Presentation on theme: "Dr. William J Davis, Jr. USACGSC"— Presentation transcript:
1Dr. William J Davis, Jr. USACGSC JCOLDr. William J Davis, Jr.USACGSC
2Joint Course on Logistics IntroductionOrganizational Structure for Joint PlanningJoint Strategic Planning SystemsContingency PlanningCrisis Planning
3Course Objective The objective is to give an overview of the joint operation planning processfor both contingency andcrisis action planning.The Course Objectives are achieved at two levels. One is the JPOC and the other is theFlag and General Officer Seminar (FGOS). THE FGOS is a more concise presentation that takes approximately 2.0 hours. It is normally provided to O-6s and above when JPOCs are conducted for the Joint Staff and Combatant Commanders (time permitting).
5Vocabulary PPBE JSCP CAP Strategic Concept M-day JFAST C-day JPEC UTCJPECStrategic ConceptLADWe will familiarize you with the multitude of terms associated with joint planning and execution. We hope you will get an appreciate for staff responsibilities for developing and maintaining contingency plans and the complexities associated with developing deployment databases (TPFDDs) so that we can ultimately execute operations.FACULTY NOTE: Again point out the glossary and definitions in the back of JFSC Pub 1 and perhaps discuss a few of the more important terms on this slide.JOPESUICPPBEQDRTPFDDTUCHAM-dayJSCPJFAST
6What is JOPES? Develop and Execute War Plans Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) is a combination of joint policies andprocedures, supported by IT, designed toprovide joint commanders and planners witha capability to plan and conduct jointmilitary operations.Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES). (DOD) A continuouslyEvolving system that is being developed through the integration and enhancement of earlier planning and execution systems: Joint Operation Planning System and Joint Deployment System. It provides the foundation for conventional command and control by national- and theater-level commanders and their staffs. It is designed to satisfy their information needs in the conduct of joint planning and operations. Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) includes joint operation planning policies, procedures, and reporting structures supported by communications and automated data processing systems. The system is used to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization, deployment, employment, and sustainment activities associated with joint operations. See also joint operation planning. (JP 1-02)JOPESVOLs
7(PLANNING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES) Three Volumes of JOPESCJCSM ACJCSM BCJCSM CJOINT OPERATIONPLANNING ANDEXECUTION SYSTEM(JOPES)VOLUME IJOPESVOLUME IIJOPESVOLUME III(CRISIS ACTION TIME PHASED FORCE AND DEPLOYMENT DATA DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT EXECUTION)PLANNINGFORMATS(PLANNING POLICIES AND PROCEDURES)This is the current status of the JOPES manuals as of 25 Oct 06Vol I (29 Sep 06) (CJCSM A).Volume II (28 Feb 06) (CJCSM B) Change from previous Vol II was annex on Strategic CommunicationsVOL III (22 Mar 04) (CJCSM C)All pubs can now be located on DTIC website:29 Sep 200628 February 200622 March 2004
8JOPES Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Contingency PlanningStrategic GuidanceConceptDevelopmentPlanDevelopmentPlan AssessmentJSCPOPLANCONPLANsSCPCommander’sStrategicConcept- JOPES is designed as a flow matrixed process to help joint commanders and planners develop and execute war plans- It is a system of joint policies, processes, procedures and supported by ITCrisis Action PlanningExecutionSituational AwarenessOPORDPlanningCrisisNo PlanCampaign PlanOPORDs
9Joint Planning Goal The primary goal of planning is not the development of elaborate plans thatinevitably must be changed; a moreenduring goal is the development of plannerswho can cope with the inevitable change.After DS/DS the Army sent the Joint Staff J7 a message suggesting that less emphasis be place upon deliberate planning and more on time sensitive planning. BrigGen William's, USMC, Deputy J7 hosted a planning process review working group and the comment was the bottom line. Planners must be current and familiar with the process, procedures and plans as the time to spin up during a crisis is critical. A common base-line of understanding enhances our ability to quickly respond to a crisis.How successful have we been at accomplishing this?
1006 Feb 2006 JFSC / JCWS Taken from FC Draft JP 5-0 (29 Dec 05). Military planning integrates military actions with those of other instruments of national power and our multinational partners in time, space, and purpose to achieve a specified end state. Military planning consists of joint strategic planning with its three subsets: security cooperation planning, joint operation planning, and force planning (Figure I-1).JCWS JPP will focus on the process used by military planners during Joint Operation Planning: the Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP).06 Feb 2006JFSC / JCWS
11Op Art / Op DesignMust use Op Art and Op Design throughout the planning processOp ArtApplication of creative imagination to design strategies, campaigns and operationsElements of Op DesignNow includes end state, objectives, effects, and lines of operationSystems ApproachAddition to traditional JIPBPhasingElement of “Arranging Ops”Although JOPP provides a logical process to frame the planning effort, it is only the creative minds of the commander and staff that will make the plan successful06 Feb 2006JFSC / JCWS
12Relationship of Shaping Ops As you can see shaping requires all instruments of power (EBAO) and is done continuously at the strategic (global) and operational (theater) level.06 Feb 2006JFSC / JCWS
13Restoration (DoD Support TBD) HA/DR PhasingCurrent SituationDisasterPhase 0Phase IPhase IIPhase IIIPhase IVPhase VImmediate ResponseFirst 72 hoursInitial ResponseRestoration (DoD Support TBD)PreparationReliefStabilizationRecoveryThis is an overview of the phasing for It’s a modified version of the standard Joint Staff 6-phase construct which was developed and implemented during GTM relief efforts in Oct 05. The following slides show the details of each phase.(Shape)(Deter)(Seize Initiative)(Dominate)(Stabilize)(Enable Civil Auth)Continuous SA & preparednessTSC activities to enhance PN disaster preparedness and response capabilitiesImmediate lifesaving when:directed by SECDEF, ordirected by CDR for immediate lifesaving with forces in place (72 hr limit)Assess affected areas for relief opsSupport OFDA to:Mitigate near-term human sufferingProvide water, food, shelter, sanitation, medicine, etc.Assess affected areas for restoration opsSupport OFDA to:Restore key infrastructure (roads, power, communications, etc.)Set conditions for transition to civil authoritiesIf no legitimate, functioning civil gov’t, perform limited local governanceProvide basic services to peopleSet conditions for transition to civil authoritiesSupport civil gov’tCivil authorities assume responsibilities (with assistance as req’d from OFDA, NGOs, IOs, etc.)Military forces redeployPhase 0 activities resumePhases May Overlap
14Joint Course on Logistics IntroductionOrganizational Structure for Joint PlanningJoint Strategic Planning SystemsContingency PlanningCrisis Action Planning
15Elements of the Department of Defense Office of the Secretary of DefenseDOD FIELDACTIVITIESDEFENSE AGENCIESFaculty Note: JFSC Pub 1 Page 1-8 has the wiring diagram for DoD Organization as of Jun This is a good place to ask students if they can name Defense Agencies (14) and DoD Field Activities (7).Defense Agencies (14) DOD Field Activities (7)Defense Security Cooperation Agency Washington Headquarters ServicesDefense Contract Audit Agency Office of Economic AdjustmentDefense Logistics Agency TRICARE Management ActivityDefense Information Systems Agency Dept. of Defense Education ActivityDefense Threat Reduction Agency Defense Prisoner of War/MissingPentagon Force Protection Agency Persons OfficeDefense Intelligence Agency Department of Defense Human Resources ActivityDefense Advanced Research Projects Agency American Forces Information ServiceDefense Legal Services AgencyMissile Defense AgencyDefense Commissary AgencyDefense Finance and Accounting ServiceDefense Security ServiceDefense Contract AgencyDefense Geospatial-Intelligence Agency*National Security Agency/Central Security Service**Reports directly to Secretary of DefenseJOINTCHIEFSOFSTAFFMILITARYSERVICESJOINTSTAFFMILITARYDEPARTMENTSCOMBATANT COMMANDS* * * *
