Presentation on theme: "Course of Action Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Course of Action Development JTF TrainingCrisis ActionPlanningCourse of Action DevelopmentUNCLASSIFIED
2Restated Mission Statement O/O, CCDR CJTF will conduct Foreign DisasterHumanitarian Assistance in support of theGovernment of Cameroon to relieve thesuffering associated with Volcano OKU.Re-stated mission statement is a product of the JPG.
3Commander’s IntentCCDR USAFRICOM CJTF will establish and deploy forces to forward operating bases to alleviate suffering in devastated areas. In coordination with the appropriate consular or AMEMBASSY personnel, US forces will provide mobility and logistics support capabilities to enhance HN efforts in response to the crisis. US forces will limit operations to essential life sustaining operations and where feasible will hand off FHA/DR function to other agencies as soon as practical. Close coordination with other USG agencies, NGO, and IGO will facilitate operations and eliminate duplication of efforts. When directed US forces redeploy to home station and reconstitute for future contingencies.ENDSTATE. Success is defined as a minimized loss of life and human suffering of displaced persons, the scope of the crisis no longer exceeds the capacity of the host nations, and all US personnel are redeployed to home station.
4COA Development Overview Analyze information associated with a current situationComponents, techniques and procedures for conducting an operational-level mission analysis for a Joint Task Force (JTF)Suggested input into planning processLogistical shortfalls in planning processAdequate, feasible and acceptable COAsCOA stepsCenter of gravity, task priorities, and phasing sketch
6Key Points Crisis Action Planning (CAP) Procedures: Three process Key DocumentsWarning & Alert OrdersCommander’s EstimateRequires Concurrent & Collaborative PlanningDevelop a Military Course of Action
8CAP Process Features Rapid Exchange of Information Analysis of situations affecting possible Courses of Action (COAs)Developing valid COAsComparison COARecommended/Selecting the best COAsCoordinating plans & order supporting executionWhat CAP does for us….
9Situational Awareness Function II – PlanningISituational AwarenessIIPlanningIIIExecutionNationalAuthoritiesJTF Tasks:Mission AnalysisIssue Planning GuidanceIssue Warning OrderDevelop COAsDevelop Staff EstimatesAnalyze COAsCompare COAsRecommend COASubmit CDR’s EstimateWarningOrderCDR’sEstimate-Course of Action Development during function II of the crisis action planning process, begins when the National Command authorities issue a warning order to the supported strategic commander.-The Strategic Commander in turn issues warning and activation orders to the Task Force Commander. -The CTF really begins to engage in the crisis action planning process during this function -The CTF Staff uses the supported Strategic Commander’s guidance included in the warning order to develop and evaluate possible courses of action that are realistic with the forces and support available. -The courses of action developed are used as the basis for the CCTF’s (CTF Commander’s) Estimate, which in turn is used as the basis for the Strategic Commander’s (CDRUSPACOM) Estimate ultimately submitted to the POTUS and SECDEF. -The Commander’s Estimate essentially reflects analysis of the various courses of action that may be used to accomplish the mission. -The Commander’s Estimate, as one of the key products of the crisis action planning process, deserves further discussion and will be covered over the next few slides. SupportedCCDRCCDR’sWarningOrderCDR’sEstimateJFCJTF PLANNING
