Presentation on theme: "Best Management Practices on the Golf Course"— Presentation transcript:
1Best Management Practices on the Golf Course Dr. Matt FagernessKSU Turfgrass Extension
2Golf Courses are Vulnerable to: Soil erosion (especially during grow-in)Surface runoff (rain, uneven irrigation)Movement of fertilizer and pesticides offsiteImproper use of fertilizers and pesticides
3This Seminar: Is not intended to criticize course management practices Is intended to offer new perspective(s) on familiar conceptsWill hopefully increase awareness of the many practices which affect golf course ecosystems
4Seminar Breakdown Part I: Basics of Best Management Practices Part II: Integrated Pest ManagementPart III: Practical Applications of IPMEnvironmental and Pest MonitoringPesticide Selection CriteriaApplicable Strategies for Reducing Pesticide Input
5Part I: What are BMPs?Practices implemented before and during management to protect natural resources both on and off the golf course.
6Four Primary Goals of BMPs: 1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and pesticides.2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil and water conservation practices3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs used4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM approach
7Goals of BMPs1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and pesticides. (LU, SP)2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil and water conservation practices3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs used4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM approach
8Environmental Planning A proactive environmental approach to golf course construction and management can mitigate future problems.Step I: examine characteristics of the siteStep II: identify site’s position relative to watershed drainage basinsStep III: identify environmentally sensitive areasStep IV: determine management practices which will help protect sensitive areas
9Step I: Site Description TopographyMajor surface water featuresstreams and ponds/lakesSoil physical and chemical characteristicsClimatic historyWater quality assessmentSurveys of native plant and animal populations
10Step II: Watershed Drainage Basins Mapping the routes and locations of all watershed drainage basins allows:determination of the effects of golf holes where surface and subsurface drainage are installeddetermination of turfgrass acreage within each drainage basin
11Step III: Identifying Sensitive Areas Environmentally sensitive areas: those natural resources that are susceptible to change and subsequent alteration of the ecosystemSurface water sources and associated habitats are the most noteworthy examples
12Step IV: Protection of Sensitive Areas Land use BMPs to minimize pollutant inputCareful selection of fertilizers and pesticides (one place where IPM plugs into the BMP scheme)Restricted use management zonese.g. reduced or no-spray zones around bodies of water
13Two Main Types of BMPsLand Use BMPs: Practices engineered and incorporated into course/landscape design and construction.Source Prevention BMPs: Practices implemented during management of a golf course.
14Land Use BMPs Two main categories: Vegetative practices Structural BMPs
15Land Use BMPs-Vegetative Practices Vegetative filtration: naturally filters surface water flow and reduces pollutant loadExamples:conservation areas or bufferscritical area plantingsgrassed swales or bermsvegetated filter stripsgrassed waterways
16Conservation Areas or Buffers Areas where it is critical to maintain/establish natural perennial cover to protect resources.Usually directly adjacent to water sources since the most sensitivity is at the erodible edgeSuggested specifications:25’ in width from fairways and tees50’ in width from greenscombinations of reduced width natural areas + roughs
17Buffer BenefitsReduces erosion at water’s edge and reduces sediment pollutionIntercept chemical pollutants in surface water coming from maintained turf areasModerate temperature of incoming surface waterOffer an area immediately adjacent to water where potential pollutants aren’t directly added
19Critical Area Plantings Planting of vegetation on eroding or highly erodible areasVery important during course construction or earth-moving renovation projectsMay include the use of sode.g. Colbert Hills (wall to wall sod for fairways, tees, and roughs) with steep slopes, shallow soils, and sensitive creeks running through the property
21Grassed Swales or Berms Added topographical features of a site that serve to divert surface runoffCan either promote movement of water away from wet sites or prevent water from leaving dry sites via surface movementCan attenuate surface runoff and erosion, particularly on sloped golf holes
22Vegetated Filter Strips Natural or constructed flat areas which separate managed turfgrass areas from undisturbed areasCan be composed of grasses, woody plants, or treesTo be effective as BMPs, filter strips should be at least 25’ wide and not exceed 15% slopemore slope, more the need for grasses instead of trees
23Grassed WaterwaysMost useful in concentrated flow areas where erosion and/or surface runoff are significant concernsOften constructed and graded to receive certain amounts of flowLess effective at intercepting eroded sediment but can be a very effective “transition” areas between surface runoff sources and surface waters
25Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs Total suspended solids in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
26Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs Total phosphorus in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
27Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs Total nitrogen in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
28Efficacy of Vegetative BMPs Chemical oxygen demand in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
29Structural Land Use BMPs Designed or conserved features that control and/or filter surface or subsurface drainage waterExamples:directed subsurface drainagewater quality basinswet retention pondsprotected wetlands and riparian zonesconstructed wetlands
30Directed Subsurface Drainage Used to reduce leaching and/or runoff from greensCan be used to manipulate a water tableDirecting drainage paths into vegetative areas or infiltration basins can control losses of nutrients or pesticides
31Water Quality BasinsProvide a “first line of defense” against pollutants in surface runoffAllow for settling of sediment and, with addition of certain plant materials, can also filter nutrients and pesticidesInstalled drainage beneath these basins can either be routed away after “filtration” or allowed to vertically drain and recharge groundwater.