17Organization For National Security NSCPresidentVicePresidentVicePresidentNational Security AdvisorNSCAdvisorsSecretaryOf DefenseSecretaryOf StateSecretary of EnergyDADONDAFChairmanJCSSecretaryNAVYJCSViceChairmanSecretaryARMYSecretaryAir ForceCSACNOCMCCSAFJoint StaffUSAUSNUSMCUSAFFaculty Note:CJCS transmits the President and/or the Secretary or Defense’s orders to the Combatant Commanders as directed by the President and coordinates all communications in matters of joint interests addressed to the combatant commanders by other authority.In January, The SecDef directed the term NCA be eliminated from all terminology. But, you will see that I added the NSC to this slide. The NSC is shown how it is today, IAW President Bush’s National Security Council. You can see the 4 statutory members, and the two added in by NSPD-1.Establishment of the National Security CouncilThe National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL Stat. 496; U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.Membership of the National Security CouncilThe National Security Council is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the Vice President, the Attorney General, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Energy (2007), Secretary of Homeland Security, Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, representative of the US to the UN, White House COS, and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the statutory intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff to the President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attend any NSC meeting. On International Economic matters, Secretary of Commerce, US Trade Representative, Asst to President on Economic Policy, and the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers. When Homeland Security and Counter-Terrorism related issues are on the agenda, the NSC’s regular attendees will include the Asst to the President for Homeland Security and Counter Terrorism. When Science and Technology related issues are on the agenda, the NSC’s regular attendees will include the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The heads of other executive departments and agencies, and other senior officials, shall be invited to attend meetings of the NSC as appropriate. PPD1: 13 February 09National Security Council's FunctionThe National Security Council is the President's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under President Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies.XSpecifiedCommandUnified CommandCommanderFunctionalComponentCommandCommanderJointTaskForceCommanderSub-UnifiedCommandCommanderServiceComponentCommandOperational ResponsibilitiesSupport ResponsibilitiesCombatant CommandDirective AuthorityOperations PlanningStrategic DirectionMilitary AdviceOrganizeTrainEquipMaintainAssignSupport
18Joint Course on Logistics IntroductionOrganizational Structure for Joint PlanningJoint Strategic Planning SystemsContingency PlanningCrisis Action Planning
19Strategy Resources Contingency Plans We are now going to move into the PPBE system. This is from CJCSI The PPBE.(a) Each Military Department, Defense agency, and US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) are in the best position to determine its requirements for equipment and personnel needed to comply with the Strategic Planning Guidance (SPG). Management of resources is considered an internal matter in consonance with the statutory responsibility of each Military Department to organize, train, equip, and administer its own forces. The CJCS normally will not address matters of internal organization that are the primary responsibility of the Services, but this in no way abrogates statutory responsibility of the CJCS to review major personnel, material, and logistics requirements of the Armed Services in relation to strategic and operational plans.(b) Goldwater-Nichols legislation was the impetus for strengthening joint military participation in the management of DOD resources. Currently codified in Title 10 US Code, Armed Forces it provides the CJCS, Combatant Commanders, and the Joint Staff a greater voice in planning, programming, and budgeting.(c) As principal military advisor to the President and Secretary of Defense, the CJCS has statutory responsibility to assist the President and SECDEF in providing for strategic planning and direction, and to provide SECDEF advice on requirements, programs, and budget priorities identified by the Combatant Commanders. CJCS mechanisms to satisfy statutory responsibilities include the JSPS, FCB Process, JCB, and JROC which are discussed under separate instructions. Title 10 significantly strengthens the role of CJCS, Combatant Commander, and Joint Staff participation in the decision making process for allocation of resources.Title 10 USC. requires the CJCS to provide strategic direction and prepare strategic plans for the Armed Forces. The Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS) is the formal means by which CJCS, in consultation with the JCS and Combatant Commanders, discharges responsibility to give strategic plans and direction to the Armed Forces. The JSPS provides for a continuous study of the strategic environment. The principal mechanism for this study is the Joint Strategy Review. Strategic direction is provided through the Chairman’s Guidance (CG), Joint Vision 20XX (JVXX), and the NMS. The CG provides a common set of assumptions, priorities, intent, and critical planning factors required in the development of future strategies and plans. The Joint Vision document is a long-range vision that provides a common focal point for future planning and recommends concepts for operating within the projected security environment. Prepared in consultation with the Combatant Commanders and the JCS, the NMS conveys CJCS advice on strategic direction for the Armed Forces. The JPD supports the NMS by providing CJCS planning and broad level programming advice on military capabilities to the SECDEF early in the planning phase as the process of developing the SPG and JPG begins. The Directorate for Plans and Policy J-5 is the OPR for JSPS. Joint policy, guidance, responsibilities and functions of the JSPS are discussed in CJCSIContingency Plans
20JSPS and Related Systems StrategicDirectionProgrammingAdviceAssessmentPlansJSPSJSPSPoint out the different systemsComprehensive Joint Assessment (CJA): Basis for the JSR with input due 30 Sep each year from Joint Staff, Service, and combatant command assessments.Service and Combatant Commanders integrated response of capability to execute Title 10 /UCP responsibilitiesSecurity Environment assessment of the global environment for threat and opportunityCurrent Operations and Health of the ForceNear-Term Military Risk AssessmentNear-Term Risk Drivers and MitigationImplications for the Future ForceJSR Feeders:Joint Intelligence Estimate (JIE) J2 consolidated near-term inputs in a global view crossed walked with indications and warnings with most likely and most dangerous.Joint Strategic Assessment (JSA)A key point that can be illustrated upfront is civilian control of all of these processes. Highlight the documents in yellow.NSS National Security Strategy (Presidential product, shown in yellow)Joint Programming Guidance (JPG) (SecDef products, shown in yellow)Guidance for the Employment of the Force (GEF) (SecDef product shown in yellow)Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) (SecDef product shown in yellow)JSPSJSPSSMEACSituationMissionExecutionAdminC2The Gouge
21JSPS and Related Systems NSSStrategicDirectionProgrammingAdviceAssessmentPlansQDRCRAJSRNDSJSPSNMSGEFJSPSJSCPJOPES/APEXPLANsCPAFCBJROCPoint out the different systemsComprehensive Joint Assessment (CJA): Basis for the JSR with input due 30 Sep each year from Joint Staff, Service, and combatant command assessments.Service and Combatant Commanders integrated response of capability to execute Title 10 /UCP responsibilitiesSecurity Environment assessment of the global environment for threat and opportunityCurrent Operations and Health of the ForceNear-Term Military Risk AssessmentNear-Term Risk Drivers and MitigationImplications for the Future ForceJSR Feeders:Joint Intelligence Estimate (JIE) J2 consolidated near-term inputs in a global view crossed walked with indications and warnings with most likely and most dangerous.Joint Strategic Assessment (JSA)A key point that can be illustrated upfront is civilian control of all of these processes. Highlight the documents in yellow.NSS National Security Strategy (Presidential product, shown in yellow)Joint Programming Guidance (JPG) (SecDef products, shown in yellow)Guidance for the Employment of the Force (GEF) (SecDef product shown in yellow)Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) (SecDef product shown in yellow)CPRJSPSPPBEJPGJSPSIPLJFRRSROCCRSJCCAJTSPOMs
22Guidance to Combatant Commanders Joint Pub 1Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United StatesUCPUnified Command Plan (FOUO)Combatant Commander Command RelationshipsFaculty Note: This slide can either set up the slides following or can be used by itself with the remaining slides hidden. It is a matter of comfort with the topic.
23Over 4 million parts…each one built by the lowest bidder… BEST VALUE
24Joint Course on Logistics IntroductionOrganizational Structure for Joint PlanningJoint Strategic Planning SystemsContingency PlanningCrisis Action Planning
25Strategy Resources Contingency Plans NSS QDR CRA JSR NDS NMS FCB CPR JROCJPGThe real focus of this lesson is how strategy and resources work together, hopefully in concert to support contingency planning. Likewise, how do we ensure that the plans we develop support our strategy. We’ll examine the overall process to see how they all work together.CPAJFRRGEFJSCPContingency Plans
26Secretary of Defense Initiatives Realign five (5) Phases of Deliberate Planning into four (4) Functions of Contingency PlanningRedefined six (6) Phases of Crisis Action Planning into three (3) Functions.Sec Def Rumsfeld directed JCS to move the planning process away from the two (2) year development process that satisfied a deliberate Cold War planning requirement to a more responsive system that reflected the rapidly changing scope of the 21st century environment. This does not mean that all aspect of the old process were done away with, rather it allowed for use of more capable communications and planning tools to rapidly develop new strategic guidance, review assumptions, courses of action, plan development, plan review and supporting plans through an Contingency Planning Process. Contingency Planning was intended to be proactive in developing military options during times of emerging threats.Crisis Action Planning (CAP) was rewritten to also allow for more effective use of communications and planning tools. The three functions of CAP did not change the civil-military dialogue process but it reflected the change in response time necessary to develop courses of action to support deterrence, engagement, seize the initiative, and if necessary, decisive combat and transition as reflected in the four functions of military operations.