10Course of Action (COA) Development The COA consist of the following information:WHO will take the actionWHAT type of military action will occurWHEN the action will beginWHERE the action will occurWHY the action is required (purpose)HOW the action will occur (method of employment of forces)Joint Pub 5-0WHAT WILL THE COURSES OF ACTION CONTAIN?SEE SLIDE DON’T CONFUSE WITH MISSION STATEMENT DEVELOPED DURING MISSION ANALYSIS - COA IS MORE DETAILEDEND PRODUCT OF TASK IS A SET OF COAS, APPROVED BY THE CCTF, AND AVAILABLE FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON BY THE STAFFCOAS NEED NOT BE OVERLY DETAILED, BUT SHOULD BE DEVELOPED IN ENOUGH DETAIL TO ALLOW FOR PROPER ANALYSIS (WARGAMING)
11COA DevelopmentTo develop COAs, the staff must focus on key information to make decisions, using the data from mission analysis.The Staff develops COAs to provide options to the commander.Focus on Centers of Gravity and Decisive PointsAll COAs selected must be valid
12Center of Gravity (COG) Develop Initial COAsCenter of Gravity (COG)“The hub of all power and movement, on which everythingdepends. That is the point against which all of our energiesshould be directed.” Carl von ClausewitzMilitaryInfrastructureCOG comes from JIPOE (Joint Intell Prep of the Operating Environment)…J2, but not solely a static process by the J-2 (JP 5-0, p. IV-9).EconomicSocialPoliticalInformation
13Exists at each level of war CENTER OF GRAVITYExists at each level of warMostly physical at operational level of warIs a source of leverageAllows or enhances freedom of actionMay be where the enemy’s force is most densely populatedCan endanger one’s own COGMay be transitory in natureLinked to the objectiveOften intangible in limited contingency opsCan shift over time or between phasesOften depends on factors of time and spaceContains many intangible elements at strategic level
14Joint Operation Planning Process Step 1:InitiationStep 2:Mission AnalysisStep 3:Course of Action DevelopmentStep 4:COA Analysis and WargamingStep 5:COA ComparisonStep 6:COA ApprovalStep 7:Plan or Order Development
15Course of Action Characteristics Initial Test for ValidityCourse of Action CharacteristicsTest for adequacyTest for feasibilityTest for acceptabilityEnsure COAs are distinguishableTest for completenessYOU WILL HEAR THESE TERMS FREQUENTLY DURING THE DEVELOPMENT, ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF COURSES OF ACTIONLET’S EXAMINE THE MEANING OF EACH IN A LITTLE GREATER DETAIL
16Adequate Does it accomplish the mission? Does it meet the Combatant Commander’s and CJTF’s intent?Does it accomplish all the essential tasks?Does it allow the CJTF to meet the conditions for the end state?Does it take into consideration the enemy and friendly centers of gravity?FIRST CHECK ON THE COA: DOES IT ACCOMPLISH WHAT WE SET OUT TO DO?DOES IT MEET THE CCTF’S INTENT? - DON’T LET HIM BE THE ONE TO TELL YOUDOES IT ACCOMPLISH ALL THE ESSENTIAL TASKS?- REMEMBER MISSION ANALYSISDOES IT ALLOW THE CTF TO MEET THE CONDITIONS FOR THE END STATE? BLOWN UP DAMS OR POWER PLANTS DO NOT HELP WITH POST-HOSTITLITIESDOES IT TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE ENEMY AND FRIENDLY CENTERS OF GRAVITY?