32Wet Retention PondsMore permanent collection areas for runoff allow high removal rates of pollutantsconsistent plant and microbial populationsLarger ponds are more efficient “scrubbers” of runoff water since there is more “clean” volumeProvide recreation and habitats for wildlifeMay buffer streams from high storm input
33Protected Wetlands and Riparian Zones Natural means of filtering runoff inputsNeed to be minimally disrupted by landscaping and kept continuous to be most effectiveProvide habitats, attenuate flooding, stabilize erodible areas, and recharge groundwaterConstructed ponds, basins, etc. need to be segregated from natural areas to preserve them
34Constructed WetlandsCan support fauna and flora like natural wetlands but are specifically designed and positioned for water purificationHighly effective for filtering nutrients and sediment or other particulate matterOften used “downstream” from equipment washpads
35Efficacy of Land Use BMPs Total suspended solids in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
36Efficacy of Land Use BMPs Total phosphorus in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
37Efficacy of Land Use BMPs Total nitrogen in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
38Efficacy of Land Use BMPs Chemical oxygen demand in sampled surface waterData courtesy of US Environmental Protection Agency
39Land Use BMP Effectiveness How well land use BMPs remove pollutants is based on the following three interrelated factors:removal mechanism employed by the BMP, including physical interception, biological uptake or breakdown, and chemical breakdownfraction of runoff treated by the BMPcharacteristics of the pollutant being removedMultiple land use BMPs offer the best chance of overall success
40Summary: Land Use BMPsWhile entities like the EPA may not require all these measures yet, some are required in many sensitive watersheds and are likely on the way.Implementation of land use BMPs:exacts a positive (or prevents a negative) impactcan proactively address possible future mandatesdemonstrates to the media swayed public and to regulatory or funding agencies that we’re on track
41Goals of BMPs1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and pesticides.2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil and water conservation practices3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs used4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM approach
42Source Prevention BMPs Proper irrigation: right time, frequency, & amountProper fertilization and pesticide use: correct rates, types, and timingsMonitoring water sources: pesticide, nutrient levels
43Improper Irrigation Water can carry a lot with it!
44Strategic Water Conservation Use of effluent (recycled, reclaimed, non-potable) irrigation waterConcerns:Effluent water quality (salts, sodium, nutrients, heavy metals, particulate matter, pH changes)Leaching salts from effluent treated soils
45Benefits of Using Effluent Irrigation Not an absolute replacement for potable waterPotable water can be use to flush out unwanted saltsCost effectivenessLess water treatment before use, less $$Future concerns:Demand for potable water doubles every 20 yearsEffluent water use may be mandated, not optional
46Biological Soil and Water Conservation Turfgrass!!Turf is an excellent soil stabilizer and is an efficient user of water, especially certain speciesMulchHelps with soil water retention and stabilizes bare groundOther plantsCan offer a buffer to prevent excessive surface movement of water, soil, etc.
48Turfgrasses Requiring More Water Kentucky bluegrass Perennial ryegrass
49Practical Considerations: Summer Turfgrass Water Requirements Most turfgrasses will perform better when irrigated. The distinction comes when a species can or can not survive without water.Buffalograss can survive without any water.Bermuda and zoysia can survive extended time periods without water with limited visual impact.Tall fescue can survive reasonable amounts of time without water but will show signs of drought stress.Perennial ryegrass and bluegrass will die without water.
