstadt (2001), president emeritus University of Michigan, "A University for the 21st Century."
86Whatever we say about our ambitions to develop understanding and critical thinking in our disciplines, it is in our assessment practices and the amount of content we cover that we demonstrate to undergraduate students what competence in a subject really means. (p. 72).
87Current level of skill, knowledge and attitude Bridging the GapLearning OutcomesSummativeAssessmentLearning objectives Formative AssessmentCurrent level of skill, knowledge and attitude
88C A = relevancy-setting the stage B = informing (on content or task) C= Instructional Strategies (fading feedback and structure)D = Formative AssessmentE = Summative AssessmentCDBDDADETIME
89Formative Assessment or Classroom Assessment Informal assessment of student learningInformal assessment of teaching effectiveness
90Examples One minute paper The muddiest point…. What’s the Principle Concept MapMisconception/Preconception CheckPro/Con Matrix
91Formative Assessment for Tracking your own Progress Highlights/LowlightsCourse CommitteeClass CoachesMid Term Check In
92Tracking your Progress Course ElementsWhat are you changing? And how are you doing this?Why are you changing this?What are your pedagogical reasons? Evidence?How will you know that the change has been successful?ContentLearning OutcomesInstructional StrategyAssessment
93Moving on to ‘scholarship of teaching’ The vision of a research university [is an] institution that [does] not limit the objects of an investigation to those matters outside of itself. Indeed, it [is] critical that a research university treat itself as a proper subject for investigation and its own work as an ongoing experiment for such investigation. The university must be constantly and critically asking about its own work, its own efficacy, its own role, vis a vis its students, its community, and its society. The vision of the university is also the vision behind the scholarship of teaching and learning. We can hardly be a moral community with mission statements that talk about the central place of teaching and learning if we are not also places that investigate these processes and place them at the center of the scholarship in which we properly take such pride.Lee Schulman, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning,available at
94Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Classroom research– testing and modifying what you do using the modes of inquiry appropriate for your area of study.Potential for publication.
95Course Redesign Elements: Thinking, Action, and SoTL Exchange course outlines with colleague(s) and critique using CR elements Watch a videotape of your teaching from a problematic classUse CR elements for program review to analyze relation between courses and learningDiscuss with colleague(s) how to better assess learning outcomes using CR elements
96Work for Part 5 Pull it all together! Begin your course outline Figure out how you are going to track you progress.Enjoy your success!