Presentation on theme: "Joost de Laat Senior Economist Human Development World Bank"— Presentation transcript:
Joost de Laat Senior Economist Human Development World Bank
2 Survey Partnership: DG Regional Policy United Nations Development Program World Bank Close coordination with survey by: Fundament Rights Agency Interviewed approx 750 Roma households and 350 non-Roma households in same communities in 5 Eastern European countries
4 Tera Fabianova, Slovak Roma writer and poet, 1930 – 2007: No-one in my family could read and write. I would go and work as a little girl for the Gadji for a piece of bread and lard. One day they came to tell us to go to school. 'One from each family must go to school or you'll be locked up.' My mother said, 'You'll go 'cos you're naughty.' "I sat in the first row, because I wanted to be clever, and near the teacher. I didn't have a pencil or paper or anything. I sat and waited for the teacher. She came and said, 'Hey, you, Gypsy kid. Your place is at the back.' There were three benches where the Romany and poorest children sat. I wasn't allowed to sit at the front. But I wanted to be clever, wanted to learn."
5 More than 80% of Roma parents want secondary education for girls. Uncollected garbage and shacks still common. Most87%of Roma households are in poverty One third goes hungry at least once a month. The girl in the picture has an 18% chance of being enrolled in preschool, compared to 72% of the general population. Between 12%-15% of Roma children are streamed into primary schools for children with mental disabilities. Odds of graduating secondary school are 9%. She is unlikely to find work: only 9% of women and 20% of men living in settlements work. Similar situation in neighboring countries
6 Bulgaria Czech Republic HungaryRomaniaSlovakia Go to Bed Hungry (%) Unsafe Economic Situation (%) Social Assistance (%) Monthly Disposable Income per Capita: Roma () a General Population () b Roma Incomes Relative to General Population (%)
Figure 1 Source: The Lancet 2011; 378: (DOI: /S (11) )The Lancet 2011; 378: Terms and Conditions INVEST EARLY TO REDUCE INEQUALITIES Engle et al. (2011)The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9799, Pages Volume 378, Issue 9799
Figure 3 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test7 standard scores by country and quintile of expenditure. Data for children (aged 5–6 years) speaking the majority language of the region or country (in parentheses). INVEST EARLY TO REDUCE INEQUALITIES Engle et al. (2011)The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9799, Pages Volume 378, Issue 9799 DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE OUTCOMES BY QUINTILE (LANCET (2011)
10 Read at least four simple, popular words? Recognize the symbols for numbers 1 to 10?
Figure 3 Terms and Conditions FINDINGS FROM LANCET (2011) REVIEW Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development (2011) Inequalities in child development begin prenatally and in the first years of life The most effective and cost-efficient time to prevent inequalities is early in life before trajectories have been firmly established Action or lack of action will have lifetime consequences for adult functioning Walker et al. The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9799, Pages Volume 378, Issue 9799
International evidence: high return investment Survey: vast majority Roma parents desire at least secondary education completion for children Report objectives: Provide overview of Roma preschool participation, and pre- school environment, in kindergartens and at home Identify key barriers to improving pre-school access 12
13 Bulgaria Czech Republic HungaryRomaniaSlovakia Number of books at home Mean Median05401 Activities with children, past 3 days Look at picture books or read books 23%50%57%17%44% Draw or paint21%51%42%19%45% Teach letters or count15%21%29%12%22% Limited to households with children aged 3-5 years old.
14 Roma adults who attended preschool as children are/were: Much less likely to enrol into special school : 6 ppts in Czech Republic and 7 ppts in Slovakia Much more likely to complete secondary school 13 ppts (Slovakia) to 16 ppts (Romania) Less likely to be on social assistance as adults 7 ppts (Romania) to 17 ppts (Hungary)
Enrollment among Roma children: very large gap 15 OVERVIEW OF PRE-SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT CZ and SK: 3-5 year olds; BG, HU, RO: 3-6 year olds
16 Comparing neighbors with similar socio-economic chars, pre-school increases with: Parents attendance of pre-school Household hunger
19 Free attendance - reconsider Roma teacher/mediator - reconsider
1. (1) provide parents basic information on the benefits of preschool education 2. (2) promote inclusive preschools by enhancing parental involvement and hiring Roma teaching assistants 3. (3) remove cost barriers possibly coupled with regular attendance subsidies 4. (4) support parenting at home 20