2 1) Laws of chemical combination :- i) Law of conservation of mass :- states that ‘Mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction’.This means that during a chemical reaction the sum of the masses of the reactants and products remain unchanged.Activity :-Take some sodium sulphate solution in a conical flask and some barium chloride solution in an ignition tube. Hang the ignition tube in the flask by a thread and pot a cork on the flask. Find the mass of the flask on a balance. Then tilt the flask. A chemical reaction takes place and sodium chloride and barium sulphate are formed. Then find the mass of the flask again. It will be seen that the sum of the masses of the reactants and products remain unchanged.BaCl2solutionBaSO4 white
3 Law of constant proportions ii) The law states that ‘ In a chemical compound the elements are always present in a definite proportion by mass’.Eg :- Water ( H2O) always contains two elements hydrogen and oxygen combined together in the same ratio of 2:16 or 1:8 by mass. If 9 g of water is decomposed we get 1 g of hydrogen and 8 g of oxygen.Ammonia (NH3) always contains two elements nitrogen and hydrogen combined together in the same ratio of 14:3 by mass.
4 2) Dalton’s atomic theory :- i) Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.ii) Atoms are indivisible and cannot be created or destroyedin a chemical reactioniii) Atoms of a given element are similar in mass andproperties.iv) Atoms of different elements have different masses andv) Atoms combine in small whole number ratios to formcompounds.vi) In a given compound the relative number and kind ofatoms are constant.
5 3) Atom :-An atom is the smallest particle of an element that may or may not exist independently and retains all its chemical properties.Atoms are very small in size and smaller than anything we can imagine or compare with.Atomic radius is measured in nanometres (nm)1 nanometer = m or 1 meter = 109 nmEg :- The atomic radius of an atom of hydrogen is m.The radius of a molecule of water is 10-9 m.
6 4) Symbols of atoms of different elements :- The symbols of elements are represented by letters.The symbols of some elements are represented by one letter and the symbols of some elements are represented by two letters.If the symbol has only one letter it should be written as capital letter and if the symbol has two letters then the first letter should be capital letter and the second letter should be small letter.Symbols of some common elements :-Element SymbolAluminium AlCopper CuNitrogen NArgon ArFluorine FOxygen OBarium BaGold AuPotassium KBoron BHydrogen HSilicon SiBromine BrIodine ISilver AgCalcium CaIron FeSodium NaCarbon CLead PbSulphur SChlorine ClMagnesium MgUranium UCobalt CoNeon NeZinc Zn
7 5) Atomic mass :-Since atoms are very small in size its mass is very small and determining its mass is very difficult. So the mass of an atom is compared with the mass of a standard atom.The atom which is considered as a standard atom for comparing the masses of other atoms is carbon – 12 atom whose atomic mass is u (atomic mass unit).One atomic mass unit (u) is the mass of 1/12th the mass of a carbon – 12 atom.The atomic mass of an element is defined as the average mass of one atom of the element compared with 1/12th the mass of a carbon – 12 atom.Atomic masses of some elements :-ElementAtomic mass (u)Hydrogen1Magnesium24Carbon12Aluminium27Nitrogen14Sulphur32Oxygen16Chlorine35.5Sodium23Calcium40
8 6) Molecule :-A molecule is the smallest particle of an element or compound which exists independently and shows all the properties of that substance.A molecule is a group of two or more elements that are held together by attractive forces.Atoms of the same element or different elements can join together to form molecules.