27JOPES Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Contingency PlanningStrategic GuidanceConceptDevelopmentPlanDevelopmentPlan AssessmentJSCPOPLANCONPLANsSCPCommander’sStrategicConcept- JOPES is designed as a flow matrixed process to help joint commanders and planners develop and execute war plans- It is a system of joint policies, processes, procedures and supported by ITCrisis Action PlanningExecutionSituational AwarenessOPORDPlanningCrisisNo PlanCampaign PlanOPORDs
28GEF Purpose – Consolidate Guidance Consolidating five separate documents forces holistic thinking about previously stove-piped planningContingencyPlanningGuidanceSecurityCooperationNuclearWeaponsGlobalPostureForce MgmtPurpose: A single strategic guidance document that directs planning for foreseeable, near-term (FY 08-10) operational activitiesConsolidates and streamlines 5 guidance initiatives into a single document. Built concurrently with the Chairman’s planning guidance (JSCP) and with input from StateEstablishes strong and clear linkages from strategy to operations/activities by providing strategic context for planningGuides development and integration of campaign, campaign support, and contingency plansIntegrates operational planning, force management, resources, and posture guidancePreviously GEF1. Planning system largely centered around Contingency planning done within broader context of individual scenarios/contingencies strategy and related campaign plan(s)2. Primarily focused on COCOMs DOD enterprise-wide guidance3. Predominant focus on combat operations Increased focus on security cooperation, other shaping activities, and stability operationsPlanning relatively unconstrained by resource Resource constraints explicitly recognized and addressedconsiderationsCOCOM assessments narrowly focused on theater Assessments tied to achievement of campaign plans’ strategicsecurity cooperation plan end statesGuidance forEmploymentof the ForceBuilt together by Task ForceJoint StrategicCapabilitiesPlan
29Global Force Management Force Apportionment Guidance for Contingency Planning (GFM Implementation Guidance: GFMIG)3 BinsForce Allocation Guidance [to the Global Force Management Board (GFMB)] for operations and shaping activities5 Tiers of PrioritiesManaging the force structure.4 June 08 GFMIGSection 2 “Forces For”Section 4 Apportionment
30New Apportionment Construct JSCP 06JSCP 08PlansForce BinsPlansForce BinsHDNORTHCOM/ELEMNORAD/PACOMHDNORTHCOM / PACOMUSELEMNORAD/SOUTHCOMHomeland Defense - HDHomeland Defense - HDXXXXXXXXCampaign 1Forces not available for planningCurrent OperationsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXNot a bad time to review the old construct of and compare it to how the QDR looked at the 4 critical challenges for force development as discussed in Lesson 3.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXCampaign 2XXXXXXXXXForces available for planningXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXNDS required the ability to conduct 2 overlapping campaignsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXProposed construct accounts for employed forcesEstablishes a more realistic start point for planningNot intended to be the equivalent of contingency sourcingImproves CCDR’s ability to assess military risk to execute a plan
31“Arranging Operations – Phasing” Design Element:“Arranging Operations – Phasing”Arranging operations is a broad term that includes more that phasing. This slide depicts a notional operation plan’s phases.There are a lot of joint concepts associated with arranging operations. Chapter IV of Joint Publication 5-0 includes a number of these concepts to include having appropriate force flow (with an effective TPFDD), sustainment, phasing and transitions, branches and sequels, and operational pauses. The focus in this class is on phasing and transitions, but all of the other concepts are equally as important.Two of the key concepts for arranging operations are phasing and transitions. What is the purpose for phasing in operational design?What does the joint phasing construct look like? What are the notional operation plan phases in a campaign?From Joint Publication 5-0: Phasing is a way to view and conduct a complex joint operation in manageable parts. The main purpose of phasing is to integrate and synchronize related activities, thereby enhancing flexibility and unity of effort during execution. Reaching the end state often requires arranging a major operation or campaign in several phases. Consequently, operational design provides for related phases implemented over time. Phases in an OPLAN are sequential, but during execution there will often be some simultaneous and overlapping execution of the activities within the phases. In a campaign, each phase can represent a single major operation, while in a major operation a phase normally consists of several subordinate operations or a series of related activities.As a general rule, the phasing of the campaign or operation should be conceived in event-driven rather than time-driven terms. However, resource availability depends in large part on time-constrained activities and factors — such as sustainment or deployment rates — rather than the events associated with the operation. The challenge for planners, then, is to reconcile the reality of time-oriented deployment of forces and sustainment with the event driven phasing of operations.Before we move on from the operational design element of arranging operations we must briefly discuss two key terms related to this element, branch and sequel.31JP 5-0, p. IV-34 (26 Dec 2006)
32Relationship of Planning Efforts Theater Campaign PlanDOD Global Campaign PlanDOD Global Campaign PlanDOD Global Campaign PlanCampaign(s)SubordinateCampaignPlansXXXYYYZZZIndicates a supporting campaign plan synchronized with a Global Campaign PlanHere again, the campaign plan developer will not be the only one responsible for executing a plan. The hierarchical nature dictates that these plans will transcend regional and functional areas of responsibility.Indicates campaign or contingency plans nested under a Theater Campaign PlanContingencyPlansXXXYYYZZZ########Contingency plans to subordinate campaign plans are not stand alone plans, but are branches to the subordinate campaign plans.
33The Never-ending Theater Campaign Plan (TCP) TCP (security cooperation/Phase 0)Contingency as a branch plan from the TCPOnce the contingency is over, the end state is back to day-to-day military activities (phase 0, which is the theater campaign plan)The end-state thatdoesn’t end (NSS objectives and interests)
34Security Cooperation/Shaping Activities The COCOM campaign plan is the mechanism for organizing, integrating and prioritizing security cooperation activitiesGlobal Core PartnersGlobal End State(s)COCOM Regional or Functional End State(s)Critical PartnershipsKey Supporting PartnershipsCountries of ConcernWhen one looks at phasing of an operation, this clearly indicates how the Phase 0 requirements influence where exercises etc will take place.Nationaland Multinational InfluenceSecurity Cooperation Focus AreasDefense Exports and International CollaborationSecurity Sector ReformIntelligenceand Information SharingInter- operabilityOperational CapacityandCapabilityOperational Access and Global Freedom of ActionAssurance and Regional Confidence BuildingSecurity Cooperation Activities/Tools
35There is no better diplomat than a naval aviator on liberty!!
36Campaign Planning Efforts Global/Functional CampaignsGlobal War on TerrorHomeland DefenseDefense Support of Civil AuthoritiesGlobal Pandemic InfluenzaCombating WMDStrategic Deterrence & Global StrikeCyberspaceSpaceRegional CampaignsUSAFRICOMUSCENTCOMUSEUCOMUSNORTHCOMUSPACOMUSSOUTHCOMThis represents the areas that will be divided between the Combatant Commanders for planning. In the case of Functional Plans they will impact Regional responsibilities as supporting commanders.
37JOPES Functions and Joint Planning ThreatIdentification& AssessmentStrategyDeterminationCOADevelopmentDetailedPlanningImplementationContingencyPlanningIIIPlanDevelopmentJSPSIPR CIPR FIIConcept DevelopmentDuring the next series of slides and throughout the remainder of the Joint Planning Orientation Course we will continue to describe and explain these elements of Contingency and crisis action planning beginning with Strategic Guidance and its elements.IVPlan AssessmentIPR AIStrategic GuidanceIPR RJSCPWarning OrderPlanning OrderCrisis ActionPlanningExecute OrderSituation AwarenessPlanningExecutionAlertOrder
38Initiation Strategic Guidance Concept Development Plan Development The JOPP (formerly known as MDMP). These are the “Enduring Elements of Planning” and the focus of JCWS instruction.Again - these are common to both Contingency and CAP, as well as to joint organizations who may not have associated JOPES products. It is more important to know and understand the basic process, rather than the specific JOPES products. Therefore we have based JCWS JPP on this slide. This is our JPP foundation slide.For reference the “planning functions” are placed next to the appropriate JOPP steps.The blue arrow on the right side shows where this class is in the JOPP.Note: JOPP may change to a different name when the 5-0 is finalized.Concept DevelopmentPlan Development
39JOPP Generic Receive and analyze required tasks. Review and refine adversary situationDevelop and compare alternative courses of action.Select the best course of action.Submit and gain concept approval.Prepare a plan based on approved concept.Complete the planning document.The JOPP restated in a slightly different format. This is the generic process. JOPES will specify the different process and products for the JPEC to use during Contingency and CAP.06 Feb 2006JFSC / JCWS
40JOPP Step 1: Initiation CJCSM 3122 (JOPES) specifies JPEC Milestones, deliverables and interaction pointsDifferences between Contingency and CAPContingency InitiationCPG / SGS / JSCPCommander’s GuidanceFormation of planning team (JPG, OPG, etc)CAP InitiationWarning Ord / Planning Ord / Alert OrdThis is where we are today. At JCWS we use a simulated JSCP (JFSC Pub 5). In this class we will give handouts that details commander’s guidance, other guidance and planning aides, form the JPG, and give a planning timeline.06 Feb 2006JFSC / JCWS
41JOPP Step 2 (FC Draft JP 5-0 Jan ’06) JOPP Step 2. JIPB may be done prior to, or in conjunction with, mission analysis. It is the J-2’s responsibility to develop the JIPB, however the planning staff must continue to work with the J-2 throughout the planning process to refine the JIPB as required for the specific end state, mission, and plan being developed.
42JTF Commander's Orientation PACOM Commander's IntentPurpose: Provide immediate life sustaining support to the GOB, reduce further loss of life, mitigate human suffering.Key Tasks:Designate COMMARFORPAC as CDR-JTFPreposition Relief Supplies and Equipment in anticipation of support request.BPT to conduct operations as part of a multi-national relief effort or in support of a third countryBPT establish a joint logistics hub in the vicinity of BurmaConduct FHA in support of OFDATransition FHA functions to other agencies as soon as practicalRedeploy/Reposition forces upon completion of the mission or as directed.Endstate: Demand for Emergency Relief decreased to the point where GOB and the humanitarian community can meet relief requirements and begin recovery operations without U.S. Military Assistance. Human suffering is alleviated. U.S. Forces are safely redeployed.