51Soil Conservation: How to Tell How You’re Doing During Grow-in Visual signs (previous slide)Testing water samples for sediment levelsChanges in stream depth, direction changesCompositional changes in sediment collecting at the bottom of lakes, collection/irrigation ponds
52Goals of BMPs1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and pesticides.2) Use strategic, biological, and mechanical soil and water conservation practices3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs used (SP)4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM approach
53Types of Inputs Fertilizer Water Pesticides Other Natural and synthetic, pH modifiersWaterNatural and intentional (effluent water use)PesticidesHerbicides, fungicides, insecticidesOthere.g. soil sterilants, fuel
55Fertilizer AnalysisSequence of three numbers that reflect the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively.
56What’s in the Bag?: Primary Turf Nutrients Nitrogen - Used for above-ground growth and good green color (soil mobile, nitrate contamination)Phosphorus - Used for root growth and formation of seeds and fruit (less mobile in soil but can contaminate watersheds like nitrate)Potassium - Used for basic plant growth and helps plants withstand stress (soil mobile)
57Tips to Manage Fertilizer Input Determine exact amounts for specific areasAvoid the tendency to give the turf “a little extra”Avoid overshooting onto cart paths or parking lotsBe as precise as possible with spreader spacing
58Area Determination the Wrong Way 150’Total:3.62 acres450’600’150’
59Area Determination the Right Way 120’Total:2.32 acres250’550’120’Area=(b*h)/2~100’x100’/2=5000 sq. ft.
60Tips to Manage Irrigation Input Water in morning or evening to maximize turf useTry to minimize irrigation water hitting paved surfaces (surface runoff)Deep, infrequent irrigation instead of light, frequent irrigation, when possible!! (improves root system)
63Irrigation Tips: Practical Considerations As shown previously, deep infrequent irrigation is ideal but only if root growth can match it.Golf greens in summer have declining root systems so irrigating too deep exceeds where the roots are.Spring Summer FallShoot growthRoot growthIrrigation amount
64Tips to Manage Pesticide Input Know your pests! Improper diagnosis of a problem can lead to unnecessary pesticide use.Let the pesticide do its job- Be patient!Avoid pesticides prone to driftFollow label specifications!!!
65Improper DiagnosisWhat caused this problem? Not disease or insects but dull mower blades. The solution should be a trip to the backlapper, not a pesticide.
67Goals of BMPs1) Identify potential for and reduce or eliminate offsite transport of sediment, nutrient, and pesticides.2) Use biological and mechanical soil and water conservation practices3) Control the rate, method, and types of inputs used4) Reduce total chemical use through an IPM approach
68Seminar Breakdown Part I: Basics of Best Management Practices Part II: Integrated Pest ManagementPart III: Practical Applications of IPMEnvironmental and Pest MonitoringPesticide Selection CriteriaApplicable Strategies for Reducing Pesticide Input
69What IPM Isn’t Impulsive Panic Mongering Contrary to what may be thought about IPM, it does not promote the proactive environmentalism that is often portrayed in the media and that has sometimes targeted golf courses
70What is IPM? Integrated Pest Management Objectives: Develop healthy turf that can withstand pest pressureUse chemicals judiciously and efficientlyEnhance populations of natural, beneficial organismsTackle pest problems when pests are most vulnerable
71IPM is Part of the BMP ‘Train’ Approach Non ‘Train’ Approach ‘Train’ ApproachIntegrated Pest ManagementGreen Drain Line25’ Rough Buffer25’ Natural AreaLakeGreen Drain LineLake
72Six Basic Approaches to IPM Genetic *Regulatory *CulturalPhysicalBiologicalChemical* Represent IPM approaches at the planning stage, not active ways to manage pests
73Planning Stage IPM Genetic approach: Regulatory approach: Selecting improved turfgrass varieties which do well in the Kansas climate and show resistance to both environmental stress and pest problemsRegulatory approach:Using certified seed, sod, or sprigs to optimize genetic uniformity and prevent unwanted weed contamination
74Genetic Approach: Blending Tips Overall quality of a blend will reflect the “lowest common denominator”e.g. four good varieties with one poor one will appear worse than five good onesAvoid the tendency to “use up” older or low quality seed if you blend yourself and watch for commercial blends which may do the same
75Regulatory Approach: Seed Label ** Look for % other crop seed, % weed seed, and % germinationGood Not so Good
