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Short Course for the Amateur Radio Technician License Element 2 Richie Allen KC5NZR Sponsored by: Albuquerque Amateur Radio Club.

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Presentation on theme: "Short Course for the Amateur Radio Technician License Element 2 Richie Allen KC5NZR Sponsored by: Albuquerque Amateur Radio Club."— Presentation transcript:

1 Short Course for the Amateur Radio Technician License Element 2 Richie Allen KC5NZR Sponsored by: Albuquerque Amateur Radio Club

2 2 Who is the Amateur Operator? History of the Amateur Service Innovations Public Service Real Life Examples

3 3 Video Amateur Radio Today

4 4 Course Syllabus (NYT pages 12,13) T1 FCC Rules9 Questions T2 Operating Procedures5 Questions T3 Propagation3 Questions T4 Ham Radio Practices4 Questions T5 Electrical Principles3 Questions T6 Circuit Components2 Questions T7 Practical Circuits2 Questions T8 Signals and Emissions2 Questions T9 Antennas & Feedlines2 Questions T0 RF Safety3 Questions 35 total questions on exam

5 5 EXAM (element 2) 35 questions from the question pool in chapter 12 of NYT Administered by a Volunteer Examiner (VE) team Test fee $12 as of 1/1/2003 1:00 PM Sunday, right here Bring: photo ID, second ID, exam fee, pencils, calculator Your instructor is not a member of the VE team There are other exam opportunities, but this course is designed to optimize your short term retention of the material

6 6 License Classes Technician Technician with code General Extra

7 7 Federal Communications Commission Governing agency of Amateur Radio Part 97 Principles of the amateur service Increase number of trained radio operators Improve international good will Terms Amateur Station Control operator License License grant License class License term Grace period Form 605 FCC

8 8 Wavelength, Frequency & RF Electromagnetic Spectrum

9 9 Wavelength, Frequency & RF

10 10 Wavelength, Frequency & RF

11 11

12 12 Frequency Privileges (ITU region 2) 6 meters MHz 2 meters MHz 1.25 meters MHz 70 cm MHz 33 cm MHz 23 cm MHz 13 cm , MHz VHF, UHF, Microwave (Tech bands)

13 13 Frequency Privileges (ITU region 2) HF (Tech with code) 80 meters kHz 40 meters kHz 15 meters MHz 10 meters MHz

14 14 Emission Privileges Basic Emission Types Phone: AM, SSB, FM RTTY: direct printing radio telegraphy Data: Packet (APRS), ASCII Image: FAX, SSTV, FSTV CW: Morse Code Another term: CSCE

15 15 Emission Privileges HFTech cannot use FM 6 meter phone MHz 2 meter image MHz 2 meter CW only meter techCW only techCW only MHzCW, RTTY, DATA 1.25 metersall emissions 23 cmall emissions 70 cm image MHz

16 16 Emission Privileges

17 17 More FCC Regulations Control point responsible party your responsibility control operator ID requirements Third party Broadcasting Codes, ciphers One way transmissions Secondary users Repeater coordination Peak Envelope Power DATA, RTTY rates

18 18 FCC Regulations (cont) Space communication Deceptive signals More ID requirements Harmful interference Beacon stations Radio control Emergency communication Broadcasting Obscene, Indecent language

19 19 Operating Procedures Before transmitting Emergencies Using appropriate frequency Testing a transmitter Morse code CQ, DE

20 20 Operating Procedures (cont) Amateur Repeaters

21 21 Operating Procedures (cont) Amateur Repeaters

22 22 Operating Procedures (cont) Amateur Repeaters

23 23 Operating Procedures (cont) Using a repeater Autopatch Calling Courtesy tone Rush hour Breaking I/O offset Time out timer CTCSS/PL I/O Offsets 2 meter600 kHz 1.25 meter1.6 MHz 70 cm5 MHz Purpose Open/Closed Courtesy

24 24 Operating Procedures Simplex RST CQ QSL Card Full Quieting Distress Calls SOS Mayday Break, break! Emergency messages Equipment for emergency