17FeasibleCan accomplish the mission within the established time, space, and resource limitations?Will those resources be available in the JOA in time?Forces/CapabilityTransportationResupplyFacilities- Can the COA be carried out within thephysical environment’s constraints?DO WE HAVE THE FORCE STRUCTURE NECESSARY TO ACCOMPLISH THE TASK AND CAN WE GET IT THERE?THE COA IS FEASIBLE IF IT CAN BE CARRIED OUT WITH THE FORCES, SUPPORT AND TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE, WITHIN THE CONSTRAINTS OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT, AND AGAINST EXPECTED ENEMY OPPOSITIONSTORY ABOUT PLANNING FOR HA/DRTAKING SUPPLIES OVERLAND WAS NOT FEASIBLE BECAUSE OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS, YET PLAN THEY DIDTHIS IMPLIES SOME SORT OF TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS PRIOR TO THIS STEPALTHOUGH THIS PROCESS OCCURS AGAIN DURING COA ANALYSIS, AND THE TEST THIS TIME IS PRELIMINARY, IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO DECLARE A COA INFEASIBLEHOWEVER, IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO FILL SHORTFALLS BY REQUESTING FILLS TO SHORTFALLS FROM THE CINC
18Acceptable Must balance cost and risk with the advantage gained. Does it contain unacceptable risks?Does it take into account the limitations placed on the CTF?Does it contribute to the higher commander’s strategic objectives?Can it be accomplished within external constraints, particularly ROE?DO WE WIN THE BATTLE BUT LOSE THE WAR?DOES IT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE LIMITATIONS PLACE ON THE CTF (POLITICAL/ROE) (CONSTRAINTS - MUST DO) (RESTRAINTS - MUST DO)AGAIN, WE WILL CONDUCT THIS TEST DURING COA ANALYSISBUT THERE IS NO REASON TO CONTINUE TO DEVELOP A COA IF THE RISKS OR POTENTIAL LOSES ARE UNACCEPTABLE TO THE CCTF OR HIGHER AUTHORITY, UNLESS IT CAN BE MODIFIED TO AN ACCEPTABLE LEVEL OF LOSSEXAMPLE OF GENERAL SETTING OUT WHAT RISKS HE WAS WILLING TO TAKE TO GET HN TO CAMBODIA EARLY: “SUPPLIES BEFORE THE FORTRESS” AND “WE ARE SOLDIERS AND ARE PAID TO TAKE RISKS”
19Risk Matrix Impact Likelihood HIGH Fall of No HNS Gov. C2 Early EOM LOG C2Distro ProblsImpactLOWHIGHLikelihood
20Distinguishable Are the COAs sufficiently different from each other COAs can be different when considering...Focus or direction of main effortScheme of maneuver (land, air, maritime, special ops)Primary mechanism for mission accomplishmentTask OrganizationUse of reservesTHE FIRST TWO BULLETS ARE GENERALLY MET, BUT THE LAST ONE IS THE MOST IMPORTANTALTHOUGH NOT A NORMAL CHECK, VARIETY IN COAs IS NECESSARY. IF OUR COAs ARE ALIKE, THE CCTF, THE CoCommander, AND THE NCA HAVE NO DECISION TO MAKECOMPLIANCE WITH COMBINED DOCTRINE HELPS ASSURE VARIETY.WHAT MAKES COAs DIFFERENT?1. FOCUS OR DIRECTION OF THE MAIN EFFORT2. SCHEME OF MANEUVER (LAND, AIR, MARITIME, SPECIAL OPERATION)3. PRIMARY MECHANISM FOR MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT4. TASK ORGANIZATION5. USE OF RESERVESVARIETY MAY ALSO COME FROM AN INCREMENTAL APPLICATION OF FORCE AS DISCUSSED IN NESTED COAs EARLIER
