Presentation on theme: "TOWARD AN EQUAL START: CLOSING THE EARLY LEARNING GAP FOR ROMA CHILDREN IN EASTERN EUROPE (2012) Joost de Laat Senior Economist Human Development World."— Presentation transcript:
1TOWARD AN EQUAL START: CLOSING THE EARLY LEARNING GAP FOR ROMA CHILDREN IN EASTERN EUROPE (2012) Joost de LaatSenior EconomistHuman DevelopmentWorld Bank
2Data Source: UNDP/World bank/ec Regional roma Household Survey (2011) Survey Partnership:DG Regional PolicyUnited Nations Development ProgramWorld BankClose coordination with survey by:Fundament Rights AgencyInterviewed approx 750 Roma households and 350 non-Roma households in same communities in 5 Eastern European countries
3What do the EU 2020 Goals Mean for A Roma Girl in Eastern Slovakia?
43 Generations …. Of Change? Tera Fabianova, Slovak Roma writer and poet, 1930 – 2007: “No-one in my family could read and write. I would go and work as a little girl for the “Gadji” for a piece of bread and lard. One day they came to tell us to go to school. 'One from each family must go to school or you'll be locked up.' My mother said, 'You'll go 'cos you're naughty.'” "I sat in the first row, because I wanted to be clever, and near the teacher. I didn't have a pencil or paper or anything. I sat and waited for the teacher. She came and said, 'Hey, you, Gypsy kid. Your place is at the back.' There were three benches where the Romany and poorest children sat. I wasn't allowed to sit at the front. But I wanted to be clever, wanted to learn."
53 Generations …. Of Change? More than 80% of Roma parents want secondary education for girls.Uncollected garbage and shacks still common.Most—87%—of Roma households are in povertyOne third goes hungry at least once a month.The girl in the picture has an 18% chance of being enrolled in preschool, compared to 72% of the general population.Between 12%-15% of Roma children are streamed into primary schools for children with mental disabilities.Odds of graduating secondary school are 9%.She is unlikely to find work: only 9% of women and 20% of men living in settlements work.Similar situation in neighboring countries
6Survey Sample Characteristics BulgariaCzech RepublicHungaryRomaniaSlovakiaGo to Bed Hungry (%)44.423.535.456.239.9Unsafe Economic Situation (%)61.554.070.767.2Social Assistance (%)16.660.759.826.855.6Monthly Disposable Income per Capita:Roma (€)a6219010235125General Population (€)b148398285134291Roma Incomes Relative to General Population (%)41.947.735.826.143.0
8INVEST EARLY TO REDUCE INEQUALITIES Figure 1Engle et al. (2011)The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9799, PagesSource: The Lancet 2011; 378: (DOI: /S (11) )Terms and Conditions
9INVEST EARLY TO REDUCE INEQUALITIES Figure 3Differences in cognitive outcomes by quintile (Lancet (2011)Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test7 standard scores by country and quintile of expenditure.Data for children (aged 5–6 years) speaking the majority language of the region or country (in parentheses).Engle et al. (2011)The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9799, Pages
10Gap in Early Learning Outcomes Recognize the symbols for numbers 1 to 10?Read at least four simple, popular words?
11FINDINGS FROM LANCET (2011) Review Figure 3FINDINGS FROM LANCET (2011) ReviewInequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development (2011)Inequalities in child development begin prenatally and in the first years of lifeThe most effective and cost-efficient time to prevent inequalities is early in life before trajectories have been firmly establishedAction or lack of action will have lifetime consequences for adult functioningWalker et al. The Lancet, Volume 378, Issue 9799, PagesTerms and Conditions
12THIS REPORT on IMPROVING EARLY LEARNING AND PRE-SCHOOL ACCESS for ROMA CHILDREN International evidence: high return investmentSurvey: vast majority Roma parents desire at least secondary education completion for childrenReport objectives:Provide overview of Roma preschool participation, and pre- school environment, in kindergartens and at homeIdentify key barriers to improving pre-school access
13Challenged HOME LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Limited to households with children aged 3-5 years old.BulgariaCzech RepublicHungaryRomaniaSlovakiaNumber of books at homeMean1.87.07.21.22.6Median541Activities with children, past 3 daysLook at picture books or read books23%50%57%17%44%Draw or paint21%51%42%19%45%Teach letters or count15%29%12%22%
14PRESCHOOL LINKED TO LATER LIFE OUTCOMES Roma adults who attended preschool as children are/were:Much less likely to enrol into special school :6 ppts in Czech Republic and 7 ppts in SlovakiaMuch more likely to complete secondary school13 ppts (Slovakia) to 16 ppts (Romania)Less likely to be on social assistance as adults7 ppts (Romania) to 17 ppts (Hungary)
15Overview of Pre-school environment Enrollment among Roma children: very large gapCZ and SK: 3-5 year olds; BG, HU, RO: 3-6 year olds
16ESTIMATING DETERMINANTS OF PRESCHOOL ENROLMENT Comparing neighbors with similar socio-economic chars, pre-school increases with:Parents’ attendance of pre-schoolHousehold hunger
19MANY PARENTS RECONSIDER PRESCHOOL IF FREE AND WITH ROMA TEACHING ASST: Free attendance - reconsiderRoma teacher/mediator - reconsider
20Increase pre-school enrolment: (1) provide parents basic information on the benefits of preschool education(2) promote inclusive preschools by enhancing parental involvement and hiring Roma teaching assistants(3) remove cost barriers possibly coupled with regular attendance subsidies(4) support parenting at home