9 i) Molecule of elements :- Molecule of an element contains atoms of the same element.Molecules of some elements contain only one atom and molecules of some elements contain two or more atoms.Atomicity of an element :- is the number of atoms present in one molecule of the element.Atomicity of some elements :-Type of elementNameAtomicityNon metalArgon Ar1 – MonoatomicHelium HeOxygen O22 – DiatomicHydrogen H2Nitrogen N2Chlorine Cl2Npn metalPhosphorus P44 – PhosphorusSulphur S8Poly atomicMetalSodium NaIron FeAluminium AlCopper Cu
10 ii) Molecule of compounds :- Molecule of a compound contains atoms of two or more different types of elements.Molecules of some compounds :-CompoundCombining elementsNumber of atoms of each elementsWater – H2OHydrogen, Oxygen2 - Hydrogen, 1 - OxygenAmmonia – NH3Nitrogen, Hydrogen1 - Nitrogen, 3 - HydrogenCarbon dioxideCO2Carbon, OxygenI - Carbon, 2 - OxygenHydrochloric acidHClHydrogen, Chlorine1 - Hydrogen, 1 - ChlorineNitric acidHNO3Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen1 - Hydrogen, 1 - Nitrogen,3 - OxygenSulphuric acidH2SO4Hydrogen, Sulphur, Oxygen2 - Hydrogen, 1 - Sulphur,4 - Oxygen
11 7) Ions :-Compounds containing metal and non metal elements contain charged particles called ions.An ion is a charged particle having positive or negative charge. A positively charged ion is called ‘cation’ and a negatively charged ion is called ‘anion’.Valency :- is the combining capacity of an element.Some common ions and their valencies :-ValencyName of ion SymbolName of ion SymbolName of ion Symbol1Sodium Na+Hydrogen H +Ammonium NH 4-Potassium K+Hydride H -Hydroxide OH -Silver Ag+Chloride Cl -Nitrate NO3-Copper (I) Cu+Bromide Br -Hydrogen carbonate HCO3-2Magnesium Mg 2+Iodide I -Calcium Ca 2+Oxide O 2-Carbonate CO32-Zinc Zn 2+Sulphite SO32-Iron (II) Fe 2+Sulphate SO42-Copper (II) Cu 2+3Aluminium Al 3+Nitride N 3-Phosphate PO43-Iron (iii) Fe 3+
12 8) Writing chemical formulae :- i) Write the symbols / formula of the elements or ions so that thesymbol of the metal or positive ion is on the left and symbol / formulaof the non metal or negative ion is on the right.ii) Write the valencies of the elements or ions below the elements orions.iii) Cross over the valencies of the combining ions.iv) Polyatomic ions should be enclosed in bracket before writing theformula.Examples :-i) Formula of hydrogen chloride ii) Formula of hydrogen sulphideSymbol H Cl Symbol H SValency ValencyFormula HCl Formula H2Siii) Formula of Magnesium chloride iv) Formula of Carbon tetrachlorideSymbol Mg Cl Symbol C ClValency ValencyFormula MgCl Formula CCl4
13 v) Formula of Calcium oxide vi) Formula of Aluminium oxide Symbol Ca O Symbol Al OValency ValencyFormula Ca2O2 = CaO Formula Al2O3vii) Formula of Sodium nitrate viii) Formula of Calcium hydroxideSymbol/ Na NO Symbol/ Ca OHFormula FormulaValency ValencyFormula NaNO Ca(OH)2ix) Formula of Sodium carbonate x) Formula of Ammonium sulphateSymbol/ Na CO Symbol/ NH SO4Valency ValencyFormula Na2CO (NH4)2SO4
14 9) Molecular mass / Formula unit mass:- The molecular mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in a molecule of the substance.Molecular mass is expressed in atomic mass units (u).Eg:- Molecular mass of water – H2OAtomic mass of H = I uAtomic mass of O = 16 uMolecular mass of H2O = 1x2+10 = 2+16 = 18 uMolecular mass of Nitric acid – HNO3Atomic mass of H = 1 uAtomic mass of N = 14 uMolecular mass of HNO3 = x3 = = 63 u
15 10) Mole concept :-A mole of a substance is that amount of the substance which contains the same number of particles (atoms, molecules or ions) that are present in 12g of Carbon – 12.The number of particles (atoms) present in 12g of Carbon – 12 is6.022 x This number is called Avagadro Number or Avagadro Constant.A mole represents two things :-i) It represents a definite number of particles (atoms, molecules or ions) equal to xii) It represents a definite mass of a substance equal to the gram atomic mass of an element or the gram molecular mass of a compound.Gram atomic mass of an element :- is its atomic mass expressed in grams.Eg :- Gram atomic mass of Sodium = Na = 23g.Gram molecular mass of a compound :- is its molecular mass expressed in grams.Eg :- Gram molecular mass of water = H2O = 1 x = = 18g.Relationship between number of moles (n), mass (m), molar mass (M), Number of atoms or molecules (N), and Avagadro number (NO).m N mn = , n = , m = n x N , M = ---M NO n