43JTF Specified Tasks (1/3) (1) BPT PROVIDE DISASTER RELIEF SUPPORT IN COORDINATION WITH USAID/OFDA.(2) PROVIDE JTF-CDR'S ESTIMATE WITH COURSES OF ACTION AND RECOMMENDED COURSE OF ACTION TO USPACOM J3 NLT ZMAY08.(3) DEVELOP SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND CONDUCT ASSESSMENTS IN SUPPORT OF FHA RELIEF OPERATIONS TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.(4) BPT PROVIDE MOBILITY ASSETS IN SUPPORT OF RELIEF EFFORTS AS REQUIRED.(5) BPT DELIVER FOOD, WATER, EMERGENCY MEDICAL SUPPORT, MEDICINE AND OTHER RELIEF SUPPLIES AS REQUIRED.(6) BPT PROVIDE LIMITED TRANSPORTATION OF DISPLACED PERSONS TO DESIGNATED AREAS FROM LOCATIONS INACCESSIBLE TO HN TRANSPORTATION ASSETS.
44JTF Implied Tasks (1/1) Establish FCE in Rangoon Establish HN / JTF coordination element in RangoonEstablish LNOs with MPAT for coordination/deconfliction with International Aid agencies.BPT Establish FOB or FARPs in Thailand/Burma as required.Establish Air C2 concept to deconflict JTF tactical and operational air with HN and Non-DOD aviationSeek clearance to fly non-DOD personnel and supplies
45Assumptions (1/2)SECDEF WILL DIRECT USPACOM TO ASSIST WITH DISASTER RELIEF IN BURMA.USPACOM FORCES WILL EXECUTE OPERATIONS AS A PART OF A MULTI-NATIONAL RELIEF EFFORT OR IN SUPPORT OF THE EFFORTS OF A THIRD COUNTRY.BURMA WILL REQUEST U.S. HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE.BURMA WILL PROVIDE FORCE PROTECTION FOR US FORCES IF ALLOWED IN THE COUNTRY.GOB WILL DIRECT OVERALL RELIEF EFFORT.GROUND TRANSPORTATION NETWORK IN THE AFFECTED AREAS OF BURMA IS SERIOUSLY DEGRADED OR UNUSABLE.
46Proposed Mission Statement CDRUSSOUTHCOM conducts PHASE II (RELIEF) ISO the USAMB/Country Team in coordination with MINUSTAH/ NGOs/OGA/USAID IOT mitigate near term human suffering and accelerate recovery in Haiti. BPT transition to PHASE III (RESTORATION).
47Proposed JTF MissionO/O, JTF conducts Humanitarian Assistance (HA) and Disaster Relief (DR) Operations IVO Central Burma to support International relief efforts IOT reduce further loss of life and mitigate human suffering.
49COA Balanced Response OPS LOG Deploy HMM-262 det/ HMM-265 CH-53 det/ HM-14 det to UtaphaoDeploy HMM-265 aboard 31st MEU/ ESX ARG in MODLOC vic Gulf of MartabanEstablish FOB in Mae Sot, THEstablish FARP at Rangoon Intl, MYOPS and LOG nodesJTF HQ/1st MAW Khorat, TH3rd MEB proposed FARP RangoonMae Sot FOBIntermediate Logistics Staging BaseMain relief aid distribution pointRapidly establish initial relief capabilityBuild to maximum capacity asresources and authorities allow.Conduct assessmentsDeploy FCE to BurmaProject aid relief fwd from Utaphao via KC/C-130s and Mai Sot to Rangoon when authorized12524334FRDPFOB3MFPOPSLOG11223 MEB314FOB45C2 LinksFRDPForward Refuel/Distribution Pt
53JOPPStep 7Note: CONOPS development is shown as the first step of Plan Development. It most probably will become the final step of Concept Development. But the process will remain the same.
54Plan Development PURPOSE: STEP 1FORCEJOPESVOLUME IICJCSM B28 February 2006PLANNING FORMATSSTEP 2SUPPORTPURPOSE:To identify all forces needed to accomplish the Concept of Operations. Build the force list.STEP 3CHEMICALNUCLEARSTEP 4TRANSPORTATIONSTEP 5NEOFORCE PLANNINGa. Introduction. The purpose of force planning is to identify all forces needed to accomplish the concept of operations and phase them into the theater of operations. Force planning is based on CJCS, Service, and USSOCOM (for special operations) guidance and doctrine. It consists of force requirement determination, force list development and refinement in light of force availability, and force shortfall identification and resolution. Force planning is ultimately the responsibility of the supported commander, but the components do most of the work.(1) The original task-assigning instrument, the JSCP or other such directive, identifies major combat forces. Tasks assigned in the UCP and JP 1 generally use inplace forces already under the combatant command, however with global force management this has become more complicated. Forces apportioned for use in making plans will be those projected to be available during the JSCP period at the level of mobilization specified for planning. SecDef or CJCS approval is required when CCDR initiated plans cannot be supported with apportioned resources. The strategic concept must clearly identify the principal combat forces required by the proposed concept of operations.(2) A total force list includes much more than just major combat troops. Combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) forces, as well as smaller units of combat forces, are essential to the success of any military operation. The most up-to-date guidance on combat and support capabilities and methods of employment is available in Service planning documents and directly from Service headquarters commands.STEP 6SHORTFALL IDENTIFICATIONSTEP 7TRANSPORTATION FEASIBILITY ANALYSISSTEP 8TPFDD REFINEMENTSTEP 9DOCUMENTATIONSTEP 10PLAN REVIEW
55Combatant Commander’s The Movement of ForcesMobilizationStationHomeIntermediateLocationOriginPort ofEmbarkationterm:date:ORIGRLDPOEALDILOC- The importance of this chart is not to talk transportation specifically. Need to backward plan from the Combatant Commander Required Date (CRD) which is specified by the Combatant Commander for arrival of forces or cargo at destination. What this allows us to do is identify the types of support and forces which will be necessary to support the deployment. (APE units, terminal transfer, truck and POL, etc)visualize the movement of forces through possibly eight points to their destination- Preparation time for loading units and transit times between points are all considered in the deployment planning process-- Required Delivery Date (RDD) is based on the concept of operations-- Joint Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RJSOI) represents the total requirement from a unit marrying up with pre-positioned materiel to a subordinate unit joining with its parent organization.-- At the Port of Debarkation two dates are considered, the Earliest Arrival Date (EAD) that a unit/shipment can be accepted at its POD from strategic list, and the Latest Arrival Date (LAD) that a unit/shipment can arrive at POD and still move to its destination by RDD (close the force)-- Strategic Staging from POE to POD is deployment planning-- Intermediate Location may be necessary for training or staging-- Available To Load Date (ALD) -a unit is available to move from its Port of Embarkation (POE); often same as origin and is the place that strategic movement begins-- Origin is where a unit is located. Active-duty is usually home station, and reserve is mobilization station. The unit assembly station is normally the origin.-- Ready To Load Date (RLD) - a unit is ready to move from its origin.EmploymentStrategicStagingReceptionStagingOnwardMovementPort ofDebarkationIntegrationPODDESTPREPORDD/CRDEAD LADEarliest, LatestArrival DateRequiredDeliveryDateCombatant Commander’sRequired Date
56I knew I should have stayed awake during the JPOC when Sledge talked about TPFDDs!!
