Presentation on theme: "First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor"— Presentation transcript:
1First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor Patricia ruotsalainenFirst Aid Instructor2011First Aid Course2006Siw SandellFirst Aid Instructor
2Course Outline Introduction Test your First Aid knowledge and skills Principals of First AidBasic Human Anatomy (Bonus)Assess the situationCall for helpUnconscious victimAirway obstructionCPRShockBleeding & infectionsFractures & soft tissue injuriesMedical emergencies
3Course Outline (2)Assess and observeInitial observation of the whole sceneStay calm
4Learning outcome:Demonstrateknowledge of theprincipals of first aidknowledge of basichuman anatomyability in the examinationof a victimcompetence in theprovision of CPRknowledge of identifying arange of commonillnesses and injuriesFirst aid management fora range of commonAim:To provide you with basic skills and knowledge in order to recognize and provide First Aid for circulatory and respiratory emergencies (CPR) and to recognize a range of common illnesses and injuries.
5Principals and priorities of First Aid To preserve life____________________________To prevent the injury or condition worsening _________________________________________________________________________________________`___To promote recoveryStay calmAssess the situationSafety of First AiderSafety of other peopleSafety of victimAirway – BreathingCirculationUse of bystanders to maintain SafetyDo No Harm
15Obstructed AirwayUnconscious victimdrug or alcohol abuseForeign object like food, ice, toys, dentures, broken teeth, vomits…Tissue damage accident related, poisons, fights…
16Obstructed airway continues… Swelling Respiratory infections, allergic reactionParalyzed airway brain damage, damage to spinal cord,poisoning…Heart diseases may collect liquid in the lungs
17Deliver 5 back slaps x 2 between the shoulder blades Obstructed AirwayTell the victimto coughDeliver 5 back slaps x 2 between the shoulder blades
18If still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times Heimlich maneuverIf still not breathing – give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times
19First Aid for chokingTell the victim to cough!Deliver 5 back slapsIf not breathing 5 back slapsIf not breathing Heimlich maneuver(abdominal thrusts) 5 – 6 times5. Finger sweep and check breathing6. If not breathing repeat abdominal thrustsIf unconscious call for help repeatsteps 1 to 6 x 3 No CPR
20Disorders of the Heart Angina Pectoris Narrowed coronary arteries Heart AttackObstructed (clot) coronary arteriesCardiac ArrestSudden stoppage of the heart (blood loss, suffocation, electric shock, anaphylactic shock, drug overdose, hypothermia…)Ventricular fibrillation ( VF )Heart fibrillates – no regular beat
21Angina pectoris Reduced blood supply to the heart during times of stress.Produces painin the chestsimilar to thatof heart attack
26Chances of recovery CPR must be commmenced immidiately! The time from stoppage of the heart topermanent death of brain tissue is aprox.4 minutes.The avarage response time by an ambulance is7 - 8 minutes (whole country minutes).Someone is needed to sustain lifeuntil the ambulance arrives!
29Blood volumes Adult male 5 – 6.6 liters 2 liters Adolescent PatientTotal BloodVolumeLethal Blood loss if not replaced (rapid)Adult male5 – literslitersAdolescent3.3 – 4.5 literslitersChild1.5 – 2 liters0.5 – 0.7 litersInfant300+ milliliters30–50 milliliters
30First Aid for bleeding Elevate above heart level Blood flow subsides 2. Lie down the victimPrevents shock3. Calm downLess oxygen4. Apply pressure dressing5. Apply indirect pressure Not more than 10 minutes
34Shock happens when… There is a problem with your: Pump: You need to have a functioning heart to pump blood aroundPipes: You need functioning vessels to carry the blood.Plasma: You need adequate blood in the system. If there is a loss, there will not be adequate volume circulating.
35Signs of shock Signs Reason Alerted mental status: Anxiety RestlessnessCombativenessBrain not receiving enough oxygenSkin:PaleColdClammyBody tries to correct problem by diverting blood from non-vital to vital organs (from skin to heart…)
36Signs of shock continues… Nausea and vomitingBlood diverted from digestive systemChanges in vital signsAs body tries to pump more blood Rapid pulse (>120 = serious)Respiration rapid (>24 =serious)Other signs:Thirst, dilated pupils, sometimes cyanosis
37Treatment of shock Treat any cause of shock you identify. Stay calm and reassure the victimLay down the victim and slightly elevate his legs.Maintain normal body temperatureGive nothing to drink6. Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response.
41Musculoskeletal injuries Fracturesany break in a boneDislocationwhen one end of a bone making up a joint is pulled or pushed out of placeSprainwhen a ligament is torn (ankle, knee, finger…)Strain stretching of a muscle or tendon or mild tearing of muscle (neck, lower back…)
42R I C E R Rest the injured part I Apply Ice C Compress the injuryE Elevate the injured part
43Do you know First Aid for Medical emergenciesDo you know First Aid forAsthma ?Diabetes ?Seizures ?
44Priorities of Emergency Care Highest priority for Injuries:Airway obstructionSevere breathing difficultyBurns involving the respiratory tractCardiac arrestSevere bleedingShockSpinal InjurySevere head injuryOpen chest injuriesOpen abdominal wounds
45Priorities for Emergency Care Highest priority for Medical Problems:Heart attackStrokeHeat strokePoisoningChildbirthDiabetic emergencies
46Bonus pointsRead through the “Human anatomy handout and answer study questions.You have until next week Monday to come to my office and show me your answers.