76Active IPM ApproachesCultural: proper mowing, irrigation, fertilization, and aerating make pest control much easier.Physical: hand weeding, cleaning mowers and tools to avoid spreading disease and weed seedsBiological: promoting natural pest predators (e.g. bird houses, bird baths)
77Active IPM ApproachesChemical: often necessary but to supplement rather than replace other approachesSteps to take:Identify the pest properlyIdentify and correct site conditions promoting the pestImplement other IPM approaches to augment pest controlSelect a pesticide suitable for the pestApply the pesticide as directed and when the pest is most vulnerable
78Components of the IPM Approach Monitoring pest populations and their habitatDetermining injury levels and establishing thresholdsDeciding upon and implementing one or more of the six basic approachesEducating personnel about selected approachesTiming and applying selected treatmentsEvaluating the results of applied treatments
79Seminar Breakdown Part I: Basics of Best Management Practices Part II: Integrated Pest ManagementPart III: Practical Applications of IPMEnvironmental and Pest MonitoringPesticide Selection CriteriaApplicable Strategies for Reducing Pesticide Input
80Four Types of Monitoring 1) Reconnaissance- periodic observations2) Surveillance- in compliance with enforceable regulations (application record keeping)3) ** Subjective- spot-checking for broad or open-ended exploration of problems (pest scouting)4) ** Objective- to provide data for future decision making processes (environmental monitoring)
81Pest Scouting: Pros and Cons early detection of potential pest problemsregular structured observation of the coursebuilds experience and observation skills in the scoutlong-term assessment of pest control in problem areasCons:requires staff time and effortsubjective approach may lead to misdiagnoses
82Environmental Monitoring Indicates sources and extent of pollution and can be used as the basis for future decisionsThree phases, related to golf course development:Phase I: pre-development to provide background levels of pollutants to compare later results toPhase II: construction and immediate post-development (most sensitive time for golf courses)Phase III: normal operations testing (decision basis)
83Environmental Monitoring Places to Measure Surface waterLake/pond sedimentsGround waterEach source should be sampled during dry and wet periods to avoid misleading results
84Environmental Monitoring Water Quality Measurements pH- range from 6-8 OK for most aquatic organismstemperature- can vary vertically so sample carefullydissolved oxygen- necessary for aquatic organismsspecific conductance- water salinitynutrients- N and P excesses promote algae, bacteriatotal dissolved solids- gives an idea of habitabilityturbidity- measure of suspended solids in waterpesticides- choose most risky from your list
87Phase I Environmental Monitoring Background Information Prior to any course constructionMinimum of two surface water sampling sites:e.g. Point of entry and exit of golf course for a streamMore sampling sites are desirable with surface water branches or unique drainage patternsMark sampling sites for sampling in Phases II&IIISpring, summer, and fall (dry and wet conditions)
88Phase II Environmental Monitoring Construction and Development Direct assessment of construction and immediate post-construction activities on water and sediment qualitySame sites and timings as for Phase ILike for Phase I, fertilizer or pesticide analysis not relevant for this stage of monitoringTerminate when turf grow-in begins
89Phase III Environmental Monitoring Post Development/Daily Operations Starting at grow-in and continuing at regular seasonal intervals to determine trendsSame sites as for Phases I & II, with relevant additionsIncludesNutrient and pesticide analyses for waterIncludes soil testing for fertility requirementsSampling timings should be adjusted to coincide with fertilizer or pesticide applications
90Phase III Environmental Monitoring Post Development/Daily Operations
91Pesticide Selection Should be based upon: EffectivenessEconomicsEnvironmental ImpactSite CharacteristicsSafetyOne or more of these criteria are often ignored.
92Pesticide Effectiveness Environmental concerns are indeed importantHowever, first and foremost, IPM dictates we must select a pesticide that will actually workWhen environmental considerations are placed before effectiveness, we end up like Seattle
93Pesticide Economics Several factors to consider: Actual cost of pesticide (highly variable)Labor costs (training, time spent mixing, physically spraying, recording specs, cleaning up)Frequency need for applicationsEstablished pest thresholds (At what point does the cost of the pesticide become less important than the “cost” of pest infestation?)