57Reference Times for Planning EMPLOYMENTD-day(H-hour)Military Operation Begins(specific hour operation begins)THEATERDEPLOYMENTC-day(L-hour)(N-day)Deployment Operation Begins(specific hour deployment begins)(Day unit notified, e.g., AMC mission support)PODSTRATEGICDEPLOYMENTPOENATIONALMOBILIZATIONForce Mobilization Begins(SECDEF announcement to mobilizereserve forces)M-day(F-hour)ORIGA F S CJP666c 5D#3-g
58Plan Development PURPOSE: Identify the quantities of STEP 1FORCEJOPESVOLUME IICJCSM B28 February 2006PLANNING FORMATSSTEP 2SUPPORTPURPOSE:Identify the quantities ofsupplies, equipment andreplacement personnelto sustain the force.STEP 3CHEMICALNUCLEARSTEP 4TRANSPORTATIONSTEP 5NEOThis slide shows the steps for Plan development. It is intended that you will just show this as a place holder to focus students on where this step is in the process.SUPPORT PLANNINGThe purpose of support planning is to identify the quantities of supplies, equipment, and replacement personnel required to sustain the forces identified in Step 1, and phase their movement into the theater to support the concept of operations. Support planning determines the quantities of supply by broad category and converts them into weights and volumes that can be compared to lift capability. Thus, they become calculations of phased movements that become deployment movement requirements. The intent is not to identify the detailed levels of particular supplies, but to identify and phase into the theater the gross quantities of needed sustainment. These quantities are based on the number and types of C, CS, and CSS units to be employed in the operation. Support planning is completed when all significant supply, equipment, and personnel requirements have been determined, consolidated by the supported commander, and then entered into the TPFDD file for the plan.(1) Sustainment capability is a function of U.S. logistics capability, inter- Service and inter-allied support, Service guidance, theater guidance, and the resulting time-phasing. Appropriate combat support agencies and the General Services Administration (GSA) give the Services planning information concerning the origin and availability of non-Service-controlled materiel. (2) The actual support calculation uses consumption rates developed and maintained by the Services under their responsibility to supply, equip, and maintain their forces assigned to combatant commanders. This calculation is generally made by the component commanders, who refer to Service and USSOCOM planning guidelinesSTEP 6SHORTFALL IDENTIFICATIONSTEP 7TRANSPORTATION FEASIBILITY ANALYSISSTEP 8TPFDD REFINEMENTSTEP 9DOCUMENTATIONSTEP 10PLAN REVIEW
59Support Planning Additional considerations Must be added separately SupplyBuildupUnit-RelatedNon-Unit-RelatedT U C H AAdditionalaccompanyingsuppliesSustainingsuppliesPWRSResupplyLAD+5+10+30+60PipelineopensAdditionalconsiderationsEPWCivilAffairsSpecialMaterialsCESPMedicalMust be addedseparatelyA F S CJP160c D#5-g
60Plan Development PURPOSE: Solve the complex strategic movement STEP 1FORCEJOPESVOLUME IICJCSM B28 February 2006PLANNING FORMATSSTEP 2SUPPORTSTEP 3CHEMICALNUCLEARSTEP 4TRANSPORTATIONSTEP 5NEOThis slide shows the steps for Plan development. It is intended that you will Just show this as a place holder to focus students on where this step is in the process.Focus here is that we have now returned from the efforts of the component staffs to the staff of the Unified commander. It’s their job to put the TPFDD together.Chemical/Nuclear Planning. Time-phased chemical/nuclear requirements will be developed as force records in a stand-alone PID.The supported commander does transportation planning. These steps outline the procedures to solve the complex strategic movement problems. The task is to simulate the strategic movement of requirements generated by the component planners during force planning and support planning steps using organic lift and apportioned common-user strategic transportation resources. The goal in transportation planning is to produce a feasible strategic transportation movement to support the Commander’s plan, a very difficult and complex thing to do. It is an iterative process: if the simulation of movement indicates that the forces and nonunit supplies cannot be moved in time, planners identify the problems, evaluate their impact on the overall plan, incorporate solutions, and simulate the strategic move again. In order to insure all lift requirements are identified NEO Planning is conducted. This will be the only time during this lesson in which NEO is discussed so spend a few moments detailing what NEO planning is intended to do and how it might impact programmed force flow. The supported command develops time-phased noncombatant evacuation requirements in coordination with the Department of State and USTRANSCOM. This requirement is entered into the deployment TPFDD, or into the retrograde TPFDD if a separate TPFDD for retrograde has been developed.STEP 6SHORTFALL IDENTIFICATIONPURPOSE:Solve the complex strategic movementby simulating the movement of forces, planning for NEO requirements, and support to identify shortfalls and analyze alternatives.STEP 7TRANSPORTATION FEASIBILITY ANALYSISSTEP 8TPFDD REFINEMENTSTEP 9DOCUMENTATIONSTEP 10PLAN REVIEW
61The Strategic Transportation Challenge Identifythe TotalTransportationRequirements...Describe TheminLogisticalTerms...SimulatetheStrategic Move...ShortTonsSquareFeetUsingCommon-UserLiftMovementCriteriaLogistic estimates and strategic transportation is probably the most crucial problem for thelogistician-- Are the COAs logistically supportable?-- Can the forces identified be deployed using the strategic transportation assets apportioned?-- Can the forces be sustained?All of these things must be considered in the estimate process by logisticiansCubicFeetPassengersA F S CJP675C 7D# g
63Mobility Tradeoffs – Goal: Optimize Capability ConcreteAir:$129M Sea:$5.5MHDRAir:$17.6M Sea:$360K1 LMSR = 420 C-17sThere are definitely warfighting and economic advantages of using sealift when possible and freeing-up our airlift assets for the missions necessitating the speed of airlift. Sealift has been demonstrated as cost effective and can meet the warfighters needs with earlier identification of lift requirements.Early collaborative planning for Operation IRAQI FREEDOM helped develop a good plan to rely on sealift vice reacting with airlift. Also helped with diplomatic clearances for access to other countries.An LMSR can move the equivalent of 420 C-17 loads. The real bonus is the next morning when another LMSR arrives with another 420 C-17 loads, and in the afternoon, an FSS arrives with 229 C-17 loads.At OEF inception, the target planning numbers of 65% LMSR stow factor and 35 STON C-17 load yielded a ratio of 1 LMSR = 302 C-17’s.Actual reported numbers from OEF/OIF showed a 65% LMSR stow factor and a 28.8 STON C-17 load to yield a ratio of 1 LMSR = 420 C-17’s.This is not a pitch for sealift over airlift; it’s to emphasize the necessity for collaborative planning to move things most effectively for all users including deployment and sustainment ops…it’s really about war fighting distribution.(Constrained airlift capacity vs. nearly limitless sealift capacity equalizes time factor…2-3 days by aircraft or 3-4 weeks by ship (with many more days for 420 airlift loads))CostBombsAir:$235M Sea:$10.7MD-50D-10RDDD-60D-30D-40D-20But We TypicallyOperate Here!We Want toBe Here…Time?3-4 Weeks (ship)vs.2-3 Days (aircraft)TimeConstrained Resources… Premium on Right Asset, Right Mission!
64Worldwide Pre-positioned Assets NorwayUSMCUSNUSAFLuxembourgUSAFSouth KoreaUSNUSAUSAFGermanyUSAFGAO Report 2005:Notes updated 20 Jun 02: This chart provides a global laydown of some of the strategic and critical pieces of our prepositioned stocks are located. The locations of the PREPO ships change from time to time, but the general strategic positioning as depicted on this chart is relatively accurate.Army - APS-2 – prepo ashore Army War Reserve Operational Projects (AWROP), and Bde and Bn sized prepo equip sets (AWRPS) of materiel. 2 armor heavy -- 2 armor bns and 1 mech inf bn – bde (2X1 BDE) sets in 4 storage sites in the BENELUX (Central Region); 1 2X2 BDE set stored at Livorno, Italy (Southern Region); and 1 field arty bn stored in Norway (Northern Region).-APS-3– 2x2 BDE set prepo afloat in the PACOM/CENTCOM AOR. Currently, APS-3 consists of 15 ships with 4 capabilities. (1) an armored bde unit equip set with 15 days critical supplies; (2) theater opening CS/CSS equip sets; (3) a contingency corps’ first 30 days critical sustainment stocks; and (4) port opening equip and water craft. Army will field a 2nd bde set afloat (1X1 BDE), referred to as the 8th BDE, starting in April FY02 - APS-4 – set of AWRS stocks, AWROP, and 2X1 Brigade sized equip set (AWRPS) of materiel, and War Reserve Stocks for Allies - Korea (WRSA-K), in the PACOM AOR. WRSA-K is a US owned, ROK intended stockpile APS-5 – Kuwait and Qatar, (SWA). Kuwait: 2X1 Armor Bde Set with CS/CSS support, and selected equip that supports a portion of the Div Base (FA, ADA, Aviation, Signal, Engineer, MP, and Chemical units). Qatar: 2X1 BDE Set, and the remainder of the Div Base requirement; and sustainment stocks.- Force Provider is a contingency capability set of equipment designed to enable rear area rest and relaxation support to a bn sized element (550 personnel) of a combat bde. The Army plans to buy 36 sets of this modularly designed containerized equipment. Current status: nineteen on hand.Air Force - Harvest Falcon – modular sets configured to three particular functional capabilities – housekeeping or billeting, flight-line ops spt, and industrial ops. Designed to house an AEF/fighter wing of 1100 personnel at a remote and austere airfield having only a runway and a water source. Harvest Falcon designed to spt AF personnel in bare base in SWA. Represents a total of 55,000 personnel at 15 austere AEF locations. 50 housekeeping sets authorized with 47 on hand. 40 flight-line sets authorized with 33 on hand. 15 of 15 industrial ops sets on hand.-Harvest Eagle – modular sets primarily for billeting 550 (some divided to facilitate 275 personnel). 8 in PACOM, 4 in EUCOM, and 8 (of 12 authorized) retained in CONUS depot (ACC assets). 24 sets auth/20 on hand.