25 25 Operating Procedures ITU Phonetics Voice communication

26 26 Operating Procedures Packet Radio

27 27 Operating Procedures Packet Radio

28 28 Operating Procedures Digital transmissions RTTY CONNECTED MONITORING Digipeater Network

29 29 Operating Procedures CW & SSB on HF Answering CQ on RTTY Operating on commercial aircraft Operating away from home

30 30 Propagation

31 31 Propagation Ionosphere

32 32 Propagation Line of sight Ionosphere Ionosphere regions UV radiation Reflections Ducting Inversion EME Satellites

33 33 Propagation Ionospheric Propagation

34 34 Propagation Ionospheric Propagation

35 35 Propagation Ionospheric Propagation D region characteristics Scatter MUF Ground Wave Sky-wave Skip zone F region characteristics Sunspots

36 36 Amateur Radio Practices Grounding and lightning Electrical ground Safety Dummy antennas

37 37 Amateur Radio Practices SWR Standing Wave Ratio Good SWR 1.5:1 or less High SWR indicates antenna is wrong length, or there is an open or short in the feed line. LoHi 50.1……………………………………………… MHz 2.5: > 5:1 Antenna is too long!

38 38 Amateur Radio Practices SWR Standing Wave Ratio Lo Hi 144.1……………………………………………148.0 MHz 5:1 < :1 Antenna is too short! SWR meter 1:1

39 39 Amateur Radio Practices Test equipment Voltmeter Ammeter RF wattmeter Multimeter Directional wattmeter Fuses

40 40 Amateur Radio Practices Radio Frequency Interference Receiver overload Harmonic Radiation Low pass filter High pass filter

41 41 Electrical Principles Hz - kHz ma - ampere Ampere Volt Conductors & insulators Open & short circuits Resistance & Resistors Inductance & Inductors Capacitance & Capacitors Parallel & Series connections

42 42 Electrical Principles Ohms Law E E = Electromotive Force VOLTS measured in VOLTS I I = Current AMPERES measured in AMPERES R R = Resistance OHMS measured in OHMS

43 43 Electrical Principles Ohms Law E E = I x R VOLTS E is expressed in VOLTS I I = E / R AMPS I is expressed in AMPS R R = E / I OHMS R is expressed in OHMS

44 44 Electrical Principles Ohms Law T5C04 If a current of 2 amperes flows through a 50-ohm resistor, what is the voltage across the resistor? E = I x RE = 2 x 50 A. 25 volts B. 52 volts C. 100 volts D. 200 volts

45 45 Electrical Principles Ohms Law T5C05 If a 100-ohm resistor is connected to 200 volts, what is the current through the resistor? I = E / RI = 200 / 100 A. 1 ampere B. 2 amperes C. 300 amperes D. 20,000 amperes

46 46 Electrical Principles Ohms Law T5C06 If a current of 3 amperes flows through a resistor connected to 90 volts, what is the resistance? R = E / IR = 90 / 3 A. 3 ohms B. 30 ohms C. 93 ohms D. 270 ohms

47 47 Electrical Principles Other concepts Power Watt Wavelength Frequency AC DC

48 48 Circuit Components Resistors Variable Resistor

49 49 Circuit Components Resistors Fixed Resistor

50 50 Circuit Components Switches Double Pole Single Throw DPST Single Pole Single Throw SPST

51 51 Circuit Components Fuses, batteries Fuse Single Cell Battery

52 52 Circuit Components More on resistors Fixed Resistor

53 53 Circuit Components More on resistors Fixed Resistor

54 54 Circuit Components Transistors PNP Transistor NPN Transistor Points in proudly Not pointing in

55 55 Circuit Components Antenna & ground Earth Ground Antenna

56 56 Circuit Components Capacitors Fixed Capacitor Variable Capacitor

57 57 Circuit Components Inductors Fixed Inductor Variable Inductor

58 58 Circuit Components Capacitors

59 59 Circuit Components Capacitors Fixed Capacitor

60 60 Circuit Components Capacitors Variable Capacitor

61 61 Practical Circuits Functional Layout Antenna switch Feed line Power supply Antenna tuner Dummy load Terms