94Environmental Effects of Pesticides Two main areas of concern:Surface waterGroundwaterNumerous factors affect potential for pesticides to reach either of these areas
95Pesticide Movement to Surface Water Usually via runoffDepends on the following:Pesticide characteristics (solubility, adsorption, persistence)Soil characteristics (texture, permeability, water holding capacity, pH, organic matter content)Site conditions (slope, climate, proximity to water)Management (pesticide selection, rates, timings, application methods, irrigation management)
96Pesticide Movement to Ground Water Usually via leachingDepends on the following:Soil characteristics (texture, permeability, water holding capacity, pH, organic matter content)Pesticide characteristics (reactivity with soil, persistence, rate and timing of application)Site conditions (climate, depth to water table)Management (irrigation management, pesticide application method)
97Pesticide Safety Environment and People Risk assessment:It’s all relative, based upon our perceptionWe can approach risk in a structured fashionRisk = hazard*exposureHazard=probability that harm will result from prescribed useExposure=extent (amount or frequency) of use
98Risk from Pesticides and Pesticide Selection Can we conclude that reduced risk may come simply from using less hazardous pesticides, from reducing exposure to a given pesticide, or both?Yes, but:How do we define baseline exposure levels and any subsequent changes?How do we define how hazardous a pesticide is?
99Three Steps in Pesticide Selection Identify pest problemsExperience and scoutingIdentify potential pesticidesExperience and labels**Fit pesticides to models to determine which ones meet effectiveness and environmental safety criteria (list formation)
100Modeled Pesticide Parameters Acute toxicity- toxic effects over the short-termChronic toxicity- toxicity effects over the long-termAquatic toxicity (LC50)- chemical concentration in water that kills 50% of test organismsTerrestrial toxicity (LD50)- chemical concentration that kills 50% of test organisms in an oral doseAdsorption potential (KOC)- how well pesticide binds to soil particles
101Modeled Pesticide Parameters Field half-life (T1/2)- time required for 50% breakdownHealth advisory level (HAL)- amount of pesticide which does no harm over a lifetime of consumption (70 yrs.)Leaching potential- ease with which pesticide moves through soil profileRunoff potential- ease with which pesticide moves over land surfacesMaximum allowable concentration (MAC)- highest surface water concentration safe for aquatic organisms
102Interpretation of Pesticide Hazards Toxicity type parameters are of greatest interest when human contact and terrestrial or aquatic wildlife will receive exposureToxicity and health related parameters should definitely be included in decision making processes for insecticides and fungicides
103Interpretation of Pesticide Hazards For less toxic materials like herbicides, use of a “quadrant” model gives a good hazard indication.Short half-lifeLow hazardpotentialModerate hazardHigh hazardLong half-lifeLow mobilityHigh mobility
104Recommended Pesticide Lists List all pesticides for certain pest categories (e.g. diseases) and their corresponding hazard potentialFacilitate decisions as to whether or not a certain pesticide (even if it is registered by EPA) should be used on the golf course or perhaps in a specific area on the course
105Pesticide ListsShould be developed based on the following four factors:Pesticide characteristics (solubility, adsorption, persistence)Soil characteristics (texture, permeability, water holding capacity, pH, organic matter content, depth to water table)Site conditions (slope, climate, proximity to water)Management (pesticide selection, rates, timings, application methods, irrigation management)
106Ways to Reduce Pesticide Input Know your pests!Improper diagnosis of a problem = unnecessary pesticide use.Knowing pest characteristics allows for application timing to be optimizedUse pest life cycles to your advantage: hitting them when they’re most vulnerable increases overall effectiveness
107Ways to Reduce Pesticide Input Follow label specifications!!!Proper rates and specifications for applicationProper timing of applicationProper intervals between applicationsProper conditions in which to apply pesticidesPitfalls which may diminish effectivenessThese things may together help reduce inputs.
108SummaryThe point of BMPs and IPM is not to foster criticism of how things are currently done but rather to promote “better” or “safer” ways to manage golf course inputs.Education is just as important a goal of BMPs as are all the specific steps previously covered. Awareness is the first step towards progress.