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First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor

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1 First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor
Patricia ruotsalainen First Aid Instructor 2011 First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor

2 Course Outline Introduction Test your First Aid knowledge and skills
Principals of First Aid Basic Human Anatomy (Bonus) Assess the situation Call for help Unconscious victim Airway obstruction CPR Shock Bleeding & infections Fractures & soft tissue injuries Medical emergencies

3 Course Outline (2) Assess and observe Initial observation of the whole scene Stay calm

4 Learning outcome: Demonstrate knowledge of the principals of first aid knowledge of basic human anatomy ability in the examination of a victim competence in the provision of CPR knowledge of identifying a range of common illnesses and injuries First aid management for a range of common Aim: To provide you with basic skills and knowledge in order to recognize and provide First Aid for circulatory and respiratory emergencies (CPR) and to recognize a range of common illnesses and injuries.

5 Principals and priorities of First Aid
To preserve life ____________________________ To prevent the injury or condition worsening ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________`___ To promote recovery Stay calm Assess the situation Safety of First Aider Safety of other people Safety of victim Airway – Breathing Circulation Use of bystanders to maintain Safety Do No Harm

6 What has happened?

7 The Vital Link Early access Early Defibrillation Early CPR Early ACLS



10 Calling for help! 112 What has happened? Where? How Many?
Answer questions. Do not hang up! Wait for the operator to tell you when to hang up. Guide the helpers to the right place.

11 Check the victim for response
Not responding – Call 112 and Open Airway

12 Check for normal breathing
Look for chest movement. Listen to the victim‘s mouth for breath sounds. Feel for air on your cheek.

13 Unconscious victim …if breathing place in Recovery position

14 Recovery position Tongue

15 Obstructed Airway Unconscious victim drug or alcohol abuse Foreign object  like food, ice, toys, dentures, broken teeth, vomits… Tissue damage  accident related, poisons, fights…

16 Obstructed airway continues…
Swelling  Respiratory infections, allergic reaction Paralyzed airway  brain damage, damage to spinal cord, poisoning… Heart diseases  may collect liquid in the lungs

17 Deliver 5 back slaps x 2 between the shoulder blades
Obstructed Airway Tell the victim to cough Deliver 5 back slaps x 2 between the shoulder blades

18 If still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times
Heimlich maneuver If still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times

19 First Aid for choking Tell the victim to cough! Deliver 5 back slaps If not breathing  5 back slaps If not breathing  Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts) 5 – 6 times 5. Finger sweep and check breathing 6. If not breathing repeat abdominal thrusts If unconscious  call for help  repeat steps 1 to 6 x 3  No  CPR

20 Disorders of the Heart Angina Pectoris Narrowed coronary arteries
Heart Attack Obstructed (clot) coronary arteries Cardiac Arrest Sudden stoppage of the heart (blood loss, suffocation, electric shock, anaphylactic shock, drug overdose, hypothermia…) Ventricular fibrillation ( VF ) Heart fibrillates – no regular beat

21 Angina pectoris Reduced blood supply to the heart during
times of stress. Produces pain in the chest similar to that of heart attack

22 Watch CPR DVD


under 8 years old Start with 5 breaths and then continue with 30 chest compressions : breaths

25 ”Every minute counts” Clinical death: Heart stops Biological death:
Brain death

26 Chances of recovery CPR must be commmenced immidiately!
The time from stoppage of the heart to permanent death of brain tissue is aprox. 4 minutes. The avarage response time by an ambulance is 7 - 8 minutes (whole country minutes). Someone is needed to sustain life until the ambulance arrives!

27 Practice CPR

28 Arterieal-Venous-Capillary Bleeding

29 Blood volumes Adult male 5 – 6.6 liters 2 liters Adolescent
Patient Total Blood Volume Lethal Blood loss if not replaced (rapid) Adult male 5 – liters liters Adolescent 3.3 – 4.5 liters liters Child 1.5 – 2 liters 0.5 – 0.7 liters Infant 300+ milliliters 30–50 milliliters

30 First Aid for bleeding Elevate above heart level  Blood flow subsides
2. Lie down the victim Prevents shock 3. Calm down Less oxygen 4. Apply pressure dressing 5. Apply indirect pressure  Not more than 10 minutes

31 Nosebleed

32 Practice pressure bandage!

33 What is shock?

34 Shock happens when… There is a problem with your:
Pump: You need to have a functioning heart to pump blood around Pipes: You need functioning vessels to carry the blood. Plasma: You need adequate blood in the system. If there is a loss, there will not be adequate volume circulating.

35 Signs of shock Signs Reason Alerted mental status: Anxiety
Restlessness Combativeness Brain not receiving enough oxygen Skin: Pale Cold Clammy Body tries to correct problem by diverting blood from non-vital to vital organs (from skin to heart…)

36 Signs of shock continues…
Nausea and vomiting Blood diverted from digestive system Changes in vital signs As body tries to pump more blood Rapid pulse (>120 = serious) Respiration rapid (>24 = serious) Other signs: Thirst, dilated pupils, sometimes cyanosis

37 Treatment of shock Treat any cause of shock you identify.
Stay calm and reassure the victim Lay down the victim and slightly elevate his legs. Maintain normal body temperature Give nothing to drink 6. Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response.


39 Shock continues… Anaphylactic shock
Is a massive allergic reaction by the body’s immune system. Fainting Is a self-correcting form of shock resulting from temporary lack of blood flow to the brain.


41 Musculoskeletal injuries
Fractures any break in a bone Dislocation when one end of a bone making up a joint is pulled or pushed out of place Sprain when a ligament is torn (ankle, knee, finger…) Strain  stretching of a muscle or tendon or mild tearing of muscle (neck, lower back…)

42 R  I  C  E R  Rest the injured part I  Apply Ice
C  Compress the injury E  Elevate the injured part

43 Do you know First Aid for
Medical emergencies Do you know First Aid for Asthma ? Diabetes ? Seizures ?

44 Priorities of Emergency Care
Highest priority for Injuries: Airway obstruction Severe breathing difficulty Burns involving the respiratory tract Cardiac arrest Severe bleeding Shock Spinal Injury Severe head injury Open chest injuries Open abdominal wounds

45 Priorities for Emergency Care
Highest priority for Medical Problems: Heart attack Stroke Heat stroke Poisoning Childbirth Diabetic emergencies

46 Bonus points Read through the “Human anatomy handout and answer study questions. You have until next week Monday to come to my office and show me your answers.

47 Thank you !

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