62 62 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A05 In Figure N7-1, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 3 is a dummy antenna, what is block 2? A. A terminal-node switch B. An antenna switch C. A telegraph key switch D. A high-pass filter

63 63 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A05 In Figure N7-1, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 3 is a dummy antenna, what is block 2? A. A terminal-node switch B. An antenna switch C. A telegraph key switch D. A high-pass filter

64 64 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A06 In Figure N7-1, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 2 is an antenna switch, what is block 3? A. A terminal-node switch B. An SWR meter C. A telegraph key switch D. A dummy antenna

65 65 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A06 In Figure N7-1, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 2 is an antenna switch, what is block 3? A. A terminal-node switch B. An SWR meter C. A telegraph key switch D. A dummy antenna

66 66 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A07 In Figure N7-2, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 3 is an antenna switch, what is block 2? A. A terminal-node switch B. A dipole antenna C. An SWR meter D. A high-pass filter

67 67 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A07 In Figure N7-2, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 3 is an antenna switch, what is block 2? A. A terminal-node switch B. A dipole antenna C. An SWR meter D. A high-pass filter

68 68 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A08 In Figure N7-3, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 2 is an SWR meter, what is block 3? A. An antenna switch B. An antenna tuner C. A key-click filter D. A terminal-node controller

69 69 Practical Circuits Functional Layout T7A08 In Figure N7-3, if block 1 is a transceiver and block 2 is an SWR meter, what is block 3? A. An antenna switch B. An antenna tuner C. A key-click filter D. A terminal-node controller

70 70 Practical Circuits Functional Layout Microphone Modem, teleprinter, computer TNC Terminal Node Controller

71 71 Practical Circuits Block diagrams limiter discriminator An FM receiver uses a limiter and a discriminator to produce an audio signal. These circuits are unique to FM receivers.

72 72 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B02 What circuit is pictured in Figure T7-1 if block 1 is a variable- frequency oscillator? A. A packet-radio transmitter B. A crystal-controlled transmitter C. A single-sideband transmitter D. A VFO-controlled transmitter

73 73 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B02 What circuit is pictured in Figure T7-1 if block 1 is a variable- frequency oscillator? A. A packet-radio transmitter B. A crystal-controlled transmitter C. A single-sideband transmitter D. A VFO-controlled transmitter

74 74 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B03 What circuit is pictured in Figure T7-1 if block 1 is a crystal oscillator? A. A crystal-controlled transmitter B. A VFO-controlled transmitter C. A single-sideband transmitter D. A CW transceiver

75 75 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B03 What circuit is pictured in Figure T7-1 if block 1 is a crystal oscillator? A. A crystal-controlled transmitter B. A VFO-controlled transmitter C. A single-sideband transmitter D. A CW transceiver

76 76 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B04 What type of circuit does Figure T7-2 represent if block 1 is a product detector? A. A simple phase modulation receiver B. A simple FM receiver C. A simple CW and SSB receiver D. A double-conversion multiplier

77 77 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B04 What type of circuit does Figure T7-2 represent if block 1 is a product detector? A. A simple phase modulation receiver B. A simple FM receiver C. A simple CW and SSB receiver D. A double-conversion multiplier

78 78 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B05 If Figure T7-2 is a diagram of a simple single-sideband receiver, what type of circuit should be shown in block 1? A. A high pass filter B. A ratio detector C. A low pass filter D. A product detector

79 79 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B05 If Figure T7-2 is a diagram of a simple single-sideband receiver, what type of circuit should be shown in block 1? A. A high pass filter B. A ratio detector C. A low pass filter D. A product detector

80 80 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B06 What circuit is pictured in Figure T7-3, if block 1 is a frequency discriminator? A. A double-conversion receiver B. A variable-frequency oscillator C. A superheterodyne receiver D. An FM receiver

81 81 Practical Circuits Block diagrams T7B06 What circuit is pictured in Figure T7-3, if block 1 is a frequency discriminator? A. A double-conversion receiver B. A variable-frequency oscillator C. A superheterodyne receiver D. An FM receiver

82 82 Practical Circuits Filters Low Pass Filter Reduces harmonic radiation

83 83 Practical Circuits Filters Band Pass Filter Blocks RF above and below a certain frequency

84 84 Practical Circuits A few more circuits Detector Duplexer

85 85 Signals and Emissions RF emissions RF Carrier

86 86 Signals and Emissions RF emissions Emission types, narrowest to widest: CWRTTYSSBFM SSB Signal kHz wide FM Signal kHz wide

87 87 Signals and Emissions RF emissions

88 88 Signals and Emissions RF emissions Why use SSB? Efficiency!

