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Asian Communism and the Reverse Course. American Occupation Initial Purposes Disarmament Democratization Conduct MacArthur as SCAP Thin US layer Use Japanese.

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Presentation on theme: "Asian Communism and the Reverse Course. American Occupation Initial Purposes Disarmament Democratization Conduct MacArthur as SCAP Thin US layer Use Japanese."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asian Communism and the Reverse Course

2 American Occupation Initial Purposes Disarmament Democratization Conduct MacArthur as SCAP Thin US layer Use Japanese bureaucracy Contrast with Iraq

3 Shift in US Thinking Interplay of foreign/domestic issues Foreign factors Fear of Soviet Communism Rise of Mao and CCP in China North/South split in Korea Southeast Asia as well

4 US Shift (Cont) Domestic Factors (partial response to foreign threat) Cost factors in Occupation Republican criticism of Truman administration China Lobby Ultimately, McCarthyism

5 Upshot US change From idealistic democratic Japan To a renewed and economically viable Japan Bulwark of democracy in Asia Requires rebuilding and not reforming

6 Reverse Course Breath of fresh air for conservatives Shock of purge of government and business leaders, constitution, growth of left Disappointment of left Struggle into 1960s, effecting student movement, large segment of society Seeds of postwar system The Japan with which we are familiar Shift unmistakable by 1948 Pronounced after Maos victory in 1949

7 Political Implications Depurging of right Many returned to civil, political life Kishi Nobusuke most famous example Now, Red Purge Thousands fired from labor unions, businesses Many jailed Especially hurt labor

8 Conservative Revival Left-wing coalition governments lose out Yoshida Shigeru in power 1948-1954 Established the conservative political base, still unbroken Cemented US- Japan relationship Sticking point: Article IX

9 Economic Implications Dodge Line adopted to facilitate revival 3/19/49 Joseph M. Dodge in Japan Stem inflation, balance budget Reduce money supply Set 360 yen to dollar Bitterly opposed 500,000 lost jobs Deflation But successful in stabilizing economy

10 Zaibatsu Policy Reversal No longer attacked: cosmetic changes in ownership patterns Still around today (keiretsu), neo- zaibatsu Irony: great US business support for not breaking up zaibatsu

11 Japanese Labor Shift from SCAP pro-labor stance MacArthur forbids May Day demo 47 Labor loses support of SCAP and Japan Never becomes a political force in Japan Conservative govt. repression

12 Key Role of Korean War, 1950-1953 June 1950:National Police Force of 75,000 (later SDF) Helped speed San Francisco Treaty Sept. 8, 1951 Gift from the Gods Economic boom

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14 Ending the Occupation Occupation ends formally 4/28/52 De facto earlier as SCAP role ceased due to war Soon followed by US-Japan Security Treaty Japan as US client US bases in Japan Nuclear umbrella

15 Assessing the Occupation I Mixed review Better than anyone expected Uniqueness of the experiment Compare with Iraq? Confidence/arrogance of US An unintended consequence Founding fathers of Japanolgy Like Peace Corps and Mormon missions

16 Assessment II Positive side: Constitutionno amendments to a foreign constitution Land Reform support for LDP Negative: Zaibatsu busting Mitsubishi et al still with us

17 Assessment II Mixed assessment: Education Labor Local government Economic recovery still stunning The human connection still stands out Popcorn on the Ginza and Sayonara Question for the semester: How democratic is Japan? What is the US credit/blame for that?


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