- Afloat Prepositioned Munitions - 3 MSC ships of which 2 normally operate in the vic of Diego Garcia and 1 in the Med. AF is reviewing the locations. Ships contain a mix of approx 15% PM with various types of non-guided air munitions accounting for the remaining 85%.Marine Corps: strategic positioned equip and War Reserve assets include the MPF 15 MPS arrayed into 3 MPSRON. Each MPSRON spts a bde sized MAGTF; in stream or pier-side offload; 30 days of sustainment for the TF. ACE each MPSRON includes fixed and rotary wing assets, which arrive separately in the Fly-In-Echelon (FIE)(are not prepositioned). Prepo materiel in Europe with the Marine Corps Pre-positioning Program-Norway (MCPP-N), a bde-sized MAGTF including sustainment. The Geopositioning Program in Norway has evolved into a relevant spt option with the Out-of-Area policy of NALMEB Equipment and Supplies (E/S). MARFOR and Norway allow the use of the NALMEB E/S for exercise and ops use. 2 ships added under the MPF Enhancement program. FY02, 1 more ship to MPSRON 3 making it 16 ships. These ships owned by DoD, vice long term lease of the original 13 ships. Program represents additional capability for: 500 bed fleet hospital, Expeditionary Air Field, Naval Mobile Construction Bn assets.Navy: 2 MSC hospital ships in a Reduced Operating Status (ROS), a containerized 500 bed deployable Combat Zone Fleet Hospital positioned afloat. 9 other 500 bed hospitals prepositioned Norway, Guam, other sites.Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) 3 prepositioned fuel tankers carrying JP-5 fuel. 2 ships outfitted with an Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS). OPDS provides discharge thru undersea pipeline system while the tanker remains up to 4 miles off-shore. DESC control of 5 other commercial contract tankers for general product movements. Vessels generally posit to support: Europe (1); US Gulf (1); Western Pacific (1); and the US West Coast (2). DESC uses spot market chartering for short notice and opportunity fuel requirements.ItalyUSAKuwaitUSAUSAFJapanUSNUSAFBahrainUSNUSAFMediterraneanUSMCUSNUSAFQatarUSAFOmanUSAFGuamUSAFGuam/SaipanUSMCUSNUSAUSAFDiego GarciaUSMCUSNUSAUSAFAshoreAfloat
65Shortfall Resolution Refine priorities Adjust origin to POE to POD routing and timingChange lift modesLink forces to pre-positioned resourcesEnhance preparedness with base developmentSeek additional assetsConclude contractual agreements or inter-Service support agreementsArrange for HNS where feasibleEmploy combination of aboveRedefine concept of operations
66Plan Review Group Combatant Commands Services National Guard Bureau Joint Staff directorateDefense agenciesCJCS action. The Director for Operational Plans and Joint Force Development (DJ-7) is responsible for managing the process of developing operational plans outside of a crisis action environment. SMEs are consulted as required. Reviews are processed under the provisions of CJCSI D. The process from start to finish should be nine months for plan approval with a nine month IPR-R review cycle in case after approval unless significant triggers alter the plan requiring a earlier review.Review Pages A-5 through A-11 of CJCSI DCJCSI D identifies the JPEC membership as the combatant commands, theServices, the National Guard Bureau, all Joint Staff directorates (includingOCJCS Legal Counsel, Public Affairs, and National Guard and Reserve Affairs),and the following DOD agencies:(a) Defense Intelligence Agency(b) Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)(c) Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)(d) National Security Agency (NSA)/Central Security Service(e) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency(f) Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA)(g) Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA)
67Joint Course on Logistics IntroductionOrganizational Structure for Joint PlanningJoint Strategic Planning SystemsContingency PlanningCrisis Action Planning
69I hope my SATs are high enough for the Naval Academy They have to take me…my Dad’s an admiral!!
70What is a crisis?“An incident or situation involving a threat to the United States, its territories, citizens, military forces, possessions, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that commitment of U.S. military forces and resources is contemplated to achieve national objectives.”JP 1-02Highlight that a nation will consider any action that threatens its vital interests as a requirement to respond automatically and consider which element of DIME is appropriate to use for its Grand Strategy. However, quite often less than vital interests will direct action when some might not consider it important.
71State / Energy Department The PlayersWhite HouseSituation RoomGovernmentAgenciesState / Energy DepartmentOSDDefenseAgenciesDISADTRADLANGACJCSJCSJt StaffServicesArmyNavyAir ForceMarine CorpsCoast GuardNGBIntelligenceAgenciesDuring Contingency planning JPEC participates, therefore when a crisis occurs, the actions that take place during peacetime have to be employed more rapidly. That is why it is incumbent upon all of us to understand the process and how we participate in it and what each of us brings to the fight.DNIDIACIANSANMCCCombatant CommandsCentral Command Joint Forces CommandEuropean Command Special Operations CommandNorthern Command Strategic CommandPacific Command Transportation CommandSouthern Command
72CAP Process Allows Rapid exchange of pertinent information Analysis of situations affecting possible COAsDevelopment of feasible COAsDecisionmaking process to select best COAsCoordination of plans and orders to implement decisions madeCAP does not provide the answers, you do. CAP like Contingency Planning is the Joint methodology to insure the best options are provided to our civilian leadership.
73Political-Military Actions and the “Interagency” Policy“War is a continuation of Policy by other means” On War Carl Von Clausewitz. Thus all actions conducted to achieve military objectives are completed to achieve political objectives. In the context of DIME therefore, coordination/interagency is a critical element of civil military relations during PEACE and WAR.This is where we originally started to talk about PDD-56. Well, PDD-56 has been rescinded by President Bush. However, he signed NSPD-1 and that allows for interagency involvement, similar to the PDD from President Clinton. In the notes pages for the next few slides I will include info from NSPD-1.National Security Presidential Directives shall replace both Presidential Decision Directives and Presidential Review Directives as an instrument for communicating presidential decisions about the national security policies of the United States. National security includes the defense of the United States of America, protection of our constitutional system of government, and the advancement of United States interests around the globe. National security also depends on America's opportunity to prosper in the world economy. The NationalSecurity Act of 1947, as amended, established the National Security Council to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. That remains its purpose. The NSC shall advise and assist me in integrating all aspects of national security policy as it affects the United States -- domestic, foreign, military, intelligence, and economics (in conjunction with the National Economic Council (NEC)). The National Security Council system is a process to coordinate executive departments and agencies in the effective development and implementation of those national security policies.MilitaryOperations
74ImportanceSensible and realistic policy-making creates opportunities for progressInteragency planning can make or break an operationFailure to integrate civil dimension… Undermines unity of effort Pressures military to do more Lengthens the duration of commitmentsEarly involvement in planning accelerates contributions of civilian agenciesMulti-dimensional TasksDiplomatic collaborationCease-fire / Disengagement / StabilizationPrisoner exchangeWeapons control / DemobilizationDeminingHumanitarian reliefRefugee / Displaced person returnElections / DemocratizationWar crimes tribunalPolice and criminal justiceCivil and social orderEconomic restoration
75Deciding to Intervene How did we get where we are? Mission/Objective Alternative means to achieve objectiveTolerance for what level of violence?Support for use of forceFinancial and logisticalExit strategyDefinition of victoryIn consideration of the political dimension of the potential intervention, the decision makers provide alternatives and rationale for the use of force through the principals committee:The NSC Principals Committee (NSC/PC) will continue to be the senior interagency forum for consideration of policy issues affecting national security, as it has since The NSC/PC regular attendees are the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Chief of Staff to the President, and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (who shall serve as chair). The Director of Central Intelligence and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall attend where issues pertaining to their responsibilities and expertise are to be discussed.The NSC Deputies Committee (NSC/DC) will also continue to serve as the senior sub-Cabinet interagency forum for consideration of policy issues affecting national security. The NSC/DC can prescribe and review the work of the NSC interagency groups discussed later in this directive. The NSC/DC shall also help ensure that issues being brought before the NSC/PC or the NSC have been properly analyzed and prepared for decision.Management of the development and implementation of national security policies by multiple agencies of the United States Government shall usually be accomplished by the NSC Policy Coordination Committees (NSC/PCCs). The NSC/PCCs shall be the main day-to-day for a for interagency coordination of national security policy. They shall provide policy analysis for consideration by the more senior committees of the NSC system and ensure timely responses to decisions made by the President.
76JOPES Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Contingency PlanningStrategic GuidanceConceptDevelopmentPlanDevelopmentPlan AssessmentJSCPOPLANCONPLANsSCPCommander’sStrategicConcept- JOPES is designed as a flow matrixed process to help joint commanders and planners develop and execute war plans- It is a system of joint policies, processes, procedures and supported by ITCrisis Action PlanningExecutionSituational AwarenessOPORDPlanningCrisisNo PlanCampaign PlanOPORDs
77Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisUS Government(OSD, JS, COCOMs, Interagency)Monitor the situationIdentify that an event has occurredRecognize that the event is a problem or potential problemReport the eventAssess the eventCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSIn CAP, situation monitoring encompasses five related activities —monitoring the global situation;identifying that an event has occurred;recognizing that the event is a problem or a potential problem;reporting the event;and assessing the event.An event is an occurrence assessed as out of the ordinary and viewed as potentially having an adverse impact on US national interests and national security. The recognition of the event as a problem or potential problem follows from the observation.
78Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCommander’s AssessmentInformation on situationAction being taken within ROEForces availableTimeframe for commitment of forcesMajor constraints or restraints for employment of forcesCOAs under considerationCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSRegardless of the source, the initial report of the event should be as timely and accurate as the unfolding situation permits. The military focal point for receiving and providing information crucial to national security is the NMCC. The NMCC and the CCDRs share data collection activities and products through a collaborative environment. The NMCC monitors the global situation, requests reports from the CCDRs, evaluates the supported commander’s actions being taken under the ROE, and coordinates additional intelligence gathering, if necessary. The Chairman, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the CCDRs, advises the President and Secretary as the situation develops.The CCDR’s Assessment provides the President, Secretary, and Chairman with a personal assessment of actions being considered or actions already taken. The assessment normally includes amplifying information regarding the situation, actions being taken, forces available, expected time for earliest commitment of forces, and major operational limitations on the employment of forces. If the time sensitivity of the situation is such that normal CAP procedures cannot be followed, the CCDR’s assessment may also include a COA recommendation. The assessment then serves as the commander’s estimate normally prepared during COA development. For this reason, the supported commander’s initial assessment can have great influence. Lack of time may make the supported commander’s assessment the only alternative considered by the President, Secretary, and Chairman when making the decision to develop military options to resolve a situation.The President and Secretary can either continue monitoring the situation, return to the pre-crisis situation without further planning action, or initiate more detailed planning. Their decision to develop military options for their consideration and possible use provides strategic guidance for joint operation planning and may include specific guidance on COAs to be developed. Regardless of which decision the President or Secretary makes, the Chairman expeditiously transmits it in an appropriate order to the supported commander and other JPEC members.
79Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSWarning OrderIssued by CJCSContains Mission Statement-- Objectives-- Constraints/ Restraints-- Tentative Forces Available-- Command RelationshipsRequests Cdr’s Estimate-- Develop COAsWhen the President, Secretary, or Chairman decides to develop military options, the Chairman issues a planning directive to the JPEC initiating the development of COAs and requesting that the supported commander submit a commander’s estimate of the situation with a recommended COA to resolve the situation. Normally, the directive will be a WARNORD, but a PLANORD or ALERTORD may be used if the nature and timing of the crisis warrant accelerated planning. In a quickly evolving crisis, the initial WARNORD may be communicated vocally with a follow-on record copy to ensure that the JPEC is kept informed. If the directive contains force deployment preparation or deployment orders, Secretary approval is required.The WARNORD describes the situation, establishes command relationships, and identifies the mission and any planning constraints. It may identify forces and strategic mobility resources, or it may request that the supported commander develop these factors. It may establish tentative dates and times to commence mobilization, deployment or employment; or it may solicit the recommendations of the supported commander regarding these dates and times. If the President, Secretary, or Chairman directs development of a specific COA, the WARNORD will describe the COA and request the supported commander’s assessment.
80Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSIn response to the WARNORD, the supported commander, in collaboration with subordinate and supporting commanders and the rest of the JPEC, reviews existing joint plans for applicability and develops, analyzes, and compares COAs. Based on the supported commander’s guidance, supporting commanders begin their planning activities.Although an existing plan almost never align with an emerging crisis, it can be used to facilitate rapid COA development. An existing OPLAN can be modified to fit the specific situation. An existing CONPLAN can be fully developed beyond the stage of an approved CONOPS. The TPFDDs related to specific OPLANs are stored in the JOPES database and available to the JPEC for review.Course of Action (COA) PlanningReview Existing Plans for ApplicabilityDevelop COAsAnalyze COAsCompare COAs
81Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSCOAPlanningWhen a supported commander develops courses of action and prepares a plan or order per JOPES in response to a CJCS WARNORD, the commander submits an estimate that analyzes various COAs that may be used to accomplish the assigned mission, and recommends the best COA. Although the estimate prepared at the supported commander’s level may be detailed, the version submitted to the Chairman typically will be abbreviated and contain only the information for the President, Secretary, and Chairman to make relevant decisions. Supporting commanders typically do not submit estimates to the Chairman, but may be requested to do so by the supported commander.Commander’s EstimateMissionSituation and COAsAnalysis of opposing COAsComparison of own COAsRecommended COA
82Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCombatantCommandCoCom HQWarning OrderPresSecDefCJCSCOAPlanningCdr’s EstimateThe Chairman, in consultation with other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and CCDRs, reviews and evaluates the supported commander’s estimate and provides recommendations and advice to the President and Secretary for COA selection. The supported commander’s COAs may be refined or revised, or new COAs may have to be developed in light of a changing situation. The President or Secretary selects a COA and directs that detailed planning be initiated.On receiving the decision of the President or Secretary, the Chairman issues an ALERTORD to the JPEC to announce the decision. The Secretary approves the ALERTORD. The order is a record communication that the President or Secretary has approved the detailed development of a military plan to help resolve the crisis. The contents of an alert order may vary, and sections may be deleted if the information has already been published, but it should always describe the selected COA in sufficient detail to allow the supported commander, in collaboration with other members of the JPEC, to conduct the detailed planning required to deploy, employ, and sustain forces. However, the ALERTORD does not authorize execution of the approved COA.Issuance of either the PLANORD or the ALERTORD marks the beginning of plan development.Alert OrderPresident’s decision on COAContains-- Situation-- Tasks-- Allocation of Major Forces-- Allocation of Strategic Lift-- Target Date for ExecutionRequests Operation Order (OPORD)
83Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSor … Planning OrderIssued by CJCS when detailed planning is desired immediately -- Before President approves a COAContains -- Mission -- Objectives -- Forces Available -- Command RelationshipsDirects Execution PlanningIn some cases, the Chairman will issue a PLANORD to initiate detailed planning before the President or Secretary formally select a COA. Used in this manner, a PLANORD expedites plan development and provides flexibility in responding to fast-breaking events as the crisis develops. It may be issued orally, by GCCS message, or by formal message traffic to the supported commander with copies to members of the JPEC. The PLANORD may be the first record communication between the Chairman and the JPEC on the crisis. In this situation, vital planning information would be exchanged immediately. However, it is desirable to use this message merely to update strategic guidance that has been given earlier. The contents of the PLANORD will vary depending on the situation. JOPES Vol I outlines an example of aPLANOR.SecDef approval is required if the PLANORD directs the deployment offorces or increases force readiness. Issuance of either the PLANORD or the ALERTORDmarks the beginning of plan development.
84Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSCdr’s EstimateCOAPlanningIssuance of either the PLANORD or the ALERTORD marks the beginning of plan development.The supported commander develops the OPORD and supporting TPFDD using an approved COA. Understandably, the speed of completion is greatly affected by the amount of prior planning and the planning time available. The supported commander and subordinate and supporting commanders identify actual forces, sustainment, and mobility resources and describe the CONOPS in OPORD format. They update and adjust planning accomplished during COA development for any new force and sustainment requirements and source forces and lift resources. All members of the JPEC identify and resolve shortfalls and limitations.In CAP, force planning focuses on the actual units designated to participate in the planned operation and their readiness for deployment. The supported commander identifies force requirements as operational capabilities in the form of force packages to facilitate sourcing by the Services and other force providers. A force package is a list (group of force capabilities) of the various forces (force requirements) that the supported commander requires to conduct the operation described in the CONOPS. The supported commander describes required force requirements in the form of broad capability descriptions (not unit type codes). The supported commander submits the required force packages through the Joint Staff to the force providers for sourcing. The force providers 23 review the readiness and deployability posture of their available units before deciding which units to allocate to the supported commander’s force requirements. The Services and their component commands also determine mobilization requirements and plan for the provision of non-unit sustainment.Transportation Planning. In CAP, practical considerations require that transportation planning concentrate on the first seven days of air movement and the first 30 days of surface movement. Major changes to deployment plans with effective dates more than about seven days or so in the future will have very little impact on the scheduling process; however, changes with effective dates of seven days or less may adversely affect the timely development of the airlift flow schedule. Adding requirements within those management windows may cause delays in other scheduled movements. USTRANSCOM recommends transportation feasibility aligned to the JFC requirements. The supported commander makes the final decision, balancing mission needs with risks.Alert OrderPlanning OrderPlan DevelopmentUpdate/Adjust Selected COA-- Identify and Source Forces-- Identify Sustainment/Mobility Resources-- Resolve Shortfalls and LimitationsCan also be Directed in Planning OrderDevelop OPORD
85Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCCDR’s AssessmentCCDR’s AssessmentCCDR’s AssessmentWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSCOAPlanningCOAPlanningCOAPlanningCOAPlanningCdr’s EstimateThe supported CCDR submits the completed OPORD for approval to the Secretary or President via the Chairman. After an OPORD is approved, the President or Secretary may make the decision to begin deployment in anticipation of executing the operation or as a show of resolve, execute the operation, place planning on hold, or cancel planning pending resolution by some other means. Detailed planning may transition to execution as directed or become realigned with continuous situation monitoring, which may prompt planning product adjustments and/or updates.Alert OrderPlanning OrderPlanDevelopmentOperation Order (OPORD)SituationMissionExecutionAdmin & LogisticsC2
86Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSCOAPlanningCdr’s EstimateExecution. The operational activity starts when the deployment or execution order is issued. This component is comprised of deployment and employment sub-components.Deployment is the relocation of forces and materiel to the desired OA.The Chairman, by the authority of and at the direction of the President or Secretary,issues a prepare-to-deploy order (PTDO) or deployment order (DEPORD) to:(1) Increase or decrease the deployability posture of units.(2) Transfer forces from one CCDR to another with the gaining CCDR exercising combatant command (COCOM) authority or OPCON of the assigned forces.(3) Deploy or redeploy forces from one CCDR’s AOR to another.(4) In the case of a PTDO, propose the day on which a deployment operations begins (C-day) and the specific hour on C-day when deployment is to commence (L-hour).(5) In the case of a DEPORD, establish C-day and the specific hour on C-day when deployment is to commence (L-hour).(6) Direct any other action that would signal planned US military action or its termination in response to a particular crisis event or incident.Alert OrderPlanning OrderPlanDevelopmentExecutionPlanningOPORDOPORD
87Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCdr’s EstimateCOAPlanningAlert OrderPlanning OrderWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSThe operational activity starts when the deployment or execution order is issued. This component is comprised of deployment and employment sub-components. Deployment is the relocation of forces and materiel to the desired OA.The Chairman, by the authority of and at the direction of the President or Secretary, issues a prepare-to-deploy order (PTDO) or deployment order (DEPORD) to:(1) Increase or decrease the deployability posture of units.(2) Deploy or redeploy forces from one CCDR’s AOR to another.(3) In the case of a PTDO, propose the day on which a deployment operations begins (C-day) and the specific hour on C-day when deployment is to commence (L-hour).(4) In the case of a DEPORD, establish C-day and the specific hour on C-day when deployment is to commence (L-hour).(5) Direct any other action that would signal planned US military action or its termination in response to a particular crisis event or incident.PlanDevelopmentExecutionPlanningOPORDOPORDDeployment OrderSecDef ApprovalCan be Issued at Any Time in CAPSignals Pres/SecDef Decision to Begin Preparation for Military Response
88Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCdr’s EstimateCOAPlanningAlert OrderPlanning OrderWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSContinued from previous slide …PlanDevelopmentExecutionPlanningOPORDDeployment Order (cont.)Reduces Reaction TimeIncrease Posture / Deploy ForcesEstablish / Activate JTF & Designate CCAlso used to Terminate / Redeploy
89Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCdr’s EstimateCOAPlanningAlert OrderPlanning OrderWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSPlanning Refinement and Adaptation continues during deployment, with an emphasis on updating the OPORD.PlanDevelopmentExecutionPlanningOPORDDeployment Order
90Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCdr’s EstimateCOAPlanningAlert OrderPlanning OrderWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSExecution begins when the President or Secretary decides to use a military option to resolve a crisis. Only the President or Secretary can authorize the Chairman to issue an EXORD. The EXORD directs the supported commander to initiate military operations, defines the time to initiate operations, and conveys guidance not provided earlier. The Chairman monitors the deployment and employment of forces, acts to resolve shortfalls, and directs action needed to ensure successful completion of military operations. USTRANSCOM manages common-user global air, land, and sea transportation, reporting the progress of deployments to the Chairman and the supported commander. Execution continues until the operation is terminated or the mission is accomplished or revised. The CAP process may be repeated continuously as circumstances and missions change.PlanDevelopmentExecutionPlanningOPORDExecute OrderPresident Directs Commander to Begin Military OperationsDefines Time to Initiate OperationsConveys Guidance Not Provided Earlier
91Crisis Action Planning Process MajorCrisisSituation AwarenessCCDR’s AssessmentCdr’s EstimateCOAPlanningAlert OrderPlanning OrderWarning OrderCombatantCommandCoCom HQPresSecDefCJCSPlanning continues during execution, as the operation progresses. The joint force J-5’s effort focuses on future plans. This typically is a period beyond 96 hours, with an emphasis on planning the next phase of operations (sequels to the current operation). In a campaign, this could be planning for the next phase of the current major operation or planning for the next major operation (the next phase of the campaign). Planning also occurs for branches to current operations (future operations planning), which the joint force could execute typically within a hour window. Depending on the command’s SOP, future planning could occur in the J-5 or JPG, while future operations planning could occur in the joint operations center or J-3.The procedures in the preceding discussion have been described sequentially. During a crisis, they may be conducted concurrently or even eliminated, depending on prevailing conditions. In some situations, no formal WARNORD is issued, and the first record communication that the JPEC receives is the PLANORD or ALERTORD containing the COA to be used for plan development. It is also possible that the President or Secretary may make the decision to commit forces shortly after an event occurs, thereby significantly compressing planning activities. No definitive length of time can be associated with any particular planning activity. Severe time constraints may require crisis participants to pass information orally, including the decision to commit forces.PlanDevelopmentExecutionPlanningOPORDConductOperationExecute OrderDeployment Order
92Crisis Action Planning Checklists Contained in Enclosure G to JOPES Vol IList general responsibilities and considerations during CAPIdentified for various levels-- CJCS-- supported command-- component commands-- supporting commands-- Services-- USTRANSCOM-- other commands and agencies
93CAP Orders WARNO PLORD ALORD DEPORD EXORD UPHOLD DEMOCRACY (94) X X X XXSAFE BORDER (95) X XPROMPT RETURN (95) X X XJOINT ENDEAVOR (95) X XXASSURED RESPONSE (96) X X XQUICK RESPONSE (96) X XBURUNDI (96) XDESERT STRIKE (96) XX XINTRINSIC ACTION (96) XXGUARDIAN ASSISTANCE (96) X X XSILVER WAKE (97) X XENDURING / IRAQI FREEDOM (03) X X XThe procedures in the preceding slides have been described sequentially. During a crisis, they may be conducted concurrently or even eliminated, depending on prevailing conditions. In some situations, no formal WARNORD is issued, and the first record communication that the JPEC receives is the PLANORD or ALERTORD containing the COA to be used for plan development. It is also possible that the President or Secretary may make the decision to commit forces shortly after an event occurs, thereby significantly compressing planning activities. No definitive length of time can be associated with any particular planning activity. Severe time constraints may require crisis participants to pass information orally, including the decision to commit forces. This slide includes crisis responses over the past 11 years to show that steps in CAP may be conducted concurrently or even eliminated, depending on prevailing conditions.UPHOLD DEMOCRACY Haiti (Sep 94) 2 Execute orders due to Gen Cedros stepping downSAFE BORDER Peru / Ecuador (Feb 95) Peace Operations for Border DisputePROMPT RETURN Alien Migration (Jul 95) Interagency OperationJOINT ENDEAVOR IFOR Bosnia (Nov 95) Multiple execute orders due to ROE changesASSURED RESPONSE Liberia (Apr 96) NEOQUICK RESPONSE Central African republic (May 96) NEOBURUNDI Humanitarian Asst (Jul-Aug 96) warring Tribes and mass refuges and Neo that was completed by BelgiansDESERT STRIKE Iraq (Sep 96) Strike against Iraq targets in support of Northern watchINTRINSIC ACTION Kuwait (Sep 96) FDO Deployment of US Army troops to marry up with Prepo armor in KuwaitPACIFIC HAVEN/QUICK TRANSIT) Guam (Sep-Oct 96) Migrant Camp/NEO)GARDIAN ASSISTANCE Zaire (Nov 96) Humanitarian AssistanceSILVER WAKE Albania (Mar 97) NEOGUARDIAN RETRIEVAL Zaire (May 97) NEOENDURING FREEDOM and IRAQI FREEDOM (Feb 03) Much completed with RFFsLIBERIA (Jun-Sep 03) NEO/Humanitarian Assistance operations
94JOPES Joint Operation Planning and Execution System Contingency PlanningStrategic GuidanceConceptDevelopmentPlanDevelopmentPlan AssessmentJSCPOPLANCONPLANsSCPCommander’sStrategicConcept- In closing, JOPES is designed to help joint commanders and planners develop and execute war plans- It is a system of joint policies, processes, procedures and supported by ITCrisis Action PlanningExecutionSituational AwarenessOPORDPlanningCrisisNo PlanCampaign PlanOPORDs
96RETROSPECT Joint Electronic Library : www.dtic.mil/doctrine Joint Deployment Training Center:Combatant Commands:This slide reminds personnel where they can find key information. Information concerning all the schools at JFSC and the most updated JPOC presentations. The Joint Electronic Library provides the link to all the publications we have discussed throughout the course that are not classified (you can mentioned specifics ones if you desire). For those that need to consider additional training on the programs that are used to manage and deploy the forces JDTC sets up classes around the world. Finally, a link that will allow you to go to each of the Combatant Commanders to review what is going o in their areas of responsibility.