89 89 Signals and Emissions RF emissions CW emissions Modulation Over deviation Splatter Harmonic radiation Testing microphones Grounding

90 90 Signals and Emissions Modulation types Packet radio FM phone USB Phone emissions FSK Modern data transmission Over deviation Chirp

91 91 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length Half wave dipole antenna length = 468 / frequency (MHz) Quarter wave vertical antenna length (feet) = 234 / frequency (MHz)

92 92 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length Half wave dipole antenna

93 93 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length Quarter wave vertical antenna

94 94 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length length (feet) = 234 / frequency (MHz) How long should you make a 1/4 wave vertical for 440 MHz? length (feet) = 234 / 440 MHz.5318 feet = 234 / 440 MHz (.5318 * 12) inches = 234 / 440 MHz 6 inches

95 95 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length length (feet) = 234 / frequency (MHz) How long should you make a 1/4 wave vertical for MHz? length (feet) = 234 / MHz feet = 234 / MHz 8 feet

96 96 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length length (feet) = 234 / frequency (MHz) How long should you make a 1/4 wave vertical for 146 MHz? length (feet) = 234 / 146 MHz 1.6 feet = 234 / 146 MHz (1.6 * 12) inches = 234 / 440 MHz 19 inches

97 97 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length If an antenna is made shorter its resonant frequency……….. INCREASES If an antenna is made longer its resonant frequency…….. DECREASES

98 98 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length To decrease the resonant frequency of a dipole antenna... LENGTHEN the antenna To increase the resonant frequency of an antenna... SHORTEN the antenna

99 99 Antennas & feedlines Wavelength and antenna length Multi band antennas - Allow operation on several bands - Caveat: may radiate unwanted harmonics

100 100 Antennas & feedlines Beam antennas - Yagi

101 101 Antennas & feedlines Beam antennas - Yagi

102 102 Antennas & feedlines Beam antennas - Yagi

103 103 Antennas & feedlines Beam antennas - Yagi Directional antenna Yagi construction Driven element Parasitic elements

104 104 Antennas & feedlines Beam antennas - Cubical Quad Two or more parallel four sided loops, each 1 wavelength long.

105 105 Antennas & feedlines Antennas Ground plane Electrical noise SWR Feedlines Balun

106 106 RF Safety Fundamentals, terms Use minimum power Most hazardous frequencies Biological effects Power density Near fields Microwave hazards FCC requirements MPE and the human body Specific absorption rate

107 107 RF Safety Rules & guidelines Rules defined: FCC Part 1, OET Bulletin 65 All sources of RF from a site must be considered MPE average in uncontrolled area: 30 minutes MPE average in controlled areas: 6 minutes Portable devices Certification of RF exposure rules: form 605 All stations must comply Licensee is responsible for compliance

108 108 RF Safety Rules & guidelines Bodys ability to absorb RF Duty cycle Impact of duty cycle on minimum safe distance

109 109 RF Safety Routine station evaluation Power density measurement vs. other methods Do not have to perform calculations Hand held antennas UHF antennas RF burns Mobile installations Amplifier shielding

110 110 Clubs and organizations QST, Monthly magazine New! Members-Only Web Access Technical Information Service (TIS) Ham Radio Equipment Insurance A Voice in Washington ARRL Field Organization An Amateur Radio VHF/UHF Wide Coverage Repeater Linking System Serving New Mexico, Southern Colorado, Western Oklahoma, West Texas and Eastern Arizona

111 111 Clubs and organizations Albuquerque Amateur Radio Club License classes Operating activities Social gatherings Public service


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