21COA Development What to Avoid Nested COAs COA 2 includes all of COA 1 NESTED COAs - START LIMITED AND GET PROGRESSIVELY BIGGER OR MORE INVOLVEDCOA 1 - MILITARY FDO - SAIL CBG TO AORCOA 2 - COA 1 PLUS LIMITED AIRSTRIKECOA 3 - COAs 1 & 2 PLUS AMPHIB/AIRBORNE ASSAULTOTHER EXAMPLE IS 7TH FLT AND STRAITS OF CHINA/TAIWAN MISSILE CRISIS IN 96. COA1 - SAIL CBG NEAR ACTION, COA 2 - PLACE CBG IN HARMS WAY, COA 3 - GET IN STRAITS AND ENGAGE MISSILESTRANSITIONBEFORE WE FINISH, WE NEED TO DISCUSS MORE PROBLEMS THAT OFTEN OCCUR DURING THE COA DEVELOPMENT PROCESSCOA 2 includes all of COA 1COA 3 includes all of COAs 1 & 2
22COA Planning EnablersPlanning considerations in developing different COAs-Joint Force Capabilities (operational fires and maneuver, deception)-Joint Force Organizations-Combinations of elements of operational design (phasing line of operations and so forth)-Commander and staff risk assessment-Intelligence updatesTHESE CONCEPTS WILL ENHANCE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE Combatant Commander’s STRATEGIC INTENTTHIS SLIDE WAS TAKEN FROM JOINT PUB THE CONCEPTS LISTED ARE MEANT TO FACILITATE COORDINATION OF STRATEGIC PRIORITIES DURING PLANNING ON THE THEATER LEVEL. YET, AS YOU CAN SEE, THESE CONCEPTS HAVE APPLICABILITY AT THE OPERATIONAL LEVEL OF WARFARE AS WELL.FOCUSES ON EXPLOITING THE ENEMIES’ COG AND DEFENDING OUR OWN COGPHASING OPERATIONS MAKES THE COA MORE UNDERSTANDABLE AND EASIER TO ANALYZE LATER DURING THE COMMANDER’S ESTIMATE PROCESSPHASING THAT IS COMMON TO EACH COA WILL ALSO HELP- IN OTHER WORDS, ALL COAS SHOULD HAVE THE SAME TYPE OF PHASES LISTED BELOWJP 3.0 LISTS TYPICAL PHASES: PRE-HOSTILITIES, LODGMENT, DECISIVE COMBAT AND STABILITY, FOLLOW-THROUGH, POST-HOSTILITIES AND REDEPLOYMENT PHASES.Joint Pub 5-0
23Complete Are the COAs technically complete? Must incorporate: Objectives, effects and tasks to be performedMajor forces requiredConcepts for development, employment and sustainmentTime estimates for achieving objectivesMilitary end state and success criteriaAN OVERALL PRELIMINARY CHECK FOR COMPLETENESS INCORPORATES MAJOR OPERATIONS AND TASKS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED TO INCLUDE FORCES REQUIRED, LOGISTICS CONCEPT, EMPLOYMENT CONCEPT, TIME ESTIMATES FOR REACHING TERMINATION OBJECTIVES, RESERVE FORCE CONCEPT, AND END STATE
24COA Planning Enablers Key Inputs Key Outputs Revised Staff Estimates Joint ForceCommander’s (JFC)Planning GuidanceJFC Initial IntentInitial Staff EstimatesJoint IntelligencePreparation of theOperationalEnvironmentKey OutputsRevised Staff EstimatesCOA Alternatives including-Tentative task organization-Deployment concept-Sustainment conceptCOADevelopmentHANG RESTATED MISSION & GUIDANCE IN CONSPICUOUS PLACE ON WALLALL PROBABLY EXCELLENT AT PLANNING FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF A SINGLE SERVICE - IT’S WHERE WE ARE COMFORTABLEDEVELOP PLANS TO INTEGRATE THE JOINT ENVIRONMENTS OF LAND, MARITIME, AIR, SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND SPACE OPERATIONS WITHIN THE OPERATIONAL AREAS OF MANEUVER, FIREPOWER, PROTECTION, SUPPORT, AND COMMAND AND CONTROLADDRESS ENEMY AND FRIENDLY COGSIDENTIFY THE MAIN AND SUPPORTING EFFORTS BY PHASE, THE PURPOSES OF THOSE EFFORTS, AND KEY SUPPORTING/SUPPORTED RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THAT PHASEIDENTIFY THE COMPONENT LEVEL MISSION AND TASKS (WHO AND WHAT) THAT WILL ACCOMPLISH THE STATED PURPOSES OF THE MAIN AND SUPPORTING EFFORTS - EXAMPLE OF NO TASKS LEADING TO AN INABILITY TO CONDUCT ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON (CAN’T DO ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON IF COMPONENTS AREN’T ASSIGNED MISSIONS AND TASKSSINCE THE RESULTS OF DECEPTION OPERATIONS MAY INFLUENCE THE POSITIONING OF UNITS, PLANNERS SHOULD CONCEIVE MAJOR ELEMENTS OF THE STORY BEFORE DEVELOPING ANY COAS.BRIEFLY ANSWER WHO, WHAT WHEN WHERE HOW AND WHY. NO FANCY GRAPHICS
