Presentation on theme: "The Restoration Introduction to the Literary Period Key Concept: Order and Reason Key Concept: Social Classes Key Concept: Values and Beliefs Your Turn."— Presentation transcript:
The Restoration Introduction to the Literary Period Key Concept: Order and Reason Key Concept: Social Classes Key Concept: Values and Beliefs Your Turn Feature Menu
History of the Times Five years later, London suffers an outbreak of plague, and the Great Fire ravages city in 1666. plague In 1660, after twenty years of civil war and Puritan dictatorship, England is ready for stability and the return of Charles II. PuritanCharles II Key Concept: Order and Reason The Glorious Revolution of 1688 enables William and Mary to take the throne without bloodshed.Revolution Parliament becomes more powerful; a two-party system emerges. The Age of Reason ushers in era of scientific and rational thought.Age of Reason
1642–1649 Strict Puritan laws are imposed; eventually the military rules with Cromwell as dictator. England is embroiled in civil warparliamentary party (Puritans) against the kings party (Royalists). 1653–1658 Oliver Cromwell rules England as lord protector. King Charles I is beheaded. Theaters are closed and the arts suppressed. Key Concept: Order and Reason
Charles II is crowned; the monarchy is restored. 1658–1660 Parliament invites Charles Is son back from exile. Puritan dictator Oliver Cromwell dies. English traditions are revived, including horse racing, bear-baiting, and dancing around the maypole. Charles II Key Concept: Order and Reason
Coronation Procession This painting by the Dutch painter Dirck Stoop shows Charles IIs coronation procession advancing from the Tower of London to Westminster. Coronation Procession of Charles ll to Westminster from the Tower of London (1661) by Dirck Stoop. Key Concept: Order and Reason
Theaters are reopened. Charles II (ruled 1660–1685) Other sects (including Puritan sects) are outlawed and persecuted. The Anglican Church (Church of England) is reestablished. Charles sets the tone for courtly life: extravagance and refinement. Key Concept: Order and Reason
Plague symptoms include blotches on the skin hardening and swelling of glands under the armpit or in the groin delirium insanity Death strangling a victim of the plague. From the Stiney Codex. Czechoslovakia, 14th century. Key Concept: Order and Reason
The Bloodless Revolution Charles II dies in 1685; his brother James II (a Roman Catholic) takes the throne. Power is transferred to Jamess daughter Mary (wife of Dutch William of Orange, a Protestant). 1688 William attacks England; James flees. 1689 Parliament declares William and Mary king and queen; Protestant rule is restored. William and Mary Key Concept: Order and Reason
thought unusual events such as earthquakes and comets were punishments or warnings from God asked why these things happened Before Enlightenment, people... Enlightenment or Age of Reason, labels that reveal changes in peoples view of the world. Period between 1660 and 1800, sometimes called heard more scientific explanations for natural phenomena started asking how questions instead of why questions During Enlightenment, people... Key Concept: Order and Reason
Scientists begin to explain the workings of the human body and the universe. Natural phenomena are no longer considered quite so mysterious and frightening. Deismthe belief that a Creator set the world in motion and then let it run by itselfis on the rise. Key Concept: Order and Reason Sir Isaac Newton
Neoclassical writers revive standards of order found in classical literature of ancient Rome.Neoclassical The emphasis on cleverness, or wit, is intended for the upper classes. Literature of the Times Restoration literature is influenced by French classical ideas. Journalism emerges as a new form of writing.Journalism Key Concept: Order and Reason Writers Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift use satire in their works.satire
The Age of Satire Alexander Pope ridicules and attacks upper classes for their immorality and bad taste. Throughout the Period Writers focus more on middle- class concerns. More people in middle classes are able to read. Readers have different tastes and interests. Jonathan Swift exposes the mean and sordid in human behavior. Key Concept: Order and Reason
Journalism: A New Profession Daniel Defoe stood for thrift, prudence, industry, and respectability. Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele wrote essays and journals. Eighteenth-century journalists saw themselves as reformers published journals; described social and political matters Key Concept: Order and Reason Daniel Defoe
Neoclassical Period, a term that means new classical and refers to writings modeled on old Latin works. Classics were considered valuable because they represented what was permanent and universal in human experience. Click here to listen to a neoclassical recording. Period between 1660 and 1800, sometimes called Key Concept: Order and Reason
Augustus restored peace and order to Rome after the assassination of Julius Caesar. Augustan Age. Name comes from comparisons with the reign of Octavian (Augustus) in ancient Rome. Period between 1660 and 1800, also known as Stuart monarchs restored peace and order to England after the civil wars. Key Concept: Order and Reason
wrote poetry of the mind, not the soul Augustan Poets saw poetry as having a public function set out to write particular kinds of poems: Elegy praises a person who has died Satire ridicules a person or type of behavior Ode is generally written for public occasions Poems were carefully constructed and used exact meter and rhyme. Key Concept: Order and Reason
Industrialization created overcrowded slums and wretched working conditions. The poor lived in sewage-strewn streets or rat-filled tenements. Children had to work. History of the Times The hereditary nobility at the top of the system indulged in elegance and excess. The social order of Restoration England was based on the class system.social order Key Concept: Social Classes Physicians served only the rich. Seventy- four percent of children died before age 5.
Society During the Restoration and the 1700s overcrowded tenements; rats, lice, bedbugs no access to doctors, police, or education young children forced to work filthy streets disease prevalent death rate higher than birth rate The Have-Nots greatly influenced by the French in furniture, dress, manners met in coffeehouses and formal gardens liked colorful and extravagant fashions enjoyed theatergoing, dining, drinking, card playing, gambling The Haves Key Concept: Social Classes
On the stage, the comedy of manners appealed to men and women of fashion. Literature of the Times The most successful literary form was the drama. Lavish theater dramas reflected the sophistication of Charless court. After the return of Charles II, English writers were receptive to French wit and literary taste. Key Concept: Social Classes The novel finds an audience in the middle class.novel
The First English Novels The novel finds an audience in the middle class. Theyre often broad and comical. Adventures were frequently recounted in a series of episodes or letters. Key Concept: Order and Reason Robinson Crusoe (1719), by Daniel Defoe, may have been the first English novel.
Protestants who remained outside the Anglican church were known as Dissenters. As the state religion, the Anglican church dominated religious life. Literature of the Times Prominent writers of this period were Roman Catholics and Dissenters.Prominent writers Many were denied public office and university education despite ample talents. Key Concept: Values and Beliefs
John Dryden, Englands poet laureate for nearly twenty years, had to resign in 1688 because Catholics couldnt hold office. Catholics and Dissenters Because Alexander Pope was Catholic, he was denied a university education. Daniel Defoe Key Concept: Values and Beliefs Presbyterian Daniel Defoe was not allowed to attend Oxford or Cambridge universities.