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Vladimir G. Niziev NATIONAL UNITED UNIVERSITY Miao-li, Taiwan Selected slides from course of lectures

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Head of laboratory Institute on Laser and Information Technologies RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Vladimir G. Niziev Citizen of RUSSIA 19602005

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5 Making substitution E(r,,z,t) ~ E(r,,z) exp(-i t); H(r,,z,t) ~ H(r,,z) exp(-i t) ;k= /c Maxwell equations E and H are vectors.0 c 4 c 1,4,0 c 1 Hj,EH EHE If a wave propagates in free space external charges and currents are absent = 0, j = 0.00 c 1,0,0 c 1 H,EH EHE Wave equation E and H are vectors EE 2 2 2 tc 1 HH 2 2 2 tc 1 0HH 2 k.00 c 1,0,0 c 1 H,EH EHE 0EE 2 k0EE 2 k

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6 TEM 00 TEM 10 TEM 20 TEM 11 TEM 21 TEM 01 TEM 02 TEM 12 Laguerre – Gauss transverse modes of stable resonators for round mirrors TEM p1 p = 0,1,2…

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7 t Perfect temporal coherence t Wavefront Direction of wave propagation t t Bad (limited) temporal coherence Temporal coherence

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8 Perfect temporal coherence Bad (limited) temporal coherence Time of coherence

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9 E The main reason of bad (limited) temporal coherence Coherence

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10 Discharge pulse duration ~ 1 s Laser pulse duration ~ 0.03 s Time Typical time of gas dynamic processes ~ 30 s Variable delay time Screen Partial mirror Total mirror Ruby laser Objective Interferometry Mach-Zehnder interferometer

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11 Interferometry Sound speed ~ 3 10 4 cm/s Time of formation of sound wave ~ 30 s Size of heated region is ~ 1cm

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12 Lidar (detection of leakage in gas pipeline)

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13 Lidar of differential absorption

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14 1 2 n n tg = Brewster angle Fresnel law

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15 Linear amplification Stationary state of inversion population. It is dynamic but not static Pumping Spontaneous emission or/and collisions Pumping

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16 Atom-photon interaction Only resonance interaction is possible ! No excitation ! Excitation of atom Atom in the ground state Interaction with photons Excitation of atom

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17 Nd:YAG laser Logarithmic scale Crystal Flash lamp or diode lasers pumping Main wavelength 1064 nm Output power 1-1000 Watts CW, pulse, pulse periodic

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18 Damage of eyes by laser radiation The range of wavelength Direct hit of laser beam to eyes is very dangerous VISIBLEULRAVIOLETINFRAREDULRAVIOLETINFRAREDVISIBLE Safety first !

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19 Computer model Military plane Drafts Plastic copy Laser stereo lithography

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20 Laser stereo lithography Resolution is 10 m Micro models

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21 Operation on heart Transmyocardial revascularization (scheme of procedure) Lasers for cardio surgery

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