25Prepare COA Develop COA sketch(s) Deployment/Sustainment Concept Operational designPhasingLine of operationsTHE COA STATEMENT ANSWERS SOME OF THE WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, AND WHYSKETCH SHOULD BE GRAPHIC & EASY TO UNDERSTANDI RECOMMEND THAT THE COAS BE DESCRIBED BY PHASE, AS MENTIONED WHEN WE LOOKED AT THE KEY PLANNING CONCEPTS SLIDEDEVELOPMENT OF COAS BY PHASE MAY ALSO FACILITATE YOUR WARGAMING OR ANALYSIS EFFORTSEXAMPLE: DEPLOYMENT, LODGMENT/BUILDUP DECISIVE ACTION, FOLLOW THROUGH REDEPLOYMENTTASK ORGANIZATION IS LISTING OF FORCES AND HOW THEY ARE ORGANIZED
26Country 1 -- to control flow of COA 1ALOCHOME BASEUSC2 HUBCountry 1ALOCCOA 1Sail direct to Country 2Deploy land forces toCountry 1 -- to control flow oftroops into Country 2UnrepCountry 2APODSPOD
27Sail and deploy land forces COA 2HOME BASECOA 2Sail and deploy land forcesdirect to Country 1ALOCUnrepCountry 1APODSPOD
28Example Sketch C+31 to C+60 PHASE THREE: Decisive Action City T City G MARFOR:O/O conduct offensiveoperations to securenorthern approachesto City TARFOR:Deploy ACR to forwardAA. O/O conductoffensive operations toclear central and southernapproaches. Air Aslt/AbnBde est. opnl reserve andrear area defense.AFFOR:Maintain air superiority.Conduct AI and strat atkoperations.NAVFOR:No changeJSOTF:XXCity TXCity GHERE IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE THAT YOU CAN USE.OF COURSE YOUR PLANNING SOP ADJUSTED TO MEE T THE OPERATIONAL AND COMBINED ENVIRONMENT PROBABLY CONVEYS TO YOUR COMMANDER WHAT HE NEEDS TO KNOW.NO MATER HOW IT’S PRESENTED......THE COA STATEMENT ANSWERS SOME OF THE WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, AND WHY - IT TELLS WHAT THE FORCE AS A WHOLE IS DOING - WE RECOMMEND DOING THIS FOR EACH PHASEIMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY WHAT ENDS ONE PHASE AND WHAT BEGINS ANOTHERTHE SKETCH IS A GRAPHIC DEPICTION OF THE WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY AND HOWC+31 to C+60This phase completes the introduction of combat forces (Phase II) and begins offensive operations to evict all aggressors from the sovereign territory of Blueland. Operations will be conducted along two axes. Phase is complete upon restoration of territorial integrity of Blueland.
29Example Phasing/Task Distribution DEPLOYMENTSHAPINGDECISIVE OPSTRANSITIONHalt, Protect & DefendEject & EliminateInitiate IO CampaignHA CoordBPT NEOEstablish FOBAIR SuperiorityMARITIME SuperiorityBPT CMProtect/Defend Guppie/Nessie/SLOCsIDP MGMTEPW MGMTBPT MIOSeize SaipanSeize TinianHA - Saipan/TinEliminate Piranha Ability to Proj PwrFreedom of NavigationHA TurnoverTurn over to HN ForcesRedeployCFLCCXCFMCCCFACCCSOTFCPOTFCMOTFCCTF- Phase Main Effort/Task Supported Commander- Task Supported Commander- Task Supporting CommanderTHIS SLIDE IS AN EXAMPLE OF TASK DISTRIBUTION BY PHASE OF AN OPERATION.THE TASKS DERIVED FROM MISSION ANALYSIS, FELL INTO A PRETTY STANDARD OPERATIONAL PHASING TIMELINE.THOSE TASKS WERE THEN GIVEN TO ELEMENTS OF THE TASK ORGANIZATION.COMMAND AND CONTROL/SUPPORTED AND SUPPORTING RELATIONSHIPS WERE THEN DECIDED.AFTER THIS PHASING AND DISTRIBUTION WAS DECIDED UPON, THE SKETCH WAS EASILY CONSTRUCTED TO DEPICT THE ACTION.
31Joint Operation Planning Process Step 1:InitiationStep 2:Mission AnalysisStep 3:Course of Action DevelopmentStep 4:COA Analysis and WargamingStep 5:COA ComparisonStep 6:COA ApprovalStep 7:Plan or Order Development
32COA Wargaming The Commander and Staff will Analyze each tentative COA separately and identify advantages and disadvantages of eachProposed COA.The analysis of COAs should reveal the following factors:Potential decision pointsTask organization adjustmentsData for use in a synchronization matrix or other decision making toolsIdentification of plan branches and sequelsIdentification of high-value targetsA risk assessment.COA advantages and disadvantagesRecommended CCIR’sBRIEFING INCLUDES KEY ELEMENTS OF EACH COA AND THE PRIMARY MEANS BY WHICH IT WILL ACCOMPLISH THE MISSIONEXAMPLES“MISSION WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY DEGRADATION OF ENEMY FORCES BY MEANS OF MASSED ARMOR AND AIR ATTACKS’ OR“MISSION WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY DESTRUCTION OF C2 BY SUSTAINED STRATEGIC STRIKES AND INTERDICTION OPERATIONS, FOLLOWED BY PENETRATION OF GROUND DEFENSES AT OBJECTIVES A AND B.”“MISSION WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY PROVIDING SECURE AREAS INTO WHICH REFUGEES CAN COME TO RECEIVE SERVICES.”“MISSION WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED PRIMARILY THROUGH REPAIR TO APODS, SPODS, AND OTHER HOST NATION INFRASTRUCTURE”
33COA Wargaming Steps 2. Conduct Wargaming and assess 1. Prepare for Wargaming-Gather tools-List and review Friendly forces-List and review enemy forces-List known critical events-Determine participates-Determine enemy COA-Select wargaming method-Select a method to record &display results (Syn Matrix)2. Conduct Wargaming and assess-Purpose of wargaming (identify gaps)-Basic methodology-Records results3. Output of wargaming:-Results of wargame briefPotential decision pointsGoverning factorsPotential branches and sequelsRevised staff estimatesRefined COAsFeedback through the COA decision brief
34COA reflects refueling of timeline and distance COA (MARITIME)HOME BASEUSCountry 2Refuel OperationsRefueling OperationsCOA reflects refuelingshortfall in supportof timeline and distanceCountry 1APODUSNS COMFORTSPOD
35Joint Operation Planning Process Step 1:InitiationStep 2:Mission AnalysisStep 3:Course of Action DevelopmentStep 4:COA Analysis and WargamingStep 5:COA ComparisonStep 6:COA ApprovalStep 7:Plan or Order Development
36COA Comparison Key Outputs Key Inputs Evaluated COAs Recommended COA Advantages &DisadvantagesWargaming ResultsGoverning FactorsRevised staff estimatesEvaluated COAsRecommended COACOA Selection RationalRevised Staff EstimatesCOAComparisonCOA comparison is an objective process whereby COAs areconsidered independently (based on a set criteria)The goal is to identify strengths and weakness of eachproposed COA with the highest probability of success.The commander and staff develop and evaluate a list of important criteria or governing factors (identify actions toover come shortfalls—test feasibility, acceptability and weight)The staff evaluates COAs using governing factors:- Mitigate risk to the force and mission acceptable level.- Place the force in the best posture for future operations.- Provide maximum latitude for initiative by subordinates.
37Example COA Comparison Total 84 96 Weighting COA 1 COA 2 Simplicity 2 Efficiency16Cooperation12Agility39FlexibilityForce Protection5RobustnessC21015Political6Logistics FootprintTotal8496
38Joint Operation Planning Process Step 1:InitiationStep 2:Mission AnalysisStep 3:Course of Action DevelopmentStep 4:COA Analysis and WargamingStep 5:COA ComparisonStep 6:COA ApprovalStep 7:Plan or Order Development
39COA Approval The staff determines the best COA to the commander. The staff briefs the commanders on the COA comparison(approval inputs and outputs)The staff briefs the comparison and analysis andwargaming results.The commander selects a COA or forms an alternate COA.- Direct revisions to COAs- Combinations of COAs- Additional COAs
40Joint Operation Planning Process Step 1:InitiationStep 2:Mission AnalysisStep 3:Course of Action DevelopmentStep 4:COA Analysis and WargamingStep 5:COA ComparisonStep 6:COA ApprovalStep 7:Plan or Order Development
41Products JTF PlanBasic Plan/OPORD - Paragraph 4, Administration and LogisticsAnnex D - LogisticsAnnex L – Environmental ConsiderationsAnnex P – Host-Nation SupportAnnex Q – Medical ServicesOthers as appropriate (Contracting, etc.)Back now to doctrinal logistics. Here are most of the places where the logistician’s staffwork shows up in writing. In the basic plan or operations order, there will be a paragraph 4 on Administration and Logistics. This will include a subparagraph on the Concept of Support, which provides a general understanding of the requirements for logistic support, personnel policies, and administrative plans, and it will also contain broad guidance on how such support will be furnished. Also in paragraph 4 will be a subparagraph on Logistics, which should address sustainment priorities and resources; base development and other civil engineering requirements; host-nation support; and inter-Service responsibilities, among other items. See JOPES Volume II for details on the format for plans and orders.The major portion of logistics guidance for an operation is normally promulgated in plans and orders through a series of detailed annexes and appendices. The major annexes that typically require some input from